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# 3 Chemical

reactions and
stoichiometry
3.1 Chemical equations
– A chemical reaction is the mixing of two
or more species to produce new
substances
– A chemical equation describes what
happens when a chemical reaction occurs
– Consider the following reaction:

2H2 + O2 → 2H2O

## reactants: react to products:

hydrogen and oxygen produce water
3.1 Chemical equations
– Stoichiometry is concerned with the relative
amounts of reactants and products in a
chemical reaction
– Stoichiometric coefficients indicate
the number of molecules,
ions or atoms among
the reactants
and products
3.1 Chemical equations
– The law of conservation of mass says
that atoms cannot be created or
destroyed during a chemical reaction
– Stoichiometric coefficients are used to
balance an equation to meet this
condition
3.1 Chemical equations
• Specifying states of matter
– It is useful to specify the physical states
of the reactants and products
– This is done by writing (s) for solid,
(l) for liquid or (g) for gas after the
chemical formula
– (aq), meaning ‘aqueous solution’, can
also be used to indicate that a particular
substance is dissolved in water
3.2 Balancing chemical
equations
• To balance an equation:
– Step 1: Write the unbalanced ‘equation’
Al(s) + HCl(aq) → AlCl3(aq) +
H2(g)
– Step 2: Adjust the coefficients so that there
are equal numbers of each kind of atom on
each side of the arrow
– Is this balanced?
2Al(s) + 6HCl(aq)
total reactants:
→total
2AlCl 3(aq)
products:
+ 3H2(g) 2 × Al, 6 × H 2 × Al, 6 × H
and 6 × Cl and 6 × Cl
– Is this balanced? Yes
3.3 The mole
– Every atom has a certain mass
– This is referred to as its atomic mass
– The mole (abbreviated mol) is the SI unit
of amount of substance
– A mole is the amount of any substance
with the same number of entities as
there are atoms in exactly 12 g of 12C
– Avogadro’s constant (6.022 × 1023 mol-1)
gives the number of entities in 1 mole
3.3 The mole
– The number of specified entities in a
mole is constant
– The mass of 1 mole depends on the
mass of the individual entities
3.3 The mole
– The molar mass, M, is the mass of
1 mole of a substance
– What is the molar mass of water (H2O)?
• The chemical formula tells us it is made up
of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom
• Hence the molar mass is the sum of twice
the atomic mass of hydrogen (1.008 g) plus
the atomic mass of oxygen (15.999 g)
• MH2O = (2 × 1.008 g) + 15.999 g = 18.015 g
– The relationship between moles (n),
molar mass (M) and mass (m) is given
by M = m/n
3.4 Empirical formulae
The empirical formula is the simplest whole-number ratio of atoms within that compound.
– For example, butane has the formula:

## C4H10 molecular formula

– However this isn’t the simplest ratio as
both 4 and 10 are divisible by 2. Hence
butane has the empirical formula:
C2H5 empirical formula
3.4 Empirical formulae
• Mole ratios from chemical formulae
– Consider water:

chemical formula:
H2O

## – The chemical formula tells us the ratio

of H atoms to O atoms is always 2 to 1
– For chemical compounds, mole ratios
are the ratios of individual atoms
3.4 Empirical formulae
– The relative masses of elements in a
compound is usually given as a
percentage
– This is called the percentage
composition OR percentage composition
by mass
– The percentage by mass of an element
is calculated using the following:

## % element = mass of element x 100%

mass of whole sample
3.4 Empirical formulae
– A molecular formula gives the chemical
composition of 1 molecule, e.g. P4O10
– The empirical formula for this compound
is P2O5
– This gives the simplest whole number
ratio between atoms
– The empirical formula of a compound can
be obtained experimentally by
determining the mass of each element in
a compound
3.4 Empirical formulae
– There are three steps necessary to
determine the empirical formula:
1. Assume we are studying 100 g of the
compound and therefore individual mass
percentages become the actual masses
2. Convert the ratio of elements by mass to a
ratio by amount, by dividing the mass of
each element by its molar mass
3. Divide the resulting numbers by the
smallest, which will give the smallest whole-
number ratios of each element
3.4 Empirical formulae
– The formula for ionic compounds is the
same as the empirical formula
– For molecules, the molecular formula
and empirical are usually different
– If the experimental molecular mass is
available, the empirical formula can be
converted into the molecular
– The molecular formula will be a common
multiplier times all the coefficients in the
empirical formula
3.5 Stoichiometry, limiting
reagents & percentage
yield
• Stoichiometry:
– The critical link between substances involved
in a reaction is the mole-to-mole ratio
– Consider the following:
• 2C8H18 (l) + 25O2(g)→16CO2(g) +18H2O(g)

## – This is interpreted as: 2 moles of liquid octane

reacts with 25 moles of oxygen gas to
produce 16 moles of carbon dioxide gas and
18 moles of steam
3.5 Stoichiometry, limiting
reagents and percentage yield
– Mole-to-mole relationships can be used
to solve stoichiometry problems
– The stoichiometry coefficients in the
equation can be used to calculate
conversion factors
– To use these relationships in a
stoichiometry problem, the equation
must be balanced
3.5 Stoichiometry, limiting
reagents and percentage
yield
• Limiting reagents
– Ethanol, C2H5OH, is prepared industrially
as follows: C2H4 + H2O → C2H5OH
– The equation tells us that 1 molecule of
ethene will react with 1 molecule of water
to give 1 molecule of ethanol
3.5 Stoichiometry, limiting
reagents and percentage
yield
– As we have learned, the mole-to-mole
ratio is constant. So, 3 molecules of
ethene will react with 3 molecule of water
to give 3 molecules of ethanol
3.5 Stoichiometry, limiting
reagents and percentage
yield
– What happens if we mix 3 molecules of
ethene with 5 molecules of water?

## – The ethene will be completely used up

before the water, and so the product will
contain 2 unreacted water molecules
3.5 Stoichiometry, limiting
reagents and percentage yield
– All reactions eventually use up a reactant
and seem to stop
– The reactant that is consumed first is
called the limiting reagent because it limits
the amount of product formed
– Any reagent not completely consumed
during the reactions is said to be in excess
and is called an excess reagent
– The calculated amount of product is
always based on the limiting reagent
3.5 Stoichiometry, limiting
reagents and percentage yield
• Percentage yield
– In most experiments, the amount of a product
isolated falls short of the maximum amount
– The actual yield of the desired product is simply
how much is isolated
– The theoretical yield of the product is what would
be obtained if no losses occurred
– The percentage yield is the actual yield calculated
as a percentage of the theoretical yield
3.5 Stoichiometry, limiting
reagents and percentage yield
– Percentage yield is calculated using the
following formula:

## % yield = actual yield x 100%

theoretical yield

## – The calculation may be done in either

grams or moles, but both yields must be
in the same units
– The actual yield can never be more than
the theoretical yield
3.6 Solution
stoichiometry
– Chemical reactions are nearly always
carried out in solution to allow mixing
– A solution is a homogeneous mixture
– When a solution forms, at least two
substances are involved, a solvent and one
or more solutes
– The solvent is the component present in
largest amount
– The solute is any substance dissolved in
the solvent
3.6 Solution
stoichiometry
3.6 Solution
stoichiometry
• The concentration of solutions
– The concentration is defined as the
amount of solute dissolved in a particular
volume of solution
– The concentration of a substance X is
represented as [X]
– When the amount is given in moles and
the volume in litres, it is called the
molarity or molar concentration
3.6 Solution
stoichiometry
– Molarity (or molar concentration) has the units mol
L–1 (often abbreviated M)
– Concentration is based on the ratio of the amount of
solute to the volume of solution
– The equation defining concentration is:

n is the number
of moles
The units of c n
are mol L-1
C= V
V is the volume
(in Litres)
3.6 Solution
stoichiometry
• Diluting a solution
– If a solute is already dissolved into a solution
of high concentration, it can be diluted to
decrease the concentration
– Dilution is accomplished by adding more
solvent to the solution, which causes the
concentration to decrease
– The same pure solvent should be used
– The choice of apparatus used depends on
the precision required
3.6 Solution
stoichiometry

## – When solvent is added to a solution, the solute

– The concentration of the solute in the solution
becomes smaller
3.6 Solution
stoichiometry
– Ionic compounds dissociate into their
constituent ions when dissolved in water
– This can have important consequences
in stoichiometric calculations
• e.g. CaBr2 undergoes complete dissociation
into Ca2+ and Br- ions, according to the
equation CaBr2(s) → Ca2+(aq) + 2Br– (aq)
• 0.10 moles of CaBr2 yields 0.10 moles of Ca2+
and 0.20 moles of Br–
• In 0.10M CaBr2, the concentration of Ca2+ is
0.10M and the concentration of Br– is 0.20M
3.6 Solution
stoichiometry
– Spectator ions don’t take part in reactions
– Balanced ionic equations are written without
the inclusion of spectator ions
– These are called net ionic equations
• e.g. Consider the following reaction:
– 2AgNO3(aq) + CaBr2(aq)→2AgBr(s) +Ca(NO3)2(aq)
• The NO3– and Ca2+ ions don’t take part in the
reaction

## A. Ag+(aq) + Br-(aq) → 2AgBr(s)

Chapter Summary
– A chemical reaction is the formation of
new substances (products) upon mixing
two or more chemical species (reactants)
– Stoichiometry is concerned with relative
amounts of products and reactants
– A balanced chemical equation has the
same number of entities of each kind in
the products and reactants
– Chemical equations show physical states
of the reactants and products
Chapter Summary
– To balance a chemical equation, we use
stoichiometric coefficients
– The mole is the unit of substance
6.022 × 1023 mol-1 and gives the number of
specified entities in 1 mole of a substance
– The molar mass is the mass of 1 mole of a
substance
– The actual composition of a molecule is
given by its molecular formula
Chapter Summary
– An empirical formula gives the smallest
whole-number ratio of atoms
– Percentage composition is used to
describe the relative amount of each
element in a compound
– A reactant present in a quantity less than
that required by another reactant is called
the limiting reagent
– The other reactant is called the excess
reagent
Chapter Summary
– The percentage yield is the actual yield calculated
as a percentage of the theoretical yield
– When a solution forms, at least two substances
are involved
– Concentration is the ratio of the amount of solute
to the volume of solution
– Ionic compounds dissociate into their constituent
ions when dissolved in water
– Spectator ions don’t take part in reactions