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# 1

BY:
GAURANG PRAJAPATI
2
The word Transmission
The word transmission means the
mechanism that transmits the
power from the engine crank shaft
to the rear wheels.
3
Function of Transmission
Provide a means to vary torque
ration between the engine and the
Provides a neutral position.
A means to back the car by
reversing the direction of rotation
of the drive is also provided by
the transmission.
4
Gear Ratio
The gear ratio, or velocity
ratio, between a pair of gear
wheels is in inverse ratio to the
number of teeth on each.
5
Gear Ratio
Thus,
N
B
/N
A
= D
A
/D
B
= n
A
/n
B
N
B
= N
A
(n
A
/n
B
)

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Gear Ratio
Where:
N
A
= rev per min of gear A,
n
A
= number of teeth on A
N
B
= rev per min of gear B,
n
B
= number of teeth on B
D
A
= Diameter of gear A
D
B
= Diameter of gear B
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Types of Gearbox
Sliding mesh gearbox
Constant mesh gearbox
Synchromesh gearbox
Epicyclic Gearbox
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Sliding mesh type gearbox
1.Constant mesh
gears.
2.Primary shaft
(Clutch shaft)
3.Spigot bearing.
4.Main shaft.
5.Lay shaft
(counter shaft)

9
This shaft transmits the drive
from the clutch to the gearbox .
At the end, the shaft is
supported by a spigot bearing
positioned close to the splines
on to which the clutch driven
plate is connected.
Sliding mesh type gearbox
Primary shaft
10
The main load on this shaft is taken
by a bearing; normally a sealed
radial ball type, positioned close to
an input gear called a constant
mesh pinion.
Sliding mesh type gearbox
Primary shaft
11
The gear is so named because it
is always in mesh with a larger
gear
Small driving gear is called a
pinion and a large gear a wheel.
Sliding mesh type gearbox
Primary shaft
12
This shaft, which is normally
fixed to the gearbox casing,
supports the various-sized
driving pinions of the layshaft
gear cluster
Sliding mesh type gearbox
Layshaft
13
This splined output shaft carries
spur gearwheels that slide along
the shaft to engage with the
appropriate lay shaft gears.
At the front end, the main shaft
is supported by a spigot bearing
situated in the centre of the
constant mesh pinion.
Sliding mesh type gearbox
Main Shaft
14
A heavy duty radial ball bearing is
fitted at the other end to take the
force of the gears as the attempt to
move apart.
Sliding mesh type gearbox
Main Shaft
15
The power comes from the engine
to the clutch shaft and thence to
the clutch gear which is always in
mesh with a gear on the lay shaft.
All the gears on the lay shaft are
fixed to it and as such they are all
the time rotating when the engine
is running and clutch is engaged.
Sliding mesh type gearbox
16
Sliding mesh type gearbox
Gear position
17
All main shaft gearwheels are
positioned so that they do not touch
the layshaft gears.
A drive is taken to the layshaft, but
the mainshaft will not be turned in
neutral position
Sliding mesh type gearbox
Neutral
18
First gear
19
Second
20
Third
21
Top
22
Reverse
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Gear noise due to the type of
gear.
The difficulty of obtaining a
smooth, quit and quick change of
gear without the great skill and
judgment.
24
Selector Mechanism
A fork is used to slide a gearwheel
along the main shaft in order to
select the appropriate gear.
It is mounted on its own rod and
links the drivers gear stick to the
sliding gearbox.
25
Selector Mechanism
26
Selector Detent
It holds the gears and selectors in
position and so prevent gear
engagement or disengagement
due to vibration.
The figure shows a typical
arrangement suitable for a layout
having the selector fork locked to
the rod
27
Interlock Mechanism
28
Prevents two gears engaging
simultaneously
If this occurs the gearbox will lock
up and shaft rotation will be
impossible.
Interlock Mechanism
29
In addition to the mechanism use for
driving a vehicle along a road, a power
supply is often required for operating
external items of auxiliary equipment.
A light truck having a tipping
mechanism is one example, but the
most varied application of power take-
off units is associated with specialized
Power take-off arrangement
30
Power take-off arrangement
31
Constant mesh gearbox
All the gear are in constant mesh with
the corresponding gears on the
layshaft. The gears on the splined
main shaft are free
The dog clutch are provided which are
free to slide on the main shaft.
The gears on the lay shaft are fixed.

32
Constant mesh gearbox
33
When the left dog clutch is slid to
left by means of the selector
mechanism, its teeth are engaged
with those on the clutch gear we
get the direct gear.
Constant mesh gearbox
34
The same dog clutch when slid to
right makes contact with the
second gear and second gear and
second gear is obtained.
Similarly movement of the right
dog clutch to the left result in low
gear and towards right in reverse
gear.
Constant mesh gearbox
35
Double Declutching with
Constant mesh Gearbox
For the smooth engagement of the
dog clutches it is necessary that the
speed of the clutch shaft, layshaft and
main shaft gear must be equal.
Therefore to obtain lower gear, the
speed of clutch shaft, layshaft and the
main shaft gear must be increased.
By Double declutching this can be
done.
36
The clutch is disengaged and the
gear is brought to neutral.
Then the clutch is engaged and
accelerator pedal pressed to
increased the speed of the main
shaft gears.
Double Declutching with
Constant mesh Gearbox
37
After this the clutch is again
disengaged and the gear moved to
required lower gear and the clutch is
again engaged.
As the clutch is disengaged twice in
this process, it is called double
declutching
Double Declutching with
Constant mesh Gearbox
38
compared to Sliding mesh Gearbox
As the gear remain always in
mesh, it is no longer necessary to
helical gear is used which are
quieter running.
39
compared to Sliding mesh Gearbox
Wear of dog teeth on engaging
and disengaging is reduced
because here all the teeth of the
dog clutches are involved
compared to only two or three
teeth in the case of sliding gears.
40
Similar to constant mesh type,
because all the gears on the main
shaft are in constant mesh with
corresponding gears on the
layshaft.
The gears on the main shaft are free
to rotate on it and that on the
layshaft are fixed to it.
Synchromesh Gearbox
41
Avoids the necessity of double
declutching.
The parts which ultimately are to be
engaged are first brought into
frictional contact which equalizes
their speed, after which these may
be engaged smoothly.
Synchromesh Gearbox
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Synchromesh Gearbox
43
A :engine shaft.
Gears B,C,D,E are free on the main shaft
and always mesh with corresponding
gears on lay shaft.
Members F
1
and F
2
are free to slide on
splines on the mainshaft.
G
1
and G
2
are ring shaped members
having internal teeth fit onto the external
teeth on members F
1
and F
2
respectively.

Synchromesh Gearbox
44
K
1
and K
2
are dog teeth on B and D
respectively fit onto the teeth of G
1
and G
2.
S
1
and S
2
are the forks.
T
1
and T
2
are the ball supported by
springs.
M
1
,M
2
,N
1
,N
2
,P
1
,P
2
,R
1
,R
2
are the
frictional surfaces.
Synchromesh Gearbox
45
T
1
and T
2
tend to prevent sliding of
members G1(G2) on F1(F2).
When force applied on G1(G2) through
forks S
1
(S
2
) exceeds a certain value, the
balls are overcome and member G1(G2)
slides over F1(F2).
There are usually six of these balls
symmetrically paced circumferentially in
one synchromesh device.
Synchromesh Gearbox
46
Engagement of direct gear in
Synchromesh Gearbox
Cones M
1
and M
2
mate to
equalize speeds.
Member G
1
pushed further
to engage with dog k
1

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Engagement of direct gear in
Synchromesh Gearbox
For direct gear, member G
1
and hence
member F
1
is slid towards left till cones
M
1
and M
2
rub and friction makes their
speed equal.
Further pushing the member G
1
to left
cause it to override the balls and get
engaged with dogs k
1
.
So the drive to the mainshaft is direct
from B via F
1
and the splines.

48
Engagement of direct gear in
Synchromesh Gearbox
Similarly for the second gear the
members F
1
and G
1
are slid to the right
so that finally the internal teeth on G
1
are
engaged with L
1
.
Then the drive to mainshaft will be from
B via U
1
, U
2
, C, F
1
and splines.
For first gear, G
2
and F
2
are moved
towards left
The drive will be from B via U
1
, U
3
, D, F
2

and splines to the main shaft.
49
Engagement of direct gear in
Synchromesh Gearbox
For reverse, G
2
and F
2
are slid towards
right.
In this case the drive will be from B via
U
1
, U
4
, U
5
, E, F
2
and splines to the main
shaft.
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Its too simple to Understand
51
Selector Mechanism with gear
lever on top of the transmision
52
There are forks mounted on the sleeves
on three separate selector rods which are
supported in the gearbox casing.
Each selector sleeve can slide on its rod.
There are slots on the selector rods and
the sleeves are provided with spring
engagement of the gears.
Selector Mechanism with gear
lever on top of the transmision
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Selector Mechanism with gear
lever on top of the transmision
These balls resist the movement of the
forks until some force is applied to the
gear lever to overcome their resistance.
Grooves are provided on the gear bosses
where the selector forks can fit in.
Transverse motion of the gear lever
selects the forks which is to be engaged
and the longitudinal movement then
slides the forks and its gear to engage the
selected gear.
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Selector Mechanism with gear
lever on top of the transmision
Various gear position
are marked on the
gear lever knob itself.
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Epicyclic Gearbox
PLANET
SUN GEAR
RING GEAR
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An epicyclic gearbox consists of two,
three or even four epicyclic or planetary
gear sets.
A simple gear set has a sun gear, about
which planets turns round.
These planet gears are carried by a
carrier and a shaft and are also in mesh
with a ring gear.
Epicyclic Gearbox
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How The Gears Move
The white band with
blue bars behind the
planets represents the
planet carrier.
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Principle of Algebraic Method
The gear ratio of a pair of mating
gear wheels with respect to the link
carrying the axes of the gears is
always the same whether the link
carrying axes is fixed or moving.
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Speed Ratio
A
B
C
Here gears B and C mating with
each other and connected by
means of arm A.
So according to principle

Speed of the gear B w.r.t arm A = - T
C
Speed of the gear B w.r.t arm A T
B

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There are two controls i.e. the brake and
the clutch.
The brake is in the form of a band that
surrounds a drum attached to the gear
(in case of sun gear) or the outer surface
of the gear itself (in case of ring gear).
The clutch used is of multiplate type.

Controls in Epicyclic Gearbox
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Both the brake and the clutch are
applied by the fluid pressure.
These are selected by hydraulic shift
valves which are usually located at the
bottom of the gearbox.
Controls in Epicyclic Gearbox
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All gear are in constant mesh and to
engage any desire gear one simply has
to apply the particular brake or the
clutch.
For this, the drive from the engine
need not to be disconnected as in case
of ordinary gearbox.
Thus gear changing operation
becomes very easy with an epicyclic
gearbox.
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64
Some Technical Data
Model 9 S 7 5
Input torque max Nm 770 900

Ratios
Crawler 13.6 9.56
Forward gear 8.91-1.00 6.47-0.73
Reverse gear 11.74 8.53
Speedometer Mechanical 1.556
Electronic Z=6
Installation Flange mounted on engine; installation potion horizontal to the left or
vertical
Shift system Four-speed section Crawler / reverse gear with dog clutch engagement, all other gears
synchronized.
Range change group Synchronized.
Shift
actuation
Four speed section Mechanical with turning shaft control with double H or superimposed
H shift pattern
Range change group Double H: changes are carried out and controlled automatically .
Superimposed H: changeover using preselector switch on shift lever.
Weight (approx. Kg) Approx. 125 kg weight without additional equipment
Oil volume horizontal/ vertical
position.
Approx 10.5 dm
3
/ 9.5 dm
3
Oil grade According to relevant ZF list of lubricants, TE-ML 02
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ZF-Ecomid transmission consist
of a 4-speed section with crawler
and reverse gear .
The transmission is of counter-
shaft type.
The rear mounted planetary range
change group double the number
of ratios in 4-speed section.

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Together with crawler, this equips
with 9 forward gears.
Gears 1-4 from the low range and
gears 5-8 from the high in the
range-change group
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4-speed section:
Synchronized, Reverse gear and crawler
with constant mesh.
Mechanical shift operation.
Double-H shifting or super-imposed H
shifting
Range-Change group:
Synchronized
Automatic changeover in transition from
gate 3/4 to gate 5/6 and vice versa
(pneumatic) with double H shift pattern.
Changeover with preselector switch on shift
lever with super imposed H shift pattern
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1. Range Change Group Double H Shift
Mechanism

2. Range Change Group Superimposed H Shift
Mechanism
Shift Actuation
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Selector patent-1
Selector patent-2
Selector patent-1
Selector patent-2
Superimposed H shift pattern Double H Pattern
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Double H Shift Mechanism
This shift mechanism
gates.
neutral position in
both gates 3/4 and 5/6.
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Double H Shift Mechanism
Different strengths of spring detent
enable the driver to navigate
effectively through the transmission
shift pattern.
The pneumatic selection feature
operates automatically when
changing from gate 3/4 to 5/6 or
back again.

72
Superimposed H Shift
Mechanism
The shift mechanism
divided into 3
Neutral position in
gates 3/4 and 7/8.
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Superimposed H Shift
Mechanism
The pneumatic selection feature operated
via the preselection switch on the shift
lever when changing from gate 3/4 to gate
5/6 or back again.
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Shifting of Transmission
ZF-Ecomid transmissions are synchro-
mesh transmission.
A synchromesh transmission is one
which enables all gears to rotate in the
same direction at synchronous speeds.
This system makes process quicker and
more reliable.
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Shifting of Transmission
There isnt any problem of double
declutching during up shifts.
No intermediate throttle application and
no double declutching when shifting
down, even when driving downhill and
in difficult situations.
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Transmission Shift Pattern
1. Double H Shift Pattern.

2. Superimposed H Shift pattern.

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Double H Shift Pattern
The double H
shift pattern has
what is known as
neutral position
in gates 3/4 (low
range ) and 5/6
(High Range).
1
R
3
5
2
4
6
7
8
N
N
C
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Double H Shift Pattern
To select gates 1/2 or 7/8, move the
selector level against spring force in the
relevant direction and hold against this
force when selecting.
The selector lever jumps back to the
neutral when released from mid-position
of the gate.
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Double H Shift Pattern
Gate 3/4 and 5/6 are separated by a
more powerful spring detent.
During this gate change, an automatic
changeover is performed in the range
change group.
The gate for reverse gear is protected
by a pawl stop and requires more force
to be applied.

80
Double H Shift Pattern
The different level of spring force
provided good orientation within the
shift pattern , i.e. the gates can be
located with reliable certainty.
81
Superimposed H Shift Pattern
The superimposed
H shift pattern has
(idling) in the 3/4
(low range change
group) and 7/8
(high range change
group) gates.
R
1
3
2
4
N
C
6
8
5
7
N
82
Superimposed H Shift Pattern
To select gates 1/2 or 5/6, move the
selector lever jumps against spring
force in the relevant direction and hold
against this spring force when
selecting.
The selector level jumps back to the
neutral when released from the mid-
position of the gate.
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Superimposed H Shift Pattern
The reverse gear is secured by means
of a bolt detent and additional force has
to be exerted to select it.
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Gear Selection
Move the selector rapidly without too
much force. This is important when the
transmission oil is still cold.
When selecting gear, hold the selector
lever against the pressure point until the
synchronizing process is complete and
the gear has engaged properly.

85
Gear Selection
For Double H Change out of the gate
into 5/6 gate or vice versa by briefly
striking the shift lever with your palm of
your hand and swiftly moving the shift
lever into the gear required without
exerting too much force.
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Gear Selection
Down Shifting Up Shifting
Gate change
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Gear Selection
For superimposed H if someone wants to shift from
4
th
gear into the 5
th
gear in the basic transmission
then he
1. must Preselect high ratio (high range group) on selector
switch
2. Disengage the clutch pedal
3. Shift into neutral at which point the range change group
starts to change over.
4. Select gate .
5. Shift the basic transmission into 1
st
gear the range change
group will by now have shifted into high ratio
6. Engage the clutch
7. Leave preselector switch in the selected range group
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Bleeding the Transmission
The transmission oil heats up during
travel.
This results in formation of excess
pressure which is continuously
removed via a bleed valve
Why???
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PART
IDENTIFICATION
ZF-GEARBOX
90
Slave
cylinder
Oil line
Air line
91
Z-bracket
Gear
shifting
bracket
Bush
92
Reverse
gear
sensor
Neutral
Gear
sensor
93
Speedometer
Sensor
94
Crawler
gear sensor
95
Gear
Shifting
Bracket
96
Oil Drain
Plug
97
THANK
YOU