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Theory :-
A) Acidity
B) Tautomerism
C) Iodine
D) Uses of ascorbic acid
Materials required

Vitamin C or ascorbic acid in citrus fruits in a water
soluble carbohydrate like substance involved in
certain metabolic processes of animals. Although
most of the animals can synthesize vitamin C ,it is
necessary in the diet of some including men and
other primates. The name ascorbic acid is derived
from the expression anaisearbatic vitamin. It was
first isolated in 1928 by Hungarian bio chemist and
Nobel prize winner albert seent ceyorghi.
To study and calculate the content of ascorbic acid
in different citrus fruits
Ascorbic acid , the formula of which C6H8O6,
behaves as a vinologous carboxylic acid, wherein
double bond transmits electron pairs between the
hydroxyl and carbonyl. There are two resonance
structures for the deprotonated form, differing in the
position of double bond.

Another way to look at ascorbic acid is to consider it
an enol. The deprotonated form is an enolate ,
which is usually strong basic. However, adjacent
double bond stabilized the deprotonated form .
Ascorbic acid is rapidly in converts into two
unstable diketone tautomers by proton transfer,
although it is the most stable in the enol form. The
proton of the enol is lost, reacquired by electrons in
the form of double bond, to produce a diketone. It is
an enol reaction there are two possible forms : 1,2
diketone and 1,3 diketone.
Another method involving using iodine and a starch
indicator, wherein iodine reacts with ascorbic acid ,
and when all the ascorbic acid had reacted, the
iodine is excess, then forming a blue black
complex with starch indicator. This indicates the
end point of the titration . As an alternative, ascorbic
acid can be reacted with iodine in excess, followed
by back titration with sodium thiosulfate while using
starch as indicator.
Ascorbic acid is easily oxidized and so is used a
reductant in photographic developer solutions
amongst ethers and as a preservative. Exposure to
oxygen, metals ,light and heat destroys ascorbic
acid, so it must be stored in dark, cold and not
metal container. The name ascorbic comes from
its property of preventing and curing scurvy.
Primates including humans and few other species
of the same animal kingdom, notably the guinea
pig, have lost the ability of synthesize ascorbic acid,
and must obtain it in their food.

Ascorbic and its sodium,pottasium calcium salts are
commonly used as anti oxidant food additives.
These compounds are water soluble and thus
cannot protect fact from oxidation. For this purpose
, the fat soluble esters of ascorbic acid and with
long chain fatty acid can be used as food anti
oxidants. 80 % of worlds supply of ascorbic acid is
produced in China.
Iodine (solid)
Lemon juice
Orange juice
Citrus maxima juice
Conical flask
Standard flask
Bunsens burner
Muslin cloth
Weight 0.254g of solid iodine and pour in a dry
beaker. Add 4g of solid potassium iodide. Then add
distilled water then dissolve iodine and potassium in
it. Transfer this solution to clean 100ml volumetric
flask and prepare required quantity of distilled water
that was added to make 100ml of iodine solution. In
this way another 100ml of iodine solution is
prepared. This solution has a molarity of 0.01M.
Now a starch solution is prepared by adding a
spatula of starch to 100ml of water and
subsequently boiling it.

The fruit juices are extracted and filtered using
muslin cloth.
The iodine solution of 0.01M is taken in a burette
and 5ml of filtered juice is pippeted out in a conical
flask. To the juice 1ml of starch solution is added.
The solution of juice is titrated against iodine
solution. The process is stopped at the point the
colour of solution in conical flask changes from fruit
juice to violet colour
Three concordant readings are taken.

The following are the percentage of ascorbic acid to
various citrus fruits.
Lemon juice = 31.68%
Orange juice = 49.28%
Citrus maxima = 70.4 %

The percentage of ascorbic acid was found to be
less in lemon juice and more in citrus maxima juice.
Here starch solution was added to the fruit juices,
before doing titration due to which some of the fruit
content reacted starch and a permanent complex
was formed which could not be oxidized.
We thank our chemistry teacher Manisha maam for
giving us an opportunity to make a chemistry
We are very thankful for your continual support and
guidance which has enabled us to achieve our goal.
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