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# A

DISSERTATION REPORT
ON

LOAD FLOW ANALYSIS ON STATCOM INCORPORATED
INTERCONNECTED POWER SYSTEM NETWORK USING NEWTON
RAPHSON METHOD

.

Session: 2013-14

Submitted to: Submitted by:
Mrs Aparna Chaturvedi Kapil Deo Bodha
Assistant Professor
II Year M.Tech
(Electrical Engineering ) Power System
10EIMPS602
CONTENTS
Introduction

Literature Survey

Objective

Problem formulation

Results

Conclusion & Future Scope

INTRODUCTION
This presentation discusses about the use of FACTS controller & STATCOM at
various location in IEEE bus systems.
Newton Raphson Load Flow studies is used to access the effect of STATCOM
on power system viz.

Effect on Nodal Voltage Magnitude.

Active and Reactive Power flows in the network.

Effect on Generator Active and Reactive Power generation/absorption.

STATCOM model for load flow is developed using MATLAB code
The Result obtained is compared with the Load flow study of bus system
without FACTS devices based on that a conclusion is drawn whether the
inclusion of STATCOM improves the performance of Power System networks
or not.
LITERATURE SURVEY
The survey is differentiated into following parts

FACTS & its Applications in Power Systems

Series FACTS devices

Shunt FACTS devices

Inclusion of FACTS devices in Load Flow Study

Optimal Allocation of FACTS devices

OBJECTIVE
To study & Model Newton Raphson Load Flow in MATLAB

To study & Model various IEEE bus Systems in MATLAB

To Model STATCOM for load flow studies

To perform Newton Raphson Load Flow Analysis ( with and without STATCOM)

To make comparative analysis of the simulation result

It is of great importance in planning and designing the future expansion in a
Power System.

It determines the best operation of existing systems.

It gives information about Magnitude & Phase angle of Voltage at each bus and
real and reactive power flowing in each line.

All utility companies employ Power Flow programs to get information about
the steady state of the system.

DEVELOPMENT OF POWER FLOW EQ.
The Current & Voltage equation in matrix form will be as follows:-

Where
and

Putting their values in equation ( S= Complex Power )

DEVELOPMENT OF POWER FLOW EQ.
Now complex power can also be written in the form of voltage and current and
can be expressed as follows-

Equating Real & Imaginary terms

This Pcal and Qcal are calculated through Power Flow problem.

PScheduled and QScheduled are the scheduled real and reactive power at bus and are
known quantity.

P = Pscheduled Pcal = 0
Q = Qscheduled Qcal = 0

These are the Mismatch Power Equation and are the base of Power flow
problem. It can be solved through Newton Raphson Method.
BUS CLASSIFICATION
Four potentially unknown quantity are associated with each bus

LOAD BUS - P & Q are specified / V & to be calculated.

GENERATOR PV BUS P & V are specified / Q & to be calculated.

GENERATOR PQ BUS P & Q are specified / V & to be calculated.

SLACK BUS V and are known quantity

NEWTON RAPHSON POWER FLOW
SOLUTION
NEWTON RAPHSON ALGORITHM
For load buses P and Q are specified, while voltage and phase angle are set to
1.00 pu and 0

For PV bus phase angle are set to zero.

For Load buses P and Q are calculated by equation 1 and equation 2 while P
and Q are calculated using equation 4 and 5

For voltage controlled bus P is calculated using equation 1 and P is calculated
using equation 4.

The jacobian can be calculated by differentiating equation 1 and 2

The phase angle and voltage V is updated after each interval.

The iterations is continued until P and Q becomes minimum or close to zero
FACTS IN POWER SYSTEM
The Flexible AC Transmission System(FACTS) is a new technology which is
based on power electronic devices that offers an opportunity to enhance
controllability, stability and power transfer capability of an AC Transmission
systems.

SOME BENEFITS OF FACTS DEVICES

Reduction of transmission and distribution investment cost.
Increased System Security.
Increased Reliability.
Enhanced Power Transfer Capability.
Overall enhancement of Power Quality of system.
FACTS CONTROLLER
FACTS controller are intended for steady state operation. FACTS controller
can be distinguished as follows:-
SVC ( STATIC VAR COMPENSATOR )
Composed of thyristor controlled reactor (TCR), thyristor switched capacitor
(TSC) and harmonic filters connected in parallel to provide dynamic shunt
compensation.
Provides a dynamic voltage control to increase the transient stability, enhancing
the damping power oscillations and improve the power flow control of the
power systems.
THYRISTOR CONTROLLED SERIES COMPENSATOR
It consists of three main components: Capacitor bank, bypass inductor and
bidirectional thyristors SCR1 and SCR2.
It offers a flexible adjustment with the ability to control the continuous line
compensation.

STATIC SYNCHRONOUS SERIES CAPACITOR
Based on solid-state, voltage source converter is designed to generate
the desired voltage magnitude independent of line current.

It consists of a converter, DC bus (storage unit) and a coupling
transformer.

It can exchange both the real and reactive power in a transmission line.
STATIC SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATOR
Its designed is based on Voltage source converter (VSC) electronic device with
Gate turn off thyristor and a dc capacitor coupled with step down transformer
tied to a transmission line.

Improve the voltage stability of a power system by controlling the voltage in
transmission and distribution systems.

Improves the damping power oscillation in transmission system.
UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER
It consists of two converters, one connected in series with the
transmission line through a series inserted transformer and the other
one connected in shunt with the transmission line through a shunt
transformer.

It is designed by combining the series compensator (SSSC) and shunt
compensator (STATCOM) coupled with a common DC capacitor.

It provides the ability to simultaneously control all the transmission
parameters of power systems, i.e. voltage, impedance and phase angle.

INTERLINE POWER FLOW CONTROLLER
IPFC consists of two series connected converters with two transmission lines.

It provides series reactive compensation in addition any converter can be
controlled to supply active power to the common dc link from its own
transmission line.

GENERALIZED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER
It is designed by combining three or more dc to ac converters working together
extending the concepts of voltage and power flow control of the known two-
converter UPFC controller to multi voltage and power flow control.

Can simultaneously control the power flow of several transmission lines.
STATCOM MODELING
STATCOM will be represented as a synchronous voltage source with minimum
& maximum limits.

The synchronous voltage source represents the fundamental Fourier series
component of the switched voltage waveform at the AC converter terminal of
the STATCOM.

The bus at which the STATCOM is connected is represented as a PV bus, which
may change to a PQ bus in the event of limits being violated.

STATCOM is represented as a voltage source for the full range of operation,
enabling a more robust voltage support mechanism.
POWER FLOW MODEL
STATCOM can be represented as a voltage source , and the
STATCOM bus is considered as PV bus.
POWER FLOW MODEL
Voltage at STATCOM is given by --
Complex Injected Power --
Considering STATCOM as PV bus , and using the above values following
power flow equations are obtained --
POWER FLOW MODEL
The Real and Reactive Power for STATCOM is --
The equations shown above are than incorporated in load flow equation of
power flow study and calculation are then carried out .
POWER FLOW MODEL
STATCOM inserted in the Power system networks.
Now this equation can be solved by Newton Raphson load flow in
similar way as shown before.
RESULTS
STATCOM is incorporated at various locations of IEEE bus systems and then
the system is subjected to Load flow study by Newton Raphson method to
check its effect on

Effect on Bus Voltage

Effect on Reactive Power Generation of Slack Bus.

STATCOM injected Power

Source impedance is taken as 0.1 p.u ( Xvr = 0.1 p.u.)
while the mismatch tolerance is taken as =1e-12
IEEE 5 BUS SYSTEM
Bus 1 Slack bus

Bus 2 Voltage Controlled Bus

STATCOM is placed at bus 3

Source Voltage Magnitude , Vvr = 1.1000

Initial Voltage for Source Voltage Angle = -4.8379

STATCOM injected Power = 20.6 Mvar

Number of Iteration = 5

BUS VOLTAGE
0.97 pu
0.975 pu
0.98 pu
0.985 pu
0.99 pu
0.995 pu
1 pu
1.005 pu
bus 3 bus 4
voltage without STATCOM
voltage with statcom
Voltage at bus 3 is increased 0.98 p.u. to 1.00 p.u

Voltage at Bus 4 is also improved.
REAL & REACTIVE POWER FLOWS
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
without STATCOM with STATCOM
REACTIVE POWER GENERATION AT
SLACK BUS IN MVAR
Reactive Power generation at slack bus is reduced from 92 Mvar to 86
MVAR.

Effect on Real Power is negligible.
IEEE 14 BUS SYSTEM
Bus 1 Slack Bus

Generator Bus 2,3,6 & 8

STATCOM Placed at bus 5 & 7.

STATCOM source Voltage magnitude Vvr 1 = .900 , Vvr 2 = .900

STATCOM source Voltage Magnitude vr1 = -8.6144 , vr2 = -13.2696

STATCOM injected Power = 62.11MVAR & 45.79 MVAR

Number of Iterations = 7

BUS VOLTAGE
Bus voltage profile is improved for the system.

Bus voltages at STATCOM placed Bus improved to 1 p.u.
0.94 pu
0.96 pu
0.98 pu
1 pu
1.02 pu
1.04 pu
1.06 pu
bus 10 bus 11 bus 13 bus 14
bus voltage
bus voltage with STATCOM
incorporated
REAL & REACTIVE POWER FLOWS
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
without STATCOM with STATCOM
REACTIVE POWER ABSORBED BY
SLACK BUS (in MVAR)
REACTIVE POWER ABSORBED
BY SLACK BUS (in MVAR)
Reactive Power absorbed at slack bus is reduced from 16 MVAR
to 7 MVAR.

Effect on Real power is negligible.
IEEE 30 BUS SYSTEM
Bus 1 Slack Bus

Generator Buses 2,6,8,11 & 13.

STATCOM placed at buses 4, 7, 14 & 29

STATCOM source voltages

Vvvr1 = 0.9000
Vvvr2 = 1.1000
Vvvr3 = 0.9000
Vvvr4 = 1.1000

IEEE 30 BUS SYSTEM
STATCOM voltage angle
vr1 = -9.5309
vr2 = -13.2026
vr3 = -16.6416
vr4 = -18.3403

STATCOM Injected Power
Bus 4 = 46.38 MVAR
Bus 7 = 1.61 MVAR
Bus 14 = 2.33 MVAR
Bus 29 = 6.90 MVAR

Number of iteration = 7

BUS VOLTAGE
0.9 pu
0.92 pu
0.94 pu
0.96 pu
0.98 pu
1 pu
1.02 pu
1.04 pu
Bus 9 Bus 16 Bus 25 Bus 30
Bus Voltage
Bus Voltage with STATCOM
Bus voltage profile of the system is improved.

Bus voltages at all STATCOM placed bus is improved to 1 p.u.

Buses away from STATCOM buses are less affected .
REAL & REACTIVE POWER FLOWS
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
without STATCOM with STATCOM
REACTIVE POWER ABSORPTION BY SLACK BUS IN
MVAR
REACTIVE POWER
ABSORPTION BY SLACK
BUS IN MVAR
Reactive Power absorption by slack Bus is reduced from 13 MVAR
to 8 MVAR.

Real Power of the system remains unaffected.
CONCLUSION
The following conclusion can be made by the analysis done

The bus voltage at all the STATCOM placed buses becomes 1 p.u.

Overall voltage profile of the bus system is improved.

More reactive power is available to the Network.

Reactive Power generation at the slack bus is reduced.

Real power remains unaffected.
FUTURE SCOPE
The load flow study can be done on large interconnected power system network
like IEEE 118 BUS systems or higher.

UPFC , IPFC and other FACTS controller can also be incorporated along with
the STATCOM and their effect on the system can be studied.

Optimal location of STATCOM can be found out using Genetic Algorithm and
fuzzy logic.

REFERENCES
N.G.Hingorani FACTS Technology and Opportunities, Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS) -
The Key to Increased Utilization of Power Systems),Digest No. 1994/05,12 January 1994, pp 4/1-410

Enrique Acha, Claudio R. Fuerte-Esquivel, Hugo Ambriz-Perez and Cesar Angeles-Camacho, FACTS
Modeling and Simulation in Power Networks, John Wiley and sons limited, 2004.