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Addressing Disparities & Institutionalization

through College Education Programs


Christopher R. Beasley, Ph.D
Department of Psychology
Washington College
APA 2014
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Incarceration
Education
Employment
Reentry Challenges
Prison Education
Reentry Education
Integrated Programming
Future Directions
Overview
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US Incarceration Prevalence
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Incarceration Trend
2
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Ethnic Disparities
3
4.8% 0.7% 1.9%
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Felons & Ex-Felons
4
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Psychological
Trauma & Clinical Illness
5
Institutionalization
6
Dependence on structure and contingencies
Hyper vigilance, distrust, and suspicion
Emotional over-control, alienation, psychological distancing
Social withdrawal and isolation
Incorporation of exploitive norms of prison culture
Diminished self-worth
Post-traumatic stress reactions
Incarceration Consequences
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Collateral
7

Legal restrictions
Stigma & discrimination
Careers
Housing
Education
Public benefits
Financial credit
Immigration
Parental rights
Travel
Volunteer opportunities
Incarceration Consequences
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Unemployment
National figures notoriously absent
Incarceration reduces employment 10-20%
8
10-30% lesser earnings
9
Incarceration Consequences
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Employers not very willing to hire ex-offenders

40% would probably or definitely
11

Small Lower in smaller, financial, service, & customer
contact
10

Persists in tight labor markets
11

Employer Concerns
12

Lack of skills & experience
Untrustworthiness
Fear of negligent hiring
Sympathetic but protective
Employment Barriers
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Factors in Marketability
12

Post prison experiences taken into account
11

Work experience
11
Training and hard skills help
College education
Willingness to hire ex-offenders increased 3x
13

Desire for soft skills
Communication skills
Interpersonal skills
Work ethic
Employment Barriers
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Education
Education
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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
General Formerly
Incarcerated
White Black Hispanic
Postsecondary Educational Attainment
14

Some College No College
8.4 11.4 11.4
48.4 5.5
Recidivism
Reentry Challenges
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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Any Multiple
5-Year Recidivism Rates
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Yes No
76.6 42.3
Recidivism
Reentry Challenges
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0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
White Hispanic Black Other
3-Year Recidivism Disparity
15

Arrests No Arrests
68.8 70.7 74.0 76.6
Immediate Needs
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Employment
Substance Abuse Treatment
Mental Health
Housing
Transportation
Challenges
Institutionalization
Identity
Self-Concept
Environmental Adaptation
Built
Technical
Cultural
Reentry
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Programs
Community Colleges
Bard Prison Initiative
17

Education Justice Project
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Outcomes
51% lower odds of recidivating
19

Prison Postsecondary Education
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Challenges
Security
Administrative Resources
Prison policies and shifting priorities
Qualified educators
Limitations
Often do not address transition
Institutionalization still present
Federal funding not available
Prison Postsecondary Education
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Programs
College & Community Fellowship
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College Initiative
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Post Prison Education Program
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Project Rebound
23

Returning Student Support Group
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Reentry Education
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Outcomes
College Initiative
25

20x less likely to go back to prison compared to national
average
5x more likely to graduate than CUNY GED students
Post Prison Education Program
26

0% 1-year recidivism for clients
35% for overflow controls
Reentry Education
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Challenges
Student Preparation
Educational attainment
Recent educational experience
Familiarity with systems and technology
Criminal background checks
Continuance of contacts with prison programs
Limitations
Often little coordination with prison programs
Recruitment
Student transition
Reentry Education
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Pathways from Prison to Postsecondary
Education
27

5-year Demonstration Project
Michigan
New Jersey
North Carolina
Funding and Technical Assistance
Ford Foundation
Sunshine Lady Foundation
Open Society Foundations
W.K. Kellogg Foundation
Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
Prison & Reentry Integration
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Pathways from Prison to Postsecondary
Education
27

Postsecondary education and supportive reentry
Links to local employment
2 Years prerelease
2 Years postrelease
RAND Corporation evaluation
Prison & Reentry Integration
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Housing considerations
Living & learning communities
Stigma
College recovery communities
Alumni components
Faces of hope
Hope is related to lesser odds of reincarceration
28

Future Directions
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Communicating alternative narratives to
prisoners and greater society
Written stories
Video stories
Spoken stories
Policy briefs and statements
Future Directions
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Research
Outcomes
Processes
Deinstitutionalization
Incarceration conditions, policies, & procedures
Rehabilitation
Replication of outside structure and routine
Opportunities for autonomy
Psychologically and safe settings
Contact with outside world
Alternatives to prison culture and norms
Preparation for community release
Services to facilitate reintegration
Future Directions
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Incarceration
Education
Employment
Reentry Challenges
Prison Education
Reentry Education
Integrated Programming
Future Directions
Conclusion
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1. International Cenre for Prison Studies. (2010). World Prison Population List
2. USDOJ (2011). Correctional Populations in the United States, 2010
3. U.S. Census. (2010). Correctional Population in the United States
4. Shannon, S.K.S., Uggen, C., Schnittker, J.,Thompson, M.,Wakefield, S., & Massoglia, M.. (In Progress). Growth in the U.S. Ex-Felon and Ex-
Prisoner Population, 1948-2010.
5. Haney, C. (1997). Psychology and the limits to prison pain: Confronting the coming crisis in Eighth Amendment law.
6. Haney, C. (2001). The Psychological Impact of Incarceration: Implications for Post-Prison Adjustment
7. NACDL (2014). Collateral Damage: Americas Failure to Forgive or Forget in the War on Crime
8. CEPR (2010). Ex-Offenders and the Labor Market
9. Kling, J. Weiman, D., & Western, B. (2000). The Effects of Mass Incarceration on the Labor Market
10. Holzer, H. J., Raphael, S., Stoll, M. A. (2002). Will Employers Hire Ex-Offenders? Employer Preferences, Background Checks, and Their
Determinants
11. Holzer, H. J. (2007). Collateral costs: The effects of Incarceration on the employment and earnings of young workers
12. Fahey, J., Roberts, C., & Engel, L. (2006). Employment of Ex-Offenders: Employer Perspectives
13. Albright, S. & Denq, F. (1996). Employer Attitudes Toward Hiring Ex-Offenders
14. Harlow, C. (2003). Education and Correctional Populations
15. Cooper, A. D., Durose, M. R., & Snyder, H. (2014). Recidivism Of Prisoners Released In 30 States In 2005: Patterns From 2005 To 2010
16. James, N. (2014). Offender Reentry: Correctional Statistics, Reintegration into the Community, and Recidivism
17. www.bpi.bard.edu
18. www.educationjustice.net
19. Davis, L. M., Bozick, R., Steele, J. L., Saunders, J., & Miles, J. N. V. (2013). Evaluating the Effectiveness of Correctional Eduction: A Meta-Analysis
of Programs That Provide Education to Incarcerated Adults.
20. www.collegeandcommunity.org
21. www.collegeinitiative.org
22. www.postprisonedu.org
23. www. asi.sfsu.edu/asi/.../proj_rebound
24. www.rssgchicago.org
25. College Initiative (2013). Fact Sheet.
26. Lovell, D., Walch, J., & Rhodes, L. A. (n.d.). Preliminary Evaluation: Post-Prison Education Program
27. VERA (n.d.). Pathways from Prison to Postsecondary Education Project
28. Dekhtyar, M., Beasley, C. R., Jason, L. A., Ferrari, J. R. (2012). Hope as a Predictor of Reincarceration Among Mutual-Help
References
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engagementresearch.org/presentations
Slides
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