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Manufacturing Technology I

ME 303
SHAPING PROCESSES OR
P!ASTICS
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
SHAPING PROCESSES OR
P!ASTICS
un-a.ental( of Poly.er Science an- Technology
/* Pro0ertie( of Poly.er Melt(
#* E1tru(ion
3* Pro-uction of Sheet) il.) an- ila.ent(
2* Coating Proce((e(
3* In4ection Mol-ing
5* Other Mol-ing Proce((e(
$* Ther.ofor.ing
6* Ca(ting
7* Poly.er oa. Proce((ing an- or.ing
/0* Pro-uct 8e(ign Con(i-eration(
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Poly.er
A co.0oun- con(i(ting of long chain .olecule()
each .olecule .a-e u0 of re0eating unit(
connecte- together

There .ay 9e thou(an-() e+en .illion( of unit(


in a (ingle 0oly.er .olecule

The :or- polymer i( -eri+e- fro. the Gree;


:or-( poly) .eaning .any) an- meros
<re-uce- to mer=) .eaning 0art

Mo(t 0oly.er( are 9a(e- on car9on an- are


therefore con(i-ere- organic che.ical(
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Ty0e( of Poly.er(

Poly.er( can 9e (e0arate- into 0la(tic( an-


ru99er(

A( engineering .aterial() it i( a00ro0riate to


-i+i-e the. into the follo:ing three categorie(>
/* Ther.o0la(tic 0oly.er(
#* Ther.o(etting 0oly.er(
3* Ela(to.er(
:here </= an- <#= are 0la(tic( an- <3= are
ru99er(
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Ela(to.er( <Ru99er(=
Poly.er( that e1hi9it e1tre.e ela(tic e1ten(i9ility
:hen (u94ecte- to relati+ely lo: .echanical
(tre((

So.e ela(to.er( can 9e (tretche- 9y a factor


of /0 an- yet co.0letely reco+er to their
original (ha0e

Although their 0ro0ertie( are ?uite -ifferent


fro. ther.o(et() they (hare a (i.ilar
.olecular (tructure that i( -ifferent fro. the
ther.o0la(tic(
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1a.0le( of Poly.er(

Ther.o0la(tic(>

Polyethylene) 0oly+inylchlori-e)
0oly0ro0ylene) 0oly(tyrene) an- nylon

Ther.o(et(>

Phenolic() e0o1ie() an- certain


0olye(ter(

Ela(to.er(>

Natural ru99er <+ulcani@e-=

Synthetic ru99er() :hich e1cee- the


tonnage of natural ru99er
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Rea(on( &hy Poly.er( are I.0ortant>

Pla(tic( can 9e .ol-e- into intricate 0art


(ha0e() u(ually :ith no further 0roce((ing

Aery co.0ati9le :ith net shape 0roce((ing

On a +olu.etric 9a(i() 0oly.er(>

Are co(t co.0etiti+e :ith .etal(

Generally re?uire le(( energy to 0ro-uce


than .etal(

Certain 0la(tic( are tran(lucent an-,or


tran(0arent) :hich .a;e( the. co.0etiti+e
:ith gla(( in (o.e a00lication(
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
General Pro0ertie( of Poly.er(

!o: -en(ity relati+e to .etal( an- cera.ic(

Goo- (trength to :eight ratio( for certain <9ut


not all= 0oly.er(

High corro(ion re(i(tance

!o: electrical an- ther.al con-ucti+ity


"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
!i.itation( of Poly.er(

!o: (trength relati+e to .etal( an- cera.ic(

!o: .o-ulu( of ela(ticity <(tiffne((=

Ser+ice te.0erature( are li.ite- to only a fe:


hun-re- -egree(

Ai(coela(tic 0ro0ertie() :hich can 9e a -i(tinct


li.itation in loa- 9earing a00lication(

So.e 0oly.er( -egra-e :hen (u94ecte- to


(unlight an- other for.( of ra-iation
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Pla(tic Pro-uct(

Pla(tic( can 9e (ha0e- into a :i-e +ariety of


0ro-uct(>

Mol-e- 0art(

E1tru-e- (ection(

il.(

Sheet(

In(ulation coating( on electrical :ire(

i9er( for te1tile(


"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
More Pla(tic Pro-uct(

In a--ition) 0la(tic( are often the 0rinci0al


ingre-ient in other .aterial() (uch a(

Paint( an- +arni(he(

A-he(i+e(

Aariou( 0oly.er .atri1 co.0o(ite(

Many 0la(tic (ha0ing 0roce((e( can 9e


a-a0te- to 0ro-uce ite.( .a-e of ru99er( an-
0oly.er .atri1 co.0o(ite(
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Pla(tic Sha0ing Proce((e( are
I.0ortant

Al.o(t unli.ite- +ariety of 0art geo.etrie(

Pla(tic .ol-ing i( a net shape 0roce((

urther (ha0ing i( not nee-e-

!e(( energy i( re?uire- than for .etal( -ue to


.uch lo:er 0roce((ing te.0erature(

Han-ling of 0ro-uct i( (i.0lifie- -uring


0ro-uction 9ecau(e of lo:er te.0erature(

Painting or 0lating i( u(ually not re?uire-


"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Cla((ification of Sha0ing Proce((e(

E1tru-e- 0ro-uct( :ith con(tant cro(( (ection

Continuou( (heet( an- fil.(

Continuou( fila.ent( <fi9er(=

Mol-e- 0art( that are .o(tly (oli-

Hollo: .ol-e- 0art( :ith relati+ely thin :all(

8i(crete 0art( .a-e of for.e- (heet( an- fil.(

Ca(ting(

oa.e- 0ro-uct(
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Poly.er Melt(

To (ha0e a ther.o0la(tic 0oly.er it .u(t 9e


heate- (o that it (often( to the con(i(tency of a
li?ui-

In thi( for.) it i( calle- a polymer melt

I.0ortant 0ro0ertie( of 0oly.er .elt(>

Ai(co(ity

Ai(coela(ticity
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Ai(co(ity
Ai(co(ity i( a flui- 0ro0erty that relate( the (hear
(tre(( e10erience- -uring flo: of the flui- to
the rate of (hear*

Becau(e of it( high .olecular :eight) a


0oly.er .elt i( a thic; flui- :ith high Ai(co(ity*

It i( i.0ortant in 0oly.er 0roce((ing 9ecau(e


.o(t of the (ha0ing .etho-( in+ol+e flo: of
the 0oly.er .elt through (.all channel( or -ie
o0ening(*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Ai(co(ity
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Ai(co(ity a( a function of Te.0erature
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Ai(coela(ticity
Co.9ination of +i(co(ity an- ela(ticity

It i( the 0ro0erty of a .aterial that -eter.ine(


the (train it e10erience( :hen (u94ecte- to
co.9ination( of (tre(( an- te.0erature o+er
ti.e*

Po((e((e- 9y 9oth 0oly.er (oli-( an- 0oly.er


.elt(

E1a.0le> -ie (:ell in e1tru(ion) in :hich the


hot 0la(tic e10an-( :hen e1iting the -ie
o0ening
8ie S:ell
S:ell ratio>C
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru(ion
Co.0re((ion 0roce(( in :hich .aterial i( force-
to flo: through a -ie orifice to 0ro+i-e long
continuou( 0ro-uct :ho(e cro(( (ectional
(ha0e i( -eter.ine- 9y the (ha0e of the orifice

&i-ely u(e- for ther.o0la(tic( an- ela(to.er(


to .a(( 0ro-uce ite.( (uch a( tu9ing) 0i0e()
ho(e) (tructural (ha0e() (heet an- fil.)
continuou( fila.ent() an- coate- electrical :ire

Carrie- out a( a continuou( 0roce((D extrudate


i( then cut into -e(ire- length(
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru-er
igure /3*2 Co.0onent( an- feature( of a <(ingle (cre:=
e1tru-er for 0la(tic( an- ela(to.er(
E1tru-er Sche.atic
Figure 19.2 (a) Schematic illustration of a typical screw extruder. (b) Geometry of an extruder screw. omplex
shapes can be extruded with relati!ely simple and inexpensi!e dies.
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
T:o Main Co.0onent( of an E1tru-er
/* Barrel
#* Scre:

8ie C not an e1tru-er co.0onent

S0ecial tool that .u(t 9e fa9ricate- for


0articular 0rofile to 9e 0ro-uce-
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru-er Barrel

Internal -ia.eter ty0ically range( fro. #3 to


/30 .. </*0 to 5*0 in*=

L,D ratio( u(ually 9et:een /0 an- 30> higher


ratio( for ther.o0la(tic() lo:er ratio( for
ela(to.er(

ee-(toc; fe- 9y gra+ity onto (cre: :ho(e


rotation .o+e( .aterial through 9arrel

Electric heater( .elt fee-(toc;D (u9(e?uent


.i1ing an- .echanical :or;ing a--( heat
:hich .aintain( the .elt
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru-er Scre:

8i+i-e- into (ection( to (er+e (e+eral function(>

ee- (ection C fee-(toc; i( .o+e- fro.


ho00er an- 0reheate-

Co.0re((ion (ection C 0oly.er i(


tran(for.e- into flui-) air .i1e- :ith 0ellet(
i( e1tracte- fro. .elt) an- .aterial i(
co.0re((e-

Metering (ection C .elt i( ho.ogeni@e- an-


(ufficient 0re((ure -e+elo0e- to 0u.0 it
through -ie o0ening
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru-er Scre:
igure /3*3 8etail( of an e1tru-er (cre: in(i-e the 9arrel*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
The flight angle A i( the heli1 angle of the (cre:

:here p E 0itch of the (cre:*


"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
8ie En- of E1tru-er

Progre(( of 0oly.er .elt through 9arrel lea-(


ulti.ately to the -ie @one

Before reaching -ie) the .elt 0a((e( through a


screen pack C (erie( of :ire .e(he( (u00orte-
9y a (tiff 0late containing (.all a1ial hole(

unction( of (creen 0ac;>

ilter out conta.inant( an- har- lu.0(

Buil- 0re((ure in .etering (ection

Straighten flo: of 0oly.er .elt an- re.o+e


it( F.e.oryF of circular .otion fro. (cre:
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Melt lo: in E1tru-er

A( (cre: rotate( in(i-e 9arrel) 0oly.er .elt i(


force- to .o+e for:ar- to:ar- -ieD a( in an
Archi.e-ian (cre:
Princi0al tran(0ort .echani(. i( drag flow) Q
d
)
re(ulting fro. friction 9et:een the +i(cou(
li?ui- an- the rotating (cre:

Co.0re((ing the 0oly.er .elt through the -ie


create( a back pressure that re-uce( -rag flo:
tran(0ort <calle- back pressure flow) Q
b
=
Re(ulting flo: in e1tru-er i( Q
x
E Q
d
Q
b

Here Leak flow through the clearance 9et:een


flight( an- 9arrel i( a((u.e- negligi9le*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e


"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1a.0le /3*/

"n extruder barrel has a diameter D # $% mm. &he screw
rotates at N # 1 re!'s. hannel depth d
c
# (.) mm and flight
angle A # 2)
o
. *ead pressure at the end of the barrel p # $.) x
1)
(
+a, length of the barrel L # 1.9 m, and !iscosity of the
polymer melt is assumed to be # 1)) +a-s. .etermine the
!olume flow rate of the plastic in the barrel Q
x
.
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru-er Characteri(tic( <Scre: Characteri(tic=
</3*/2=
</3*/3=
The t:o +alue( G
.a1
an- 0
.a1
are 0oint( along the a1e( of a
-iagra. ;no:n a( the e1tru-er characteri(tic*

It -efine( the relation(hi0 9et:een hea- 0re((ure an- flo: rate


in an e1tru(ion .achine :ith gi+en o0erating 0ara.eter(*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru-er an- 8ie Characteri(tic(
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1a.0le /3*#

onsider the extruder from /xample 10.1, in which D # $%
mm, L # 1.9 m, N # 1 re!'s, d
c
# ( mm, and A # 2)
o
. &he
plastic melt has a shear !iscosity # 1)) +a-s. .etermine (a)
Q
max
and p
max
, (b) shape factor K
s
for a circular die opening in
which D
d
# (.% mm and L
d
# 2) mm, and (c) !alues of Q
x
and
p at the operating point.
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
8ie Configuration( an- E1tru-e- Pro-uct(

The (ha0e of the -ie orifice -eter.ine( the


cro(( (ectional (ha0e of the e1tru-ate

Co..on -ie 0rofile( an- corre(0on-ing


e1tru-e- (ha0e(>

Soli- 0rofile(

Hollo: 0rofile() (uch a( tu9e(

&ire an- ca9le coating

Sheet an- fil.

ila.ent(
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru(ion of Soli- Profile(

Regular (ha0e( (uch a(

Roun-(

S?uare(

Irregular cro(( (ection( (uch a(

Structural (ha0e(

8oor an- :in-o: .ol-ing(

Auto.o9ile tri.

Hou(e (i-ing
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru(ion 8ie for Soli- Cro(( Section
igure /3*6 <a= Si-e +ie: cro(( (ection of an e1tru(ion -ie
for (oli- regular (ha0e() (uch a( roun- (toc;D <9= front
+ie: of -ie) :ith 0rofile of e1tru-ate* 8ie (:ell i( e+i-ent
in 9oth +ie:(*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru(ion 8ie for Soli- Cro(( Section

&hen the .aterial e1it( the -ie) it i( (till (oft*

Cooling i( acco.0li(he- 9y
/* air 9lo:ing)
#* :ater (0ray) or
3* 0a((ing the e1tru-ate through a :ater
trough*

To co.0en(ate for -ie (:ell)


/* the -ie o0ening i( .a-e long to re.o+e (o.e
.e.ory
#* the e1tru-ate i( -ra:n <(tretche-= to off(et
e10an(ion fro. -ie (:ell*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru(ion 8ie for Soli- Cro(( Section

or (ha0e( other than roun-) the -ie o0ening i(


-e(igne- :ith a cro(( (ection that i( (lightly
-ifferent fro. the -e(ire- 0rofile) to 0ro+i-e
(ha0e correction -ue to -ie (:ell *

Becau(e -ifferent 0oly.er( e1hi9it +arying


-egree( of -ie (:ell) the (ha0e of the -ie
0rofile -e0en-( on the .aterial to 9e e1tru-e-*
E1tru(ion 8ie Geo.etrie(
Figure 19.0 ommon extrusion die geometries1 (a) coat-hanger die for extruding sheet2 (b) round die for
producing rods2 and (c) dies for producing s3uare cross-sections. 4ote the nonuniform reco!ery of the part
after it exits the die. Source1 (a) Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Engineering (2
nd
ed.). opyright 5
196%. 7eprinted by permission of 8ohn 9iley : Sons, ;nc.
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru(ion 8ie for Hollo: Sha0e(
igure /3*/0 Si-e +ie: cro(( (ection of e1tru(ion -ie for (ha0ing
hollo: cro(( (ection( (uch a( tu9e( an- 0i0e(D Section A A i( a
front +ie: cro(( (ection (ho:ing ho: the .an-rel i( hel- in
0laceD Section B B (ho:( the tu9ular cro(( (ection 4u(t 0rior to
e1iting the -ieD -ie (:ell cau(e( an enlarge.ent of the -ia.eter*
E1tru(ion of
Tu9e(
Figure 19.< /xtrusion of tubes. (a)
/xtrusion using a spider die (see also
Fig. 1%.6) and pressuri=ed air. (b)
oextrusion for producing a bottle.
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru(ion 8ie for Hollo: Sha0e(
E1tru(ion of hollo: 0rofile() eg>
tu9e() 0i0e() ho(e() an- other cro(( (ection(
containing hole()
re?uire( a .an-rel to for. the hollo: (ha0e*
hel- in 0lace u(ing a (0i-er
The .elt flo:( aroun- the leg( (u00orting the
.an-rel to reunite into a .onolithic tu9e :all*
Pi0e( an- tu9e( are coole- u(ing
/*o0en :ater trough( or
#*9y 0ulling the (oft e1tru-ate through a :aterC
fille- tan;
:ith (i@ing (lee+e( that li.it the O8 of the tu9e
:hile air 0re((ure i( .aintaine- on the in(i-e*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru(ion 8ie for Coating &ire
igure /3*// Si-e +ie: cro(( (ection of -ie for coating of
electrical :ire 9y e1tru(ion*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
E1tru(ion 8ie for Coating &ire

The 0oly.er .elt i( a00lie- to the 9are :ire a(


it i( 0ulle- at high (0ee- through a -ie*

A (light +acuu. i( -ra:n 9et:een the :ire an-


the 0oly.er to 0ro.ote a-he(ion*

The taught :ire 0ro+i-e( rigi-ity -uring cooling

u(ually ai-e- 9y 0a((ing the coate- :ire


through a :ater trough*

The 0ro-uct i( :oun- onto large (0ool( at


(0ee-( of u0 to 30 .,( </0)000 ft,.in=*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
8efect( in E1tru(ion
1.Melt fracture
the (tre((e( acting i..e-iately 9efore an- -uring
the flo: through the -ie are high that cau(e
failure*
.anife(te- in the for. of a highly irregular (urface
on the e1tru-ate*
.elt fracture can 9e cau(e- 9y a (har0 re-uction
at the -ie entrance)
cau(ing tur9ulent flo: that 9rea;( u0 the .elt*
Thi( contra(t( :ith the (trea.line- flo: in a
gra-ually con+erging -ie*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
8efect( in E1tru(ion
2. Sharkskin and Bambooing
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
8efect( in E1tru(ion
2. Sharkskin and Bambooing

A .ore co..on -efect in e1tru(ion

the (urface of the 0ro-uct 9eco.e( roughene-


u0on e1iting the -ie*

A( the .elt flo:() friction at the interface re(ult( in


a +elocity 0rofile acro(( the -ie cro(( (ection*

Ten(ile (tre((e( -e+elo0 at the (urface

a( thi( .aterial i( (tretche- to ;ee0 u0 :ith the


center core*

cau(e( .inor ru0ture( that roughen the (urface*

or e1tre.e +elocity gra-ient 0ro.inent .ar;(


occur on the (urface) gi+ing it a00earance of a
9a.9oo*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Poly.er Sheet an- il.

il. C thic;ne(( 9elo: 0*3 .. <0*0#0 in*=

Pac;aging C 0ro-uct :ra00ing .aterial)


grocery 9ag() an- gar9age 9ag(

Stoc; for 0hotogra0hic fil.

Pool co+er( an- liner( for irrigation -itche(

Sheet C thic;ne(( fro. 0*3 .. <0*0#0 in*= to


a9out /#*3 .. <0*3 in*=

lat :in-o: gla@ing

Ther.ofor.ing (toc;
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Material( for Poly.er Sheet an- il.

All ther.o0la(tic 0oly.er(

Polyethylene <30H of fil. 0ro-uce-=) .o(tly


lo: -en(ity PE

Poly0ro0ylene

Poly+inylchlori-e

Cello0hane
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Sheet an- il. Pro-uction Proce((e(

Mo(t :i-ely u(e- 0roce((e( are continuou()


high 0ro-uction o0eration(

Proce((e( inclu-e>

Slit 8ie E1tru(ion of Sheet an- il.

Blo:n il. E1tru(ion Proce((

Calen-ering
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Slit 8ie E1tru(ion of Sheet an- il.
Pro-uction of (heet an- fil. 9y con+entional
e1tru(ion) u(ing a narro: (lit a( the -ie
o0ening

Slit .ay 9e u0 to 3 . </0 ft= :i-e an- a(


narro: a( aroun- 0*2 .. <0*0/3 in=

A 0ro9le. i( unifor.ity of thic;ne(( throughout


:i-th of (toc;) -ue to -ra(tic (ha0e change of
0oly.er .elt a( it flo:( through -ie

E-ge( of fil. u(ually .u(t 9e tri..e- 9ecau(e


of thic;ening at e-ge(
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
igure /3*/2 One of (e+eral -ie configuration( for e1tru-ing
(heet an- fil.*
Slit 8ie E1tru(ion
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Cooling an- Collecting of il.
To achie+e high 0ro-uction rate() an efficient
.etho- of cooling an- collecting the fil. i(
integrate- :ith the e1tru(ion 0roce((*
/* &ater Guenching Bath
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Cooling an- Collecting of il.
2. Chill-Roll Extrusion
I
co..ercially .ore i.0ortant
I
High 0ro-uction (0ee-( 3.,(
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Blo:nCil. E1tru(ion Proce((
Pro-uction of Pla(tic il. an- Bag(
Figure 19.% (a) Schematic illustration of the production of thin film and plastic bags from tube > first produced by
an extruder and then blown by air. (b) " blown-film operation. &his process is well de!eloped, producing
inexpensi!e and !ery large 3uantities of plastic film and shopping bags. Source1 ourtesy of 9indmoeller :
*oelscher.
(b)
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Cooling an- Collecting of il.
A-+antage( o+er other 0roce((e(

Thi( re(ult( in i(otro0ic (trength 0ro0ertie()

The ea(e :ith :hich e1tru(ion rate an- air


0re((ure can 9e change- to control (toc; :i-th
an- gage*

the 9lo:nCfil. .etho- 0ro-uce( (tronger fil.


<(o that a thinner fil. can 9e u(e- to 0ac;age
a 0ro-uct=)
8i(a-+antage

Thic;ne(( control an- 0ro-uction rate( are


lo:er*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Calen-ering
Calen-ering Calen-ering i( a 0roce(( for
0ro-ucing (heet an- fil. (toc; out of ru99er or
ru99ery ther.o0la(tic( (uch a( 0la(tici@e-
PAC*
Calen-ering
Figure 19.22 Schematic illustration of calendering. Sheets produced by this process
subse3uently are used in thermoforming. &he process also is used in the production of !arious
elastomer and rubber products.
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
Calen-ering

The e?ui0.ent i( e10en(i+e)

9ut 0ro-uction rate i( highD #*3 .,( <300


ft,.in=

Clo(e control i( re?uire- o+er roll


te.0erature() 0re((ure() an- rotational (0ee-*

The 0roce(( i( note- for it( goo- (urface fini(h


an- high gage accuracy in the fil.*
Pro-uct( .a-e 9y the calen-ering
/* PAC floor co+ering)
#* Sho:er curtain()
3* Ainyl ta9le cloth()
2* Pool liner() an-
3* Inflata9le 9oat( an- toy(*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
IBER AN8 I!AMENT PRO8JCTION
<SPINNING=
A fiber can 9e -efine- a( a long) thin (tran- of
.aterial :ho(e length i( at lea(t /00 ti.e( it(
cro((C(ectional -i.en(ion*
A filament i( a fi9er of continuou( length*
/* Synthetic fibers <$3H of .ar;et=
#* Natural fibers <#3H of .ar;et=*
Spinning i( the .etho- u(e- to -ra: an- t:i(t
natural fi9er( into yarn or threa-*
or (ynthetic fi9er() spinning refer( to the
0roce(( of e1tru-ing a 0oly.er .elt or (olution
through a spinneret to .a;e fila.ent( that are
then -ra:n an- :oun- onto a bobbin*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
IBER AN8 I!AMENT PRO8JCTION
<ME!T SPINNING=
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
IBER AN8 I!AMENT PRO8JCTION
<SPINNING=
There are three 0rinci0al +ariation( in the
(0inning of (ynthetic fi9er() -e0en-ing on the
0oly.er 9eing 0roce((e->
</= .elt (0inning)
<#= -ry (0inning) an-
<3= :et (0inning*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
ME!T SPINNING
Melt spinning i( u(e- :hen the (tarting 0oly.er
can 9e(t 9e 0roce((e- 9y heating to the .olten
(tate an- 0u.0ing through the (0inneret) .uch
li;e con+entional e1tru(ion*
A ty0ical spinneret i(

5 .. <0*#3 in= thic;

contain( a00ro1i.ately 30 hole(

hole -ia.eter 0*#3 .. <0*0/0 in=

hole( are counter(un; <to ha+e an !,8 ratio of


only 3,/ or le((=*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
ME!T SPINNING

E1ten(ion an- thinning of the fila.ent( occur


:hile the 0oly.er i( (till .olten

the final -ia.eter :oun- .ay 9e only /,/0 of


the e1tru-e- (i@e*

Main u(age> polyesters an- nylons*


"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
8RK SPINNING

The (tarting 0oly.er i( in (olution

The (ol+ent i( (e0arate- 9y e+a0oration*

The e1tru-ate i( 0ulle- through a heate-


cha.9er that re.o+e( the (ol+ent

Re.aining (e?uence i( (i.ilar to .elt


(0inning*

i9er( of cellulose acetate an- acrylic are


0ro-uce- 9y thi( 0roce((*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
&ET SPINNING

The 0oly.er i( in (olution*

The (ol+ent i( non+olatile*

To (e0arate the 0oly.er) the e1tru-ate .u(t


9e 0a((e- through a li?ui- che.ical that
coagulate( or 0reci0itate( the 0oly.er into
coherent (tran-( that are then collecte- onto
9o99in(*

Thi( .etho- i( u(e- to 0ro-uce rayon


<regenerate- cellulo(e fi9er(=*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
SPINNING

ila.ent( 0ro-uce- 9y any 0roce(( are


(u94ecte- to col- -ra:ing to align the cry(tal
(tructure along the -irection of the fila.ent
a1i(*

E1ten(ion( of # to 6 are ty0ical*

Thi( (ignificantly increa(e the ten(ile (trength


of the fi9er(*

8ra:ing i( -one 9y 0ulling the threa-


9et:een t:o (0ool() :here the :in-ing (0ool
i( -ri+en at a fa(ter (0ee- than the un:in-ing
(0ool*
Manufacturing) Engineering ' Technology) ifth E-ition) 9y Sero0e Lal0a;4ian an- Ste+en R* Sch.i-*
ISBN 0C/3C/26753C6* " #005 Pear(on E-ucation) Inc*) J00er Sa--le Ri+er) N%* All right( re(er+e-*
MeltCS0inning
Proce((
igure /7*5 The .eltC(0inning 0roce((
for 0ro-ucing 0oly.er fi9er(* The fi9er(
are then u(e- in a +ariety of
a00lication() inclu-ing fa9ric( an- a(
reinforce.ent( for co.0o(ite .aterial(*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
COATING PROCESSES
Pla(tic <or ru99er= coating in+ol+e( a00lication
of a layer of the gi+en 0oly.er onto a
(u9(trate .aterial*
</= :ire an- ca9le coating
<#= 0lanar coating) :hich in+ol+e( the coating
of a flat fil.D an-
<3= contour coatingMthe coating of a 38
o94ect* &e ha+e alrea-y e1a.ine- :ire
an- ca9le coating <Section

In a--ition) a00lying 0aint() +arni(he()


lac?uer() an- other (i.ilar coating(*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
P!ANNAR COATING

Planar coating i( u(e- to coat fa9ric() 0a0er)


car-9oar-) an- .etal foil*

The i.0ortant 0oly.er( inclu-e

0olyethylene

Poly0ro0ylene

Nylon <le((er a00lication(=

PAC <le((er a00lication(= an-

Polye(ter <le((er a00lication(=

In .o(t ca(e() the coating i( only 0*0/ to 0*03


.. <0*00030*00# in= thic;*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
P!ANNAR COATING
1. The roll method> the 0oly.er coating .aterial
i( (?uee@e- again(t the (u9(trate 9y .ean( of
o00o(ing roll(*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
P!ANNAR COATING
2. The doctor blade method: a (har0 ;nife
e-ge control( the a.ount of 0oly.er .elt that
i( coate- onto the (u9(trate*
Manufacturing) Engineering ' Technology) ifth E-ition) 9y Sero0e Lal0a;4ian an- Ste+en R* Sch.i-*
ISBN 0C/3C/26753C6* " #005 Pear(on E-ucation) Inc*) J00er Sa--le Ri+er) N%* All right( re(er+e-*
Pro-uction of i9erCReinforce- Pla(tic Sheet(
igure /7*#5 Sche.atic illu(tration of the .anufacturing 0roce(( for 0ro-ucing fi9erC
reinforce- 0la(tic (heet(* The (heet (till i( +i(cou( at thi( (tage an- later can 9e (ha0e- into
+ariou( 0ro-uct(* Source> After T* &* Chou) R* !* McCullough) an- R* B* Pi0e(*
"#00$ %ohn &iley ' Son() Inc* M P Groo+er) Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3,e
CONTOJR COATING
1. Dipping in+ol+e( (u9.er(ion of the o94ect into
a (uita9le 9ath of 0oly.er .elt or (olution)
follo:e- 9y cooling or -rying*
2. Spraying <(uch a( (0ray 0ainting= i( an
alternati+e .etho- for a00lying a 0oly.er
coating to a (oli- o94ect*