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NON TRADITIONAL MACHINING AND

THERMAL CUTTING PROCESS


CHAPTER 26
Advanced Machining Processes
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
NON TRADITIONAL MACHINING
1. Mechanical energy process
1. Ultrasonic Machining
2. Water & Abrasive Jet
2. Electrochemical Machining( Deburring, Grinding)
3. Thermal Energy Process
1. Electric Discharge
2. Electron Beam
3. Laser Beam
4. Arc Cutting
5. Oxyfuel cutting
4. Chemical Machining
1. Mechanics and Chemistry of Chemical Machining
2. CHM Processes
5. Application Considerations
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
REQUIREMENT for NON TRADITIONAL
MACHINING
1. The need to machine newly developed metals and
non-metals.
These materials often have special properties (e.g.,
high strength, high hardness, high toughness) that
make them difficult or impossible to machine by
conventional methods.
2. The need for unusual and/or complex part
geometries that cannot easily be accomplished
and in some cases are impossible to achieve by
conventional machining.
3. The need to avoid surface damage that often
accompanies the stresses created by conventional
machining.
Many of these requirements are associated with the
aerospace and electronics industries.
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Classification of non traditional Machining
The classification is based on principal form of
energy used
Mechanical
Electrical
Thermal
Chemical
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
MECHANICAL ENERGY PROCESSES
Several of the nontraditional processes that
use mechanical energy other than a sharp
cutting tool:
1. ultrasonic machining,
2. water jet processes,and
3. other abrasive processes.

2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
Used for Hard and Brittle Materials like Ceramics
and glass
Abrasive particles impacts on workpiece to
achieve metal removal
The tool drives the abrasives contained in a slurry
The tool oscillates perpendicular to work surface at
high frequency(20,000 HZ) and low
amplitude(0.075mm) and fed slowly in the work
surface
Tool Material is normally soft steel & Stainless
Steel
Abrasive slurry includes boron nitride, boron
carbide, Aluminum Oxide etc mixed with
water(20% ~60%) and the grit size is propotional
to amplitude
Tool and work both undergo abrasion with a ratio
of 100:1 to 1:1.
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
Abrasives contained in a slurry are driven at
high velocity against the work by a tool
vibrating at low amplitude and high frequency.
The amplitudes are around 0.075 mm , and the
frequencies are approximately 20,000 Hz.
The tool oscillates perpendicular to the work
surface, and is fed slowly into the work,
the shape of the tool is formed in the part.
It is the action of the abrasives, impinging
against the work surface, that performs the
cutting.
Common tool materials are soft steel and
stainless steel.
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
FIGURE 26.1
Ultrasonic machining.
Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
Abrasive materials in USM include
boron nitride,
boron carbide,
aluminum oxide,
silicon carbide, and
diamond.
Grit size ranges between 100 and 2000.
The vibration amplitude should be set
approximately equal to the grit size,
the gap size maintained at about twice grit size.
To a significant degree, grit size determines the
surface finish on the new work surface.
the material removal rate increases with increasing
frequency and amplitude of vibration.



2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
The slurry consists of a mixture of water and abrasive
particles.
Concentration of abrasives in water ranges from
20% to 60%.
The slurry must be continuously circulated to bring
fresh grains into action.
It also washes away chips and worn grits.
The cutting action operates on the tool as well as the
work.
As the abrasive erode the work surface, they also
erode the tool.
It is therefore important to know the relative volumes of
work material and tool material removed.
This ratio varies for different work materials,
100:1 for cutting glass
1:1 for cutting tool steel.
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Ultrasonic Machining (USM)
Used for
hard, brittle work materials, such as ceramics,
glass, and carbides.
stainless steel and titanium.
Shapes obtained by USM

Shapes obtained include
non-round holes,
holes along a curved axis, and
coining operations,
in which an image pattern on the tool is
imparted to a flat work surface.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Water Jet Cutting (WJC)
Hydrodynamic or Water Jet cutting (WJC)
High Pressure (400 MPA)
High Velocity stream(900 m/s) from a nozzle
opening of 0.1 to 0.4 mm diameter
The nozzle unit consists of
a holder made of stainless steel, and
a jewel nozzle made of sapphire, ruby, or
diamond
Filtration systems is used to separate the swarf
produced during cutting.
Preferred cutting fluids are polymer solutions,
because of their tendency to produce a
coherent stream.
Water Jet Cutting (WJC)
FIGURE 26.2
Water jet cutting.
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Water Jet Cutting (WJC)
Standoff distance: the separation between the
nozzle opening and the work surface.
generally desirable to be small to minimize
dispersion of the fluid stream ( typically 3.2
mm).
size of nozzle orifice affects the precision of cut;
smaller openings are used for finer cuts on
thinner materials.
thicker jet streams and higher pressures are
required to cut thicker stock.
Typical feed rates range from 5 to 500 mm/s,
depending on work material and its thickness
Used for plastics, leather, textiles, composites,
tile, carpet, cardboard etc
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Water Jet Cutting (WJC)
Applications / advantages include:
1. no crushing or burning of the work surface
typical in other mechanical or thermal
processes,
2. Minimum material loss because of the narrow
cut slit,
3. no environmental pollution, and
4. ease of automating the process.
A limitation of the process -- not suitable for
cutting brittle materials (e.g., glass)
because of their tendency to crack during
cutting.

Water-Jet
Cutting
Process
Figure 27.16 (a) Schematic illustration of the water-jet machining process. (b) A computer-controlled water-jet
cutting machine cutting a granite plate. (c) Examples of various nonmetallic parts produced by the water-jet
cutting process. (Enlarged on next slide). Source: Courtesy of Possis Corporation
Nonmetallic Parts Made by Water-Jet
Cutting
Enlargement of Fig. 27.16c. Examples of various nonmetallic parts produced by the water-jet cutting
process. Source: Courtesy of Possis Corporation

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Abrasive Water Jet Cutting (AWJC)
When WJC is used on metallic workparts,
abrasive particles must be added to facilitate
cutting.
This complicates the process by adding a number
of parameters that must be controlled.
Additional parameters are
abrasive type,
grit size, and
flow rate.
Typical abrasive are
Aluminum oxide,
silicon dioxide, and
garnet (a silicate mineral)
grit sizes range between 60 and 120.

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Abrasive Water Jet Cutting (AWJC)
The abrasive particles are added to the water
stream at about 0.25 kg/min as it exits the
nozzle.
Nozzle orifice diameters are 0.25 to 0.63 mm
somewhat larger than in WJC to permit
higher flow rates and
more energy contained in the stream.
Typical standoff distances are between 1/4
and 1/2 of those in WJC.

Abrasive Water Jet Cutting (AWJC)
Abrasive Water Jet
Cutting (AWJC)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM)
Abrasive particles with Gas is used
The gas is dry and pressure is about 0.2 ~ 1.4
MPA
Gas Velocity is about 2.5 to 5 m/s
nozzle orifice diameter range from 0.075 to 1.0
mm.
Gases include dry air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide,
and helium.
Typical distances between nozzle tip and work
surface range between 3 and 75 mm.
The workstation must be set up to provide proper
ventilation for the operator.
It is generally a finishing process rather than a
production cutting process
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM)
FIGURE 26.3
Abrasive jet machining (AJM).
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM)
Applications include
deburring,
trimming and deflashing,
cleaning, and
polishing.
Cutting is accomplished on thin flat stock of hard,
brittle materials (e.g., glass, silicon, mica, and
ceramics)
Typical abrasives used include
aluminum oxide (for aluminum and brass),
silicon carbide (for stainless steel and
ceramics), and
glass beads (for polishing).
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Abrasive Jet Machining (AJM)
Grit sizes are small, 15 to 40 m in diameter,
must be uniform in size.
It is important not to recycle the abrasives
because used grains become fractured (and
therefore smaller in size), worn, and
contaminated.

Abrasive-Jet
Machining
Figure 27.17 (a) Schematic illustration of the abrasive-jet machining process. (b) Examples of parts
produced through abrasive-jet machining, produced in 50-mm (2-in.) thick 304 stainless steel. Source:
Courtesy of OMAX Corporation.
(b)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM)
This process is used to deburr and polish difficult-
to-reach areas
abrasive particles mixed in a viscoelastic polymer
(called the media) is forced to flow through or
around the part surfaces and edges.
The polymer has the consistency of putty.
Silicon carbide is a typical abrasive.
particularly well-suited for internal passageways
that are often inaccessible by conventional
methods.
The media flows past the target regions of the
part under pressures ranging between 0.7 and 20
MPa.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Abrasive Flow Machining (AFM)
Other applications include
forming radii on sharp edges,
removing rough surfaces on castings, and
other finishing operations.
The process can be automated economically for
mass production.
A common setup is to position the workpart
between two opposing cylinders, one containing
media and the other empty.
The media is forced to flow to and fro through the
part between the two cylinders, as many times as
necessary to achieve the desired material
removal and finish.
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
Remove material by anodic dissolution
the shape of the workpiece is obtained by a
formed electrode tool in close proximity to the
work by a rapidly flowing electrolyte.
The machining process is similar to de-plating
Tool is Cathode(-) & Workpiece is Anode(+)
The principle underlying the process is
material is deplated from the anode and
deposited onto the cathode in an electrolyte
bath.
In ECM the electrolyte bath flows rapidly
between the two poles to carry off the deplated
material, so that it does not become plated
onto the tool.
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
FIGURE 26.4
Electrochemical machining (ECM).
Electrochemical Machining
Figure 27.6 Schematic illustration of the electrochemical machining process.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
The electrode tool,
usually made of copper, brass, or stainless
steel,
possess the inverse of the desired final shape
of the part.
an allowance is provided for the gap between
the tool and the work.
the electrode is fed into the work at a rate equal to
the rate of metal removal.
MRR depends upon Faradays First Law
the amount of chemical change produced by
an electric current (i.e., the amount of metal
dissolved) is proportional to the quantity of
electricity passed (current x time).
V= CIt,
where is C is constant i.e: specific removal rate
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
Feed rate:


We should note that this equation assumes 100%
efficiency of metal removal.
The actual efficiency is 90% to 100%
It depends on
tool shape,
voltage and current density, and
other factors.
Gap distance needs to be controlled closely.
If g becomes too large, the electrochemical process
slows down.
if the electrode touches the work, a short circuit
occurs, & process stops altogether.
Typical gap range between 0.075 to 0.75 mm.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
ECM requires large amounts of electrical power.
rate of metal removal is determined by electrical
power, specifically the current density.
The voltage is kept relatively low to minimize
arcing across the gap.

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
Water is used as the base for the electrolyte.
To reduce electrolyte resistivity, salts such as NaCl
or NaNO
3
are added.
the flowing electrolyte removes
the material from the workpiece,
heat and
hydrogen bubbles created in the chemical
reactions.
The removed microscopic material particles must
be separated from the electrolyte through
centrifuge,
sedimentation, or
other means.
The disposal of separated particles (thick sludge)
is an environmental problem.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
Generally used in applications in which
the work metal is very hard or difficult to
machine, or
the workpart geometry is difficult (or impossible)
to accomplish by conventional machining.
Work hardness makes no difference in ECM.
Typical ECM applications include:
1. die sinking, which involves the machining of
irregular shapes and contours into forging dies,
plastic molds, and other shaping tools;
2. multiple hole drilling, in which many holes can be
drilled simultaneously with ECM;
3. holes that are not round; and
4. deburring.


2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electrochemical Machining (ECM)
Advantages include:
1. little surface damage to the workpart,
2. no burrs as in conventional machining,
low tool wear (the only tool wear results from the
flowing electrolyte), and
1. relatively high metal removal rates for hard and
difficult-to-machine metals.
Disadvantages are:
1. significant cost of electrical power to drive the
operation and
2. problems of disposing of the electrolyte sludge.
Parts Made by Electrochemical Machining
Figure 27.7 Typical parts made by electrochemical machining. (a) Turbine blade made of nickel alloy of
360 HB. Note the shape of the electrode on the right. (b) Thin slots on a 4340-steel roller-bearing cage.
(c) Integral airfoils on a compressor disk.
Knee Implants
Figure 27.8 (a) Two total knee replacement systems showing metal implants (top pieces) with an
ultra-high molecular-weight polyethylene insert (bottom pieces). (b) Cross-section of the ECM
process as applies to the metal implant. Source: Courtesy of Biomet, Inc.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electrochemical Deburing (ECD)
It is an adaptation of ECM designed to
remove burrs or to
round sharp corners
by anodic dissolution.
The hole in the workpart has a sharp burr.
The tool is designed to focus on the burr.
Portions of the tool not being used for machining
are insulated.
The electrolyte flows through the hole to carry
away the burr.
The same operation principles of ECM also apply
to ECD. However, cycle times are much shorter.
A typical cycle time is less than a minute.
The time can be increased if it is desired to round
the corner.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electrochemical Deburing (ECD)
FIGURE 26.5
Electrochemical deburring (ECD).
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electrochemical Grinding (ECG)
A special form of ECM
a rotating grinding wheel with a conductive bond
material is used for the anodic dissolution of the
workpart surface.
Abrasives used in ECG include aluminum oxide
and diamond.
The bond material is
metallic (for diamond abrasives) or
resin bond impregnated with metal particles
(for aluminum oxide).
The abrasive grits protruding from the grinding
wheel at the contact with the workpart establish
the gap distance in ECG.
The electrolyte flows through the gap between the
grains to play its role in electrolysis.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electrochemical Grinding (ECG)
FIGURE 26.6
Electrochemical grinding (ECG).
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electrochemical Grinding (ECG)
Metal removal in ECG
deplating is responsible for 95% or more, and
the abrasive action of grinding wheel removes
the remaining 5%or less,
mostly in the form of salt films.
Therefore the grinding wheel lasts much longer
than in conventional grinding.
a much higher grinding ratio.
dressing of the grinding wheel is required much
less frequently.
Applications include:
sharpening of cemented carbide tools and
grinding of surgical needles, other thin wall
tubes, and fragile parts.
Electrochemical-Grinding Process
Figure 27.9 (a) Schematic illustration of the electrochemical-grinding process. (b) Thin slot
produced on a round nickel-alloy tube by this process.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Thermal energy Process
characterized by very high local temperatures
hot enough to remove material by fusion or
vaporization.
the high temperatures, cause physical and
metallurgical damage to the new work surface.
1. Electric discharge Processes
Die sink
Wirecut
2. Electron Beam Machining
3. Laser Machining & cutting
4. Plasma Arc Machining
5. Oxyfuel cutting
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
ELECTRIC DISCHARGE PROCESSES
remove metal by a series of discrete electrical
discharges (sparks)
these cause localized temperatures high
enough to melt or vaporize the metal in the
immediate vicinity.
used only on electrically conducting work
materials.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM)
The shape of the finished work surface is
produced by a formed electrode tool.
The sparks occur across a small gap between
tool and work surface.
The process takes place in a dielectric fluid.
The discharges are generated by a pulsating
direct current power supply.
The region in which discharge occurs is heated
to extremely high temperatures.
a small portion of the work surface is
suddenly melted and removed.
The flowing dielectric flushes away the small
particle.
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM)
FIGURE 26.7
Electric discharge machining (EDM): (a) overall setup, and (b) close-up view of
gap, showing discharge and metal removal.
Electrical-Discharge Machining Process
Figure 27.10 (a) Schematic illustration of the electrical-discharge machining process. This is one of the most widely used
machining processes, particularly for die-sinking applications. (b) Examples of cavities produced by the electrical-discharge
machining process, using shaped electrodes. Two round parts (rear) are the set of dies for extruding the aluminum piece shown
in front (see also Fig. 19.9b). (c) A spiral cavity produced by EDM using a slowly rotating electrode similar to a screw thread. (d)
Holes in a fuel-injection nozzle made by EDM; the material is heat-treated steel. Source: (b) Courtesy of AGIE USA Ltd.
Stepped Cavities Produced by EDM
Process
Figure 27.11 Stepped cavities produced with a square electrode by the EDM process. The workpiece
moves in the two principle horizontal directions (x y), and its motion is synchronized with the
downward movement of the electrode to produce these cavities. Also shown is a round electrode
capable of producing round or elliptical cavities. Source: Courtesy of AGIE USA Ltd.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM)
The removal of material increases the gap at
that location,
thus it is less likely to be the site of another
spark.
the individual discharges remove metal at very
localized points,
they occur hundreds or thousands of times
per second
a gradual erosion of the entire surface
occurs in the area of the gap.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM)
Two important process parameters are
discharge current and
frequency of discharges.
The best surface finish is obtained at high
frequencies and low discharge currents.
As the tool penetrates into the work,
overcutting occurs.
the distance by which the machined cavity
exceeds the size of the tool on each side.
Overcut is a function of current and frequency
(amount to several hundredths of a millimeter).
The high spark temperatures that melt the work
also melt the tool.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM)
FIGURE 26.8
(a) Surface finish in EDM as a function of discharge current and frequency of
discharges. (b) Overcut in EDM as a function of discharge current and frequency
of discharges.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM)
Tool wear is measured as the ratio of work
material removed to tool material removed
(similar to the grinding ratio).
ranges between 1.0 and 100.
Electrodes are made of graphite, copper, brass,
copper tungsten, silver tungsten, and other
materials.
The selection depends on
the type of power supply circuit,
the type of work material, and
whether roughing or finishing is to be done.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM)
Graphite is preferred for many applications
because it does not melt.
It vaporizes at very high temperatures, and
the cavity created by the spark is generally
smaller than for most other materials.
a high ratio of work material removed to tool
wear.
The hardness and strength of the work material
are not factors in EDM.
The melting point of the work material is an
important property.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM)
metal removal rate can be related to melting
point approximately by the following empirical
formula,


where
RMR = metal removal rate, mm
3
/s;
K = constant of proportionality whose value= 664
in SI units;
I = discharge current,amps; and
T
m
= melting temperature of work metal, C.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM)
Dielectric fluids used include
hydrocarbon oils,
kerosene, and
distilled or deionized water.
It serves as
an insulator in the gap (except when ionization
occurs in the presence of a spark).
flush debris out of the gap and
remove heat from tool and workpart.

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM)
Applications include
tool fabrication and
parts production.
The tooling for many of the mechanical processes
are often made by EDM, including
molds for plastic injection molding,
extrusion dies,
wire drawing dies,
forging and heading dies, and
sheet metal stamping dies.
Electric Discharge Machining (EDM)
As in ECM, the term die sinking used for
producing a mold cavity, is sometimes referred to
as ram EDM.
the materials used to fabricate the tooling are
difficult (or impossible) to machine by
conventional methods.
Certain production parts also call for application
of EDM.
delicate parts that are not rigid enough to
withstand conventional cutting forces,
hole drilling where the axis of the hole is at an
acute angle to the surface, and
production machining of hard and exotic
metals.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Wire Cutting (EDWC)
Commonly called wire EDM,
It uses a small diameter wire as the electrode to
cut a narrow kerf in the work.
The cutting action is achieved by thermal energy
from electric discharges between the wire and the
workpiece.
The workpiece is fed past the wire along the
desired path, similar to a bandsaw operation.
the wire is slowly and continuously advanced
between a supply and take-up spool to present a
fresh electrode of constant diameter to the work.
This maintains a constant kerf width during
cutting.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Wire Cutting (EDWC)
FIGURE 26.9
Electric discharge wire cutting (EDWC), also called wire EDM.
The Wire EDM Process
Figure 27.12 Schematic illustration of the wire EDM
process. As many as 50 hours of machining can be
performed with one reel of wire, which is then discarded.
Metal removal rate:
MRR= 4x10
4
IT
w
1. 23
where
I=current in amperes
T
w
= melting temperature of workpiece, C
Wire EDM
(a) (b)
Figure 27.13 (a) Cutting a thick plate with wire EDM. (b) A computer-controlled wire EDM
machine. Source: Courtesy of AGIE USA Ltd.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Wire Cutting (EDWC)
A dielectric is applied by nozzles directed at the
toolwork interface, or the workpart is submerged
in a its bath.
Wire diameters range from 0.076 to 0.30 mm,
depending on kerf width.
Materials used for the wire include brass, copper,
tungsten, and molybdenum.
Dielectric fluids include deionized water or oil.
As in EDM, an overcut exists that makes the kerf
larger than the wire diameter.
overcut is in the range 0.020 to 0.050 mm.
Once cutting conditions are established, overcut
remains fairly constant and predictable.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Wire Cutting (EDWC)
FIGURE 26.10
Denition of kerf and overcut in electric discharge wire cutting.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Wire Cutting (EDWC)
Although EDWC seems similar to a bandsaw
operation, its precision far exceeds that of a
bandsaw.
The kerf is much narrower,
corners can be made much sharper, and
the cutting forces against the work are nil.
hardness and toughness of the work material
do not affect cutting performance.
The only requirement is that the work material
must be electrically conductive.

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Electric Discharge Wire Cutting (EDWC)
The special features make it ideal for making
stamping dies.
Because of narrow kerf, it is often possible to
fabricate punch and die in a single cut.
Other applications include, tools and parts with
intricate outline shapes
lathe form tools,
extrusion dies, and
flat templates.
Electric Discharge Wire Cutting (EDWC)
FIGURE 26.11
Irregular outline cut from a solid metal slab by
wire EDM. (Photo courtesy of LeBlond
Makino Machine Tool Company, Amelia,
Ohio.)
2007 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 3/e
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
ELECTRON BEAM MACHINING (EBM)
One of several industrial processes that use
electron beams.
other applications include heat treating,
welding and free form fabrication.
It uses a high velocity stream of electrons
focused on the workpiece to remove material by
melting and vaporization.
An electron beam gun generates a continuous
stream of electrons
accelerated to approximately 75% of the
speed of light
focused through an electromagnetic lens on
the work surface.
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ELECTRON BEAM MACHINING (EBM)
FIGURE 26.12
Electron beam machining (EBM).
Electron-Beam Machining Process
Figure 27.15 Schematic illustration of the electron-beam machining process.
Unlike LBM, this process requires a vacuum, so workpiece size is limited to the
size of the vacuum chamber.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
ELECTRON BEAM MACHINING (EBM)
The lens is capable of reducing the area of the
beam to a diameter as small as 0.025 mm.
On impinging, the kinetic energy of the electrons
is converted into thermal energy of extremely
high density that melts or vaporizes the material
in a very localized area.
Applications include
high-precision cutting of any known material.
drilling extremely small diameter holes; down
to 0.05 mm,
drilling of holes with very high depth-to-
diameter ratiosmore than 100:1, and
cutting slots that are about 0.025 mm wide
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
ELECTRON BEAM MACHINING (EBM)
cuts can be made to very close tolerances with
no cutting forces or tool wear.
The process is ideal for micromachining.
limitations:
carried out in a vacuum chamber to eliminate
collision of the electrons with gas molecules.
high energy requirement and
expensive equipment.

2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
The term laser stands for light amplification by
stimulated emission of radiation.
It is an optical transducer that converts electrical
energy into a highly coherent light beam.
A laser light beam
is monochromatic (single wave length) and
highly collimated (the light rays in the beam
are almost perfectly parallel).
using conventional optical lenses, a laser can be
focused onto a very small spot with high power
densities.
Laser Beam Machining (LBM)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Laser Beam Machining (LBM)
FIGURE 26.13
Laser beam machining
(LBM).
Laser-Beam
Machining
(LBM)
Figure 27.14 (a) Schematic illustration of
the laser-beam machining process. (b)
and (c) Examples of holes produced in
nonmetallic parts by LBM. (d) Cutting
sheet metal with a laser beam. Source:
(d) Courtesy of Rofin-Sinar, Inc.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
LBM uses the light energy from a laser to remove
material by vaporization and ablation.
The types of lasers used are
carbon dioxide gas lasers and
solid-state lasers.
the energy of the coherent light beam is
concentrated not only optically but also in terms
of time.
The light beam is pulsed so that the released
energy results in an impulse against the work
surface
the melted material evacuating the surface at
high velocity.
Laser Beam Machining (LBM)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
It is used to perform various types of drilling,
slitting, slotting, scribing, and marking operations.
Drilling small diameter holes is possibledown to
0.025 mm.
For larger holes (above 0.50-mm) the laser beam
cut the outline of the hole.
not considered a mass production process.
generally used on thin stock.
Laser Beam Machining (LBM)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
The range of work materials that can be
machined is virtually unlimited.
Ideal properties of a material for LBM include
high light energy absorption,
poor reflectivity,
good thermal conductivity,
low specific heat, low heat of fusion, and
low heat of vaporization.
Of course, no material has this ideal combination of properties.
The actual list of work materials includes metals
with high hardness and strength, soft metals,
ceramics, glass and glass epoxy, plastics, rubber,
cloth, and wood.
Laser Beam Machining (LBM)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Most arc-cutting processes use the heat
generated by an arc between an electrode and a
metallic workpart (usually a flat plate or sheet) to
melt a kerf that separates the part.
The most common arc-cutting processes are
1.plasma arc cutting and
2.air carbon arc cutting.
3.other Arc-cutting processes


ARC-CUTTING PROCESSES
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
A plasma is a superheated, electrically ionized
gas.
PAC uses a plasma stream operating at
temperatures in the range 10,000
o
C to
14,000
o
C to cut metal by melting.
operates by directing the high-velocity plasma
stream at the work,
thus melting it and
blowing the molten metal through the kerf.
The arc is generated between an electrode and
the anode workpiece.
The plasma flows through a water-cooled nozzle.
Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC)
FIGURE 26.14
Plasma arc cutting (PAC).
Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
The plasma jet is a high-velocity, collimated
stream with extremely high temperatures at its
center,
hot enough to cut through metal in some
cases 150 mm (6 in) thick.
Gases used in PAC include nitrogen, argon,
hydrogen, or mixtures of these gases.
These are referred to as the primary gases.
Secondary gases or water are often directed to
surround the plasma jet to confine the arc and
clean the kerf of molten metal as it forms.
Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Application: cutting of flat metal sheets and
plates.
Operations:
manually by hand-held torch, or
by the torch under numerical control (NC).
can be used to cut nearly any electrically
conductive metal.
Metals frequently cut include plain carbon
steel, stainless steel,and aluminum.
For NC applications feed rates for 6-mm thick
plate can be as high as
200 mm/s aluminum and
85 mm/s steel plate.
Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Feed rates must be reduced for thicker stock.
e.g. the maximum feed rate for cutting 100-
mm thick aluminum stock is around 8 mm/s.
Disadvantages:
1.the cut surface is rough, and
2.metallurgical damage at the surface is the
most severe among the nontraditional
metalworking processes.


Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
In this process,
the arc is generated between a carbon
electrode and the metallic work, and
a high-velocity air jet is used to blow away the
melted portion of the metal.
It can be used
to form a kerf for cut the piece, or
to gouge a cavity in the part.
Gouging is used to prepare the edges of
plates for welding.
Air Carbon Arc Cutting
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
used on a variety of metals, including
cast iron,
carbon steel,
low alloy,
stainless steels, and
various nonferrous alloys.
Spattering of the molten metal is a hazard and a
disadvantage of the process.
Air Carbon Arc Cutting
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
1. gas metal arc cutting,
2. shielded metal arc cutting,
3. gas tungsten arc cutting, and
4. carbon arc cutting.
Other Arc-Cutting Processes
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
A widely used family of thermal cutting processes,
popularly known as flame cutting.
use the heat of combustion of certain fuel
gases combined with
the exothermic reaction of the metal with
oxygen (primary mechanism)
The cutting torch deliver a mixture of fuel gas and
oxygen in the proper amounts, and direct a
stream of oxygen to the cutting region.
The purpose of the oxyfuel combustion is to raise
the temperature in the region of cutting to support
the reaction.
It is performed either manually or by machine.
OXYFUEL-CUTTING PROCESSES
(OFC)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
commonly used to cut ferrous metal plates, with
the following reactions:





The second reaction is the most significant in
terms of heat generation.
OXYFUEL-CUTTING PROCESSES
(OFC)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
cutting of nonferrous metals is different.
generally characterized by lower melting
temperatures than the ferrous metals, and
more oxidation resistant.
the heat of combustion plays a more important
role in creating the kerf.
to promote the metal oxidation reaction, chemical
fluxes or metallic powders are added to the
oxygen stream.
OXYFUEL-CUTTING PROCESSES
(OFC)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Fuels used in OFC include
acetylene (C
2
H
2
),
MAPP (methylacetylene-propadiene C
3
H
4
),
propylene (C
3
H
6
), and
propane (C
3
H
8
).
Acetylene burns at the highest flame temperature
and is the most widely used fuel for welding and
cutting.
However, there are storage and handling
hazards
OXYFUEL-CUTTING PROCESSES
(OFC)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
material is removed by means of a strong
chemical etchant.
include
chemical milling,
chemical blanking,
chemical engraving, and
photochemical machining (PCM).

CHEMICAL MACHINING (CHM)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
1. Cleaning.
first step
ensures that material will be removed
uniformly.
2. Masking.
A protective coating called a maskant, made of
a material chemically resistant to the etchant.
applied to those portions of the work surface
that are not to be etched.
Maskant materials include neoprene,
polyvinylchloride, polyethylene, and other
polymers.
Mechanics and Chemistry of CHM
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
1. Etching.
material removal step.
part is immersed in an etchant that chemically
attacks portions that are not masked.
When the desired amount of material has been
removed, the part is withdrawn from the etchant
and washed.
2. Demasking.
The maskant is removed from the part.
Mechanics and Chemistry of CHM
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Masking can be accomplished by any of three
methods:
1. cut and peel,
2. photographic resist, and
3. screen resist.
1- Cut and peel
maskant is applied over the entire part by
dipping,
painting, or
spraying.
The resulting thickness of the maskant is 0.025 to
0.125 mm.
Masking Methods
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
After it has hardened, the maskant peeled by a
knife in the areas to be etched.
performed by hand, usually guiding the knife
with a template.
generally used for
large workparts,
low production quantities, and
where accuracy is not critical.
cannot hold tolerances tighter than 0.125 mm.

1- Cut and peel
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
It uses photographic techniques to perform
masking.
contain photosensitive chemicals.
applied to the work surface and exposed to
light through a negative.
These areas can then be removed from the
surface using developing techniques.
This leaves desired surfaces of the part
protected by the maskant and
the remaining areas unprotected, vulnerable to
chemical etching.
2- Photographic Resist (Photoresist)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
normally applied where small parts are produced
in high quantities, and
Close tolerances are required.
Tolerances closer than 0.0125 mm can be
held
2- Photographic Resist (Photoresist)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
The maskant is applied by means of silk
screening methods.
the maskant is painted onto the workpart
surface through a silk or stainless steel mesh.
Embedded in the mesh is a stencil.
The maskant is thus painted onto the work
areas that are not to be etched.
generally used in applications in between the
other two methods in terms of accuracy, part size,
and production quantities.
Tolerances of 0.075 mm can be achieved.


3- Screen Resist
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Material removal rates are generally indicated as
penetration rates, mm/min,
because rate of chemical attack of the work
material by the etchant is directed into the
surface.
The penetration rate is unaffected by surface
area.
Depths of cut are as much as 12.5 mm.
However, many applications require depths
only several hundredths of a millimeter.
Mechanics and Chemistry of CHM
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Along with penetration into the work, etching also
occurs sideways under the maskant.
The effect is referred to as the undercut, and
it must be accounted for in the design of the
mask.




the undercut is directly related to the depth of cut.
etch factor:
Mechanics and Chemistry of CHM
Chemical-Machining
Figure 27.3 (a) Schematic illustration of the chemical-machining process. Note that no forces or machine
tools are involved in this process. (b) Stages in producing a profiled cavity by chemical machining; note the
undercut.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
It is used largely to remove material from aircraft
wing and fuselage panels for weight reduction.
applicable to large parts where substantial metal
is removed.
surface finish varies with different work materials.
Surface finish depends on depth of penetration.
As depth increases, finish becomes worse,
Metallurgical damage from chemical milling is
very small, perhaps around 0.005 mm into the
work surface.
The cut and peel maskant method is employed
Chemical Milling
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Chemical Milling
FIGURE 26.16
Sequence of processing steps in chemical milling: (1) clean raw part, (2) apply
maskant, (3) scribe, cut, and peel the maskant from areas to be etched, (4) etch,
and (5) remove maskant and clean to yield finished part.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Chemical Milling
Chemical Milling
Figure 27.2 (a) Missile skin-panel section contoured by chemical milling to improve the stiffness-to-weight ratio
of the part. (b) Weight reduction of space-launch vehicles by the chemical milling of aluminum-alloy plates.
These panels are chemically milled after the plates first have been formed into shape by a process such as roll
forming or stretch forming. The design of the chemically machined rib patterns can be modified readily at minimal
cost.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
It uses chemical erosion to cut
very thin sheetmetal partsdown to 0.025 mm
thick and/or
for intricate cutting patterns.
In both instances, conventional punch-and-die
methods do not work because
the stamping forces damage the sheet metal,
the tooling cost would be prohibitive, or
both.
It produces burr free parts.
Maximum stock thickness is around 0.75 mm.
Also, hardened and brittle materials can be
processed.
Chemical Blanking
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Chemical Blanking
FIGURE 26.17
Sequence of processing steps in chemical milling: (1) clean raw part, (2) apply
maskant, (3) scribe, cut, and peel the maskant from areas to be etched, (4)
etch, and (5) remove maskant and clean to yield finished part.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Maskant is applied either by the photoresist
method or the screen resist method.
Tolerances as close as 0.0025 mm can be held
on 0.025mm thick stock
As stock thickness increases, more generous
tolerances must be allowed.
Because chemical etching takes place on both
sides, it is important that the masking procedure
provides accurate registration between the two
sides.
Otherwise, the erosion into the part from
opposite directions will not line up.
This is especially critical with small part sizes and
intricate patterns.
Chemical Blanking
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
FIGURE 26.18 Parts made by chemical blanking. (Courtesy of Buckbee-
Mears, St.Paul.)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
It is a chemical machining process for making
name plates and other flat panels that have
lettering and/or artwork on one side.
It can be used to make either recessed lettering
or raised lettering.
Masking is done by either the photoresist or
screen resist methods.
Chemical Engraving
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Chemical machining in which the photoresist
method is used.
The term can be applied correctly to chemical
blanking and chemical engraving when these
photographic resist method.
employed in metalworking when close tolerances
and/or intricate patterns are required.
These processes are also used extensively in
the electronics industry to produce intricate circuit
designs on semi-conductor wafers.
the term etch factor here correspond to
anisotropy,
defined as the depth of cut d divided by the
undercut
Photochemical Machining (PCM)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
Photochemical Machining (PCM)
FIGURE 26.19
Sequence of processing steps in photochemical machining: (1) clean raw part; (2) apply resist (maskant) by dipping, spraying,
or painting; (3) place negative on resist; (4) expose to ultraviolet light; (5) develop to remove resist from areas to be etched; (6)
etch (shown partially etched); (7) etch (completed); (8) remove resist and clean to yield nished part.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
There are various ways to photographic exposure
The figure shows the negative in contact with the
surface of the resist during exposure.
This is contact printing,
but other methods expose the negative through a
lens system to enlarge or reduce the size of the
pattern printed on the resist surface.
Photoresist materials in current use are sensitive
to ultraviolet light but not to light of other
wavelengths.
Therefore, no need to carry out the processing
steps in dark
Photochemical Machining (PCM)
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
A, Good application;
B, fair application,
C, poor application;
D, not applicable; and
blank entries indicate no data available during compilation.
2010 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. M P Groover, Fundamentals of Modern Manufacturing 4/e
APPLICATION CONSIDERATIONS
A, Excellent;
B, good,
C, fair,
D, poor.