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carbon, oxygen, hydrogen,

nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium,


calcium, magnesium
chlorine, iron, boron, manganese,
zinc, copper, molybdenum, nickel
Soil
Determines plant growth & variety
Composition/horizons:
topsoil (rock particles, living organisms, humus-
partially decayed organic material)
loams (equal amounts of sand, silt, and clay)

List the importance of
macronutrient and
micronutrient for healthy plant
growth
Deficiency
Nitrogen deficiency
Potassium deficiency
Ferum deficiency
Manganese deficiency
Photosynthesis is the process
by which organisms convert
solar energy to chemical energy
LEAF STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
8.
7.
Formula leaf structure
Cut misai pak usop supaya x pikat
gadis tamil
Leaf lamina
Thin & flat
Large surface area

Function
Sunlight can penetrate easily.
Epidermis & cuticle
Coated with cuticle waxy
waterproof

Function
1. Help to prevent excessive water
loss
2. Transparent allow light to enter
Palisade mesophyll
Packed tightly together
High density of chloroplast
Trap sunlight for photosynthesis
Spongy mesophyll
Irregular shape
Loosely arranged and
have air spaces

for gaseous exchange

Allow easy diffusion of
water and carbon
dioxide
Vascular bundle
Xylem - transport
water and mineral ion to
leaf

Phloem - transport
organic product of
photosynthesis away
from leaf
Stomata and guard cell
Numerous at lower part

Stoma
Gas exchange
Carbon dioxide from atmosphere
diffuses into the leaf

Oxygen diffuses out

The opening controlled by guard cell

Draw and label the cross section of the leaf
ADAPTATION OF PLANTS
FROM DIFFERENT HABITATS
TO CARRY OUT
PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Land plants
Have large number
of stomata on the
lower surface of the
leaf
max absorption of
CO2

Most chloroplast
found in palisade
and spongy
mesophyll


Water plants
Plant can float because it has
aerenchyma tissue in the stem &
leaves

Aerenchyma consist of many air
spaces. It provide buoyancy so that
the plant can float.

The fibrous roots spread on the water
surface to prevent plant flipping over

The stem are big and swollen to
increase air content

The leaves and stem waterproff
water cannot absorbed into cells
Cactus
Reduced leaves with
sunken stomata
prevent water loss
through transpiration

Leaves modified into
thorns

Absorb and store CO2
during the night.

Co2 is used during the
day when stomata
closed
THE PARTS OF
CHLOROPLAST IN RELATION
TO PHOTOSYNTHESIS
Chloroplast
Contain green pigment called
chlorophyll
to absorb light
High density of the chloroplast in
palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll
and guard cells -- carry out
photosynthesis
Contains chlorophyll
cytoplasm
How the plant from different habitat adapted to
carry out photosynthesis?
Desert plant problems:
Too dry not enough water
Too hot so much sunlight/ loss of water
Succulent stem store water
Less / no leaves less transpiration
Sunken stomata less transpiration
Water plant problems:
Too much water
Not enough light
Big wide spread leaves
Float
Stomata on top


1.10 Understanding photosynthesisA student is able to:
Describe the development that leads to the discovery of photosynthesis
State the substances required and the substances produced from photosynthesis
Draw and label the cross-section of a leaf
State the function of each part of the leaf with respect to photosynthesis
Explain how plants from different habitats are adapted to carry out photosynthesis
1.11 Understanding the mechanism of photosynthesisA student is able to:
Identify parts of chloroplast related to photosynthesis
Explain the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis, compare and contrast, relate both the reactions
Write the equation representing the proses of photosynthesis
1.12 Synthesising factors affecting photosynthesisA student is able to:
Identify factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis
Identify the factor that limits the rate of photosynthesis at different light intensity
Explain the effects of temperature and concentration of carbon dioxide on the rate of photosynthesis
Explain the difference in the rate of photosynthesis in plants throughout the day based on the changes
in light intensiy and temperature
Explain some ways of meeting the need of increasing the productivity of crops
1.13 Practising a caring attitude towards plantsA student is able to:
Tell why we need to take good care of plants
Identify cases of mishandling or destruction of plants
1.14 Understanding the technology used in food productionA student is able to:
Explain the need for improving the quality and quantity of food
Explain the effort to diversify food production
Explain ways to improve the quality and quantity of food production in the country

Photosynthesis occurs in chloroplast
Two stages: light reaction need light in grana
dark reaction happen in light or dark in stroma
Light reaction
Occurs only in the presence of light, in grana
Chlorophyll captures light and become
exited
Electron leaves the chlorophyll.
Light energy causes the water molecules to
split into hydrogen ions and hydroxyl ions
Photolysis of water
Hydrogen ion receives electron from
chlorophyll and become atom
Hydroxyl ion gives electron to chlorophyll.


ATP and hydrogen atom move to the stroma
Hydrogen atom will react with carbon
dioxide to form sugar
Photosynthetic enzyme involves
[CH2O] is the basic unit for glucose
6H2O + 6CO2


C6H12O6
Discuss the differences light reaction and dark
reaction:
Factors Affecting Photosynthesis

Light intensity
Concentration of carbon dioxide
Temperature


Temperature
Light intensity
Limiting factors :
concentration of CO2
and temperature.

At very high light
intensity, rate of p/sis
slow down because
the pigment
chlorophyll is
damaged by
ultraviolet rays.
Concentration of carbon dioxide
Limiting factor: light intensity.
Improving food production
group discussion and presentation:
Diversify food production
Improve quality
Improve quantity
WAYS TO IMPROVE QUALITY &
QUANTITY FOOD PRODUCTION IN
COUNTRY
Hydroponics

Aeroponics

Breeding of oil palm

Fresh food can last only for a short time,
easily spoilt.
Need to be processed in order to last
longer
Technology for food processing :
Changing raw food materials to other forms
Adding certain chemical
The necessity for food processing are :
Destroying m/organisms
Extending the lifespan of food
Avoiding food wastage
Diversifying the uses of food, like milk & dairy
products
Ensuring sufficient food supply because
processed food can last longer & they can be
easily sent to places with insufficient food
supply
FOOD PROCESSING METHODS
Cooking (to kill the bad bacteria)
Using salt, sugar & vinegar (osmosis)
Fermentation process (yeast is used glucose
ethanol + CO2)
Drying (dehydration)
Pasteurisation (heated to certain temp and
rapid cooling)- kill m/org except bacteria spore
Canning (sterilised at high temp, above 120oC,
the container is vacuum to kill bacteria,
prevent bacteria from growing)
Refrigeration (slow down the action of
microorganism, temp low to -15oC)
Pickling soaked in acidic solution
UHT treatment heated under high pressure-
kill bacteria spore