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# Gears

## What we need to Know about them.

1. Type of gears
2. Terminologies or nomenclatures
3. Forces transmitted
4. esign of a gear bo!
Type of Gears
"
#purs
"
\$elical
"
%e&el
"
'nd Worm Gears
#pur Gears
're used in transmitting tor(ue between parallel shafts
\$elical Gears
're used in transmitting tor(ues between parallel or non
parallel shafts) they are not as noisy as spur gears
Fig. 13.2
%e&el Gears
"
're used to transmit
rotary motion
between intersecting
shafts
Teeth are formed on conical
surfaces) the teeth could be
straight or spiral.
Worm Gears
're used for transmitting motion between non parallel
and non transmitting shafts) epending on the number of
teeth engaged called single or double. Worm gear mostly
used when speed ratio is (uiet high) 3 or more
*omenclature
#maller Gear is +inion and ,arger one is the gear
-n most application the pinion is the dri&er) This reduces
speed but it increases tor(ue.
-nternal #pur Gear #ystem
pitch circle) theoretical circle upon which all calculation is based
p) .ircular pitch) p the distance from one teeth to the ne!t) along
the pitch circle. p/0d1*
m) module/d1* pitch circle1number of teeth
p/ 0m
+) iametral +itch +/*1d
p+/ 0
'ngle 2 has the &alues of 23 or 24 degrees. 'ngle 14.4
ha&e been also used.
Gear profile is constructed from the base circle. Then
\$ow Gear +rofile is constructed
'
1
%
1
/'
1
'
3
) '
2
%
2
/2 '
1
'
3
) etc
#tandard Gear Teeth
-tem 23
o
full depth 23
o
#tub 24
o
full depth
'ddendum a 11+ 3.51+ 11+
edendum 1.241+ 11+ 1.241+
.learance f 3.241+ 3.21+ 3.241+
Wor6ing depth 21+ 1.71+ 21+
Whole depth 2.241+ 1.51+ 2.241+
Tooth thic6ness 1.4811+ 1.4811+ 1.4811+
Face width 91+:b:131+ 91+:b:131+ 91+:b:131+
Gear Trains
) )( )( (
5
4
4
3
2
1
1
5
N
N
N
N
N
N
n
n
=
+lanetary Gear train
;ou can get high tor(ue ratio in a smaller space
There are two inputs to the planetary gears) <+= of sun and <ing)
The out put is the speed of the arm.
>!ample of planetary Gear train
Gear 1) sun ) <+= 1233) *umber of teeth 23)
+lanet Gear ) *umber of teeth 33
<ing Gear) <otates <+= 123) and teeth of 53)
? horse power) find the speed of the arm and tor(ue on the ring.
'lternati&ely you may ha&e .ertain @ut put Tor(ue
re(uirements
"
With a pair of gears or gear sets) +ower is
transmitted by the force de&eloped between
contacting Teeth
d in) <+= re&.1min) A
in1sec
d in) n rpm) A fpm
9549 1000
33000
63000
12
60
2
* 2 /
sin
cos
Tn V F
KW
V
hp
F
Tn
hp
dn
V
RPM
d d V
F F
F F
t
t
n r
n t
= =
=
=
=
= =
=
=

To(ue lbBin
A fpm
T/ *.m) A m1s) F *ewton
These forces
ha&e to be
corrected for
dynamic effects )
we discuss later)
considering
'G=' factors
#ome Cseful <elations
"
F/33333hp1A A fpm >nglish system
"
=etric #ystem
"
KW/DFAE11333/Tn19449
"
F newton) A m1s) n rpm) T) *.m
"
hp/ FA1844.8/Tn18121
%ending #trength of the a Gear Tooth
>arlier #tress 'nalysis of the Gear Tooth was based on
' full load is applied to the tip of a single tooth
The load is uniform across the width
*eglect frictional forces
The stress concentration is negligible
This e(uation does not consider stress concentration)
dynamic effects) etc.
2 3
6
12 /
2 / ) (
bt
F
bt
t L F
I
Mc
t t
= = =
esign for the %ending #trength of a Gear
ToothF The 'G=' =ethod
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
J
K
K
m
b
P
K
K
F
J
K K
bm
K K F
J
K K
b
P
K K F
m
s
v
t
m s
v t
m s
v t
0
0
0
0 . 1

C.#. .ustomary
#- units
%ending stress at the root of the tooth
Aelocity factor
iameteral pitch) +
Face width
=etric modue
#iGe factor
=ounting factor
Geometry factor
;our stress should not e!ceed
allowable stress
=
=
=
=
=
=
R
T
L
t
all
R T
L t
all
K
K
K
S
K K
K S

## 'llowable bending stress

%ending #trength
,ife factor
Temperature factor
<eliability factor
o
ynamic Factor B K
&
B-mpact strength depends on (uality of the gear and the speed of
gear teeth Dpitch line &elocityE
BGears are classified with respect to manufacturing tolerancesF
BH
&
3 I 8) commercial (uality
BH
&
5 I 12) precision
BGraphs are a&ailable which chart K
&
for different (uality factors
m
BFailure greatly depends on how load is distributed across face
B'ccurate mounting helps ensure e&en distribution
BFor larger face widths e&en distribution is difficult to attain
B*ote formula depends on face width which has to be estimated for initial iteration
BForm goalF b :
p
J 7 : bK+ : 17
<eliability Factor B K
<
B'dLusts for reliability other than 99M
B K
<
/ 3.745 I 3.3849 ln D1B<E 3.4 : < :3.99
B K
<
/ 3.43 I 3.139 ln D1B<E 3.99 : < : 3.9999
'G=' Geometry Factor B N
BCpdated ,ewis Form Factor includes effect of stress concentration at fillet
Bifferent charts for different pressure angles
B'&ailable for +recision Gears where we can assume load sharing Dupper cur&esE
B\$+#T. I highest point of single tooth contact
B'ccount for meshing gear and load sharing Dcontact ratio O 1E
B#ingle tooth contact conser&ati&e assumption Dbottom cur&eE
BN / 3.311 ln * P 3.14 D23 degreeE
BN / 3.378 ln * P 3.2317 D24 degreeE
%ending #trength *o. I #
t)
Fatigue bending strength
BTabulated ata similar to fatigue strength
B<ange gi&en because &alue depends on Grade
B%ased on life of 13
8
cycles and 99M reliability
#
t
I 'nalytical >stimate
BThrough hardened steel gears
Bifferent charts for different manufacturing methods
#t / 88.3 \$
%
P 12)533
#t / 132 \$
%
P 17)433
%ending #trength ,ife FactorB K
,
B'dLusts for life goals other
than 13
8
cycles
BFatigue effects &ary with
material properties and surface
finishes
BK
,
/ 1.7531 *
B3.3323
*O3>7
*oteF Q 2333 rpm reach 3
million cycles in 1 day of
ser&ice
Example:
A conveyor rive involvin! "eavy#s"oc\$ %orsional loain! is opera%e &y an
elec%ric mo%or' %"e spee ra%io is 1:2 an %"e pinion "as (iame%eral pi%c" )*10
in
#1
' an n+m&er o, %ee%" -*1. an ,ace /i%" o, &*1.5 in. 0"e !ear "as 1rinnel
"arness o, 300 1"n. 2in %"e maxim+m "orspo/er %"a% can &e %ransmi%%e'
+sin! A34A ,orm+la.
Gear %o! esign