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CONCRETE BRIDGE

Submitted to:
Engr. Reden Hernandez

Submitted by:
Jerome C. Gatchalian
Victoriano Macalino
John Kepvin Viray
Guio Feliciano
Jojo Marin
Norben Sigua

HISTORY

It was in the 18th Century that bridge design began
to develop into a science, led by an engineering
school founded in Paris.
Its director, Jean Perronet, perfected the masonry
arch, with its low sweeping curve and slender piers.
Soon afterwards, attention switched to England
where the invention of the steam locomotive called
for stronger bridges.

In 1794, iron was first used for the chain cables of a
suspension bridge over the River Tees and 1779 saw the
first all-iron bridge over the Severn at Coalbrookdale. This
arch bridge, spanning 100ft, is still in service.
Just when the masonry arch bridge was reaching its peak
around the beginning of the 20th Century, reinforced
concrete arrived on the scene. Since then, it has become
the major construction material for bridges as it has for
most structural and civil engineering applications, with
its intrinsic versatility, design flexibility and, above all,
natural durability.
Concrete

Concrete is characterized by the type of aggregate or
cement used, by the specific qualities it manifests, or
by the methods used to produce it.

Bridges

More bridges are built using concrete than any other
material worldwide, demonstrating continued
confidence in the materials performance and
durability. Concrete bridges worldwide have a clear
track record of flexibility and versatility in terms both
of final forms and methods of construction that is
hard to match.
Benefits

Function and elegance
Durability
Versatility
Speed and build ability
Sustainability
Economy

Types of Concrete
Bridges

Arch Bridges
Reinforced Slab Bridges

Beam and Slab Bridge

Box Girder Bridge

TECHNIQUES
Techniques of construction vary according to the
actual design and situation of the bridge, there being
three main types:
Incrementally launched
Span-by-span
Balanced cantilever

Incrementally launched
Span-by-Span

Balanced Cantilever

Integral Bridges
Cable-Stayed Bridges

Suspension Bridges

Widening of Gapan
San Fernando- Olongapo (GSO) Road
and Emergency Dredging Project


DESIGN SPECIFICATION

DESIGN METHODOLOGY

Pre-casting method
Cofferdam
-Bored pile method

PRECAST CONCRETE BRIDGE

I Beams & Super Tees
-Standard beam can be pre and or post tensioned.
-Cast on site or in existing PC yard


Advantages
-Cheap
-Simple to erect
Disadvantages
-Limited in length (lat torsion buckling)
-Less efficient



COFFERDAMS

A cofferdam is defined as a temporary structure
which is constructed so as to remove water and/ or
soil from area and make it possible to carry on the
construction work under reasonably dry condition.

REQUIREMENTS OF A COFFERDAM
The cofferdams should be reasonably watertight.
It should be noted that absolute water tightness is
desired in a cofferdam.
The cofferdams should be designed for the maximum
water level and other destructive force so as to make
it stable against bursting, overturning and sliding.

The water to be excluded by a cofferdam may be either
ground water or water lying above ground level.
The materials used in the construction of a cofferdam are
earth, timber, steel and concrete.
The cofferdam is generally constructed at site of work.
The type of construction for cofferdam is depended up
on the depth, soil conditions, fluctuations in the water
level, availability of material, etc.
The cofferdams are constructed with advantage where a
large area of site is to be enclosed and the hard bed is at
reasonable depth.
USES OF COFFERDAMS

To facilitate pile driving operation
To place grillage and raft foundation
To construct foundations for piers and abutments of
bridge, dams, locks, etc;
To enclose a space for the removal of sunken vessels
To provide a working platform for the foundation of
building when water is met with; and
To provide space for carrying out the foundation work
without disturbing or damaging the adjoining structure
such as buildings, pipelines, sewers, etc.

BORED PILE METHOD

Bored pile is used for those tall buildings or massive
industrial complexes, which require foundations that
can bear the load of thousands of tons, most
probably in unstable or difficult soil conditions.
MATERIALS
1. AUGER

2. BORING MACHINE


KELLY BAR

SERVICE CRANE
THE END