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Life Processes and Living

AQA GCSE Science Double
About Your Course
This is the first lesson of your Year 10 GCSE
Biology Course. Science is worth two GCSEs
from A*A*-DD at Higher level and from CC-GG
at Foundation Level. We will discuss your tier of
entry after the Y11 Mock exam.
Biology contributes 26 2/3% towards your final
GCSE grade
20% of your final grade is an Coursework

Modules you will study: [Y10]
10.1: Cell Activity
10.2: Transport across Boundaries
10.3 Cell Division (Year 11)
10.4 Nutrition
10.5 Circulation
10.6 Breathing
10.7 Respiration
10.8 Nervous system
10.9 Homeostasis
10.11 Disease
10.13 Drugs
10.14 Plant Nutrition
10.15 Transport and Water Relations

Modules you will study [Y11]
10.16 Variation
10.17 Genetics and DNA
10.18 Controlling Inheritance
10.19 Evolution
10.20 Adoption and Competition
10.21 Human impact on the environment
10.22 Energy and Nutrient transfer
10.23 Nutrient Cycles
Lesson objectives
To recap the 7 Life Processes
To be able to start 10.1: Plant and Animal
To understand the differences between
plant and animals in terms of structure
To recall the functions of the different
parts of plants and animal cells
To be able to show this in a visual form.
HT: To understand the term Mitochondria
Life Processes
These can be remembered using the Mnemonic MRS
Movement- the ability to move from one place to another
Respiration a chemical process that takes place in
every living cell
Sensitivity the ability to respond to your environment
Nutrition turning food into energy
Excretion getting rid of waste products
Reproduction producing offspring
Growth- becoming larger in size

Features of Cells
There are 3 main parts that are common to both plants
and Animal Cells. Organise these into the headings:
Plant and Animal Cells and plant cells only.
Has a Nucleus
Has a Cell Wall
Has a Cell Membrane Has a Cytoplasm
Plant Cells Plant and Animal Cells
Has a Vacule Has Cholloroplasts
What are the functions of the Cell?

Cell Wall is made of cellulose it
strengthens and supports the cell
Chloroplasts, which contain Chlorophyll,
absorb light energy to make food through
A Vacuole is filled with cell sap [a sugar
and water solution] and it provides rigid

What are the functions of the
Cell Membrane controls what goes in and
out of the cell
Cytoplasm is where all the reactions take
A Nucleus is like the brain of the cell and
controls the activity of the cell.

What do they look like?
Additional Material for HT
Chemical Reactions are controlled by
enzymes. The cytoplasm contains special
structures called Mitochondria, which is
where most of the energy is released
during respiration.
This question is taken from a past
GCSE paper.
Give the function of these parts of a
plant cell.
Cell wall
Cells, Tissues and Organs
A group of similar cells is called a
A group of afferent tissues form a
A group of organs working together form a
Or a whole organism
Key Words:
Tissues Organ Organ System
Palisade Cells
Palisade Cells are designed for
Tall shape means a lot of surface area
exposed down the side for absorbing C0
Good chance of light hitting the
chloroplast before it reaches the
bottom of the cell.
Specialist Cells
Specialist Cells have a particular functions
that help them to carry out their job
You might be asked how a particular type
of cell is adapted to the job it does. You
will therefore need to make notes on the
following pieces of information.

Sperm Cell
1) The sperm cell - designed to fertilise eggs
A sperm cell is very small and has a little tail
which provides movement so it can swim and
find an egg to fertilise
Its head contains enzymes (in the vacuole)
which allow it to digest its way through an egg
membrane so the two nuclei can join
It contains half the number of chromosomes in
the nucleus - these carry genetic information
from the father, which will be passed on to the

Cilia Cell
4) The cilia cell - designed to stop lung damage
Cilia cells line all the air passages in your lungs
They have tiny hairs, which filter the air as it blows
The hairs sweep mucus (snot) with trapped dust and
bacteria up to the back of the throat where it is
Egg Cell
2) The ovum (egg) cell - designed to be fertilised
An ovum is large and bulky because no active
movement is needed - it just sits and waits for
the sperm to find it
It contains yolk (in the cytoplasm) which
provides a large food store needed for the
developing young organism once it's fertilised
It contains half the number of chromosomes,
which carry genetic information from the mother
- this will be passed on to the offspring
The root hair Cell
5) The root hair cell - designed for
The long hair cell increases the surface
area of the root, which helps absorption of
water and minerals
It has a really thin cell wall, which makes it
easier for minerals to pass across into the
root itself
Red Blood Cells
Doughnut shape to allow maximum O2
absorbed by the haemoglobin they
contain. The function is similar the the
Palisade Cells . They are doughnut
shaped rather than tall to allow smooth
passage through the capillaries
They are so packed with Haemoglobin that
they have no room for a Nucleus
White Blood Cells
Are specialised because they help protect
us against disease. They do this in two
By engulfing the bacteria
By producing Antibodies, which recognise
a particular type of illness the first time you
have it, so when it appears again, you will
not become ill.
This does not, however, work with viruses.

What is digestion?
Before our bodies can use the food that
we eat it must first be digested.

Definition of Digestion:
See if you can fill in the gaps on your own
Digestion is
The breakdown of large molecules (food)
into small soluble molecules. This is done
by digestive juices and enzymes. Once
food is digested it can pass through your
gut wall into your blood. Your blood then
carries the digested food all around your
body where it is used for growth,
movement and repairing cells.
How does digestion work?
Along the pathway through our body our
food is broken down into very small
molecules by digestive juices and
What happens to your food when
you swallow??
Can you label the
main parts of your
digestive system?

In table groups see if
you can label the parts
of the digestive system

The Digestive System
Did you know that when you eat an apple, a
hamburger, or anything else, your digestive
system breaks it down so your body can use
it? This system is fascinating because of the
way it works.
How the Amazing
Digestive System
Your digestive system
breaks up the nutrients so
your body has energy for
the day. It takes the
healthy stuff and uses it,
then it gets rid of the left
over stuff.
When you eat or drink a little flap comes
down so your food doesnt come out your
nose, and there is also something that
blocks your food from going down your
breathing tube. Then, it goes down your
small intestine and through your large
More About How the Digestive
System Works

Taking care of your system means eating the
right foods like fruits and vegetables, jogging
every day, riding bikes, and not eat lots of
chocolate. Eat mostly healthy stuff like we listed.
You can use the Food Guide Pyramid to check if
you are eating the right foods. Thats how you
take care of your system.
Caring for Your Digestive
Food Guide Pyramid
The entire digestive system 30 feet long.
An adults intestines are 25 feet long. The
intestines of a horse are 89 feet long.
Food stays in the digestive system for up to 24
It takes 3 hours for food to pass through your
digestive system.
Amazing Facts
More Amazing
Your system turns food into useful
stuff for your body.
Chewing food like steak takes about
5-30 seconds.
Swallowing takes about 10 seconds.
Respiratory System
Process of air exchange
Oxygen is obtained and carbon dioxide is
Gas exchange occurs in the alveoli
Four parts of respiration
Ventilation movement of air between the
atmosphere and alveoli
Perfusion blood flow through the lungs
Diffusion oxygen and carbon dioxide are
transferred between alveoli and blood
Regulation respiratory muscles and nervous
Respiratory Tract
Nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi
Series of tubes that function as airway
Filter, warm and humidify incoming air
Contain the tonsils normal function is to
fight infection
Larynx voice box

Flexible cartilage supported flap that covers
the opening of the trachea or (glottis).
It automatically closes the opening to the
trachea during swallowing.
If you eat food to fast it can get lodged in the

Heimlich Maneuver
Used to pop food out and back into the
Heimlich Maneuver
Heimlich Maneuver - Infant
Trachea is lined with ciliated columnar
epithelium and mucous cells.
The chronic cough of smokers is caused by
damage to cilia.
Cilia - Smokers
Right side has 3 lobes
Left side 2 lobes
Contains the lower respiratory structures
Definition: The bronchi are small air
passages, composed of hyaline cartilage,
that extend from the trachea to the
bronchioles. There are two bronchi in the
human body that branch off from the trachea.
The bronchi are lined with mucous
membranes that secrete mucus and cilia that
sweep the mucus and particles up and out of
the airways.
Have a very thin membrane that allows rapid
diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide
between capillary blood and alveolar air
Lined with surfactant to prevent alveolar

Essential fluid that lines the alveoli and
smallest bronchioles.
Reduces surface tension of the lung allowing
the oxygen and carbon dioxide across the
Oxygen Exchange
Lack of Surfactant
Lack of Surfactant
Premature infants can have Respiratory
Distress Syndrome due to immaturity of
Persons with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary
Disease (COPD).
Nervous System Role
Nervous system regulates the rate and depth
of respirations.
Medulla oblongata is the respiratory control
system of the brain.
Cough reflex is stimulated by nervous
Disorders of Respiratory System
Infections: bronchiolitis or pneumonia
Allergic disorders
Inflammatory disorders
Obstructive airway disorders
Bronchial pulmonary dysplasia premature
Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)
Injury to lungs
Drugs for Asthma and
Broncho-constrictive Disorders
Chapter 44
Airway disorder characterized by
Hyper-reactivity to various stimuli - trigger
Clinical Manifestations - Asthma
Dyspnea difficulty breathing
Chest tightness
Cough chronic cough may be the only
Sputum production
Precipitating Factors - Triggers
Viral infections especially with infants and
young children
GERD Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease
Cigarette smoke
Smoggy air smoke from fires
Windy weather hot and dry Santa Ana
Acute reaction to some trigger reversible
with treatment
Mast cells release substances that cause
inflammation and constriction
Broncho-constriction or bronchospasm
Spasm aggravated by inflammation, mucosal
edema and excessive mucus.

Drug to Treat Asthma
Mild symptoms: short-acting beta2 agonist
every 4 to 6 hours.
Moderate to severe exacerbation: short-
acting beta2 agonist plus oral corticosteroids.
For seasonal allergy induced asthma
Cromolyn Sodium can be added.
Quick Relief
Short-acting, inhaled, beta 2 agonist, 2-5
puffs as needed.
Albuterol, levalbuterol, Proventil
Classification Pharmacologic: adrenergic
Classification Therapeutic: bronchodilator
Action: binds to beta2 adrenergic receptors in
airway smooth muscle. Decreased
intracellular calcium relaxes smooth muscle
airways. Relaxation of airway smooth muscle
with subsequent bronchodilation. Relatively
selective for beta 2 (pulmonary) receptors.
Beta 2 Agonist
Side effects: nervousness, restlessness,
tremor, chest pain and palpitations.
Nursing implications:
Assess lung sounds, pulse and blood pressure.
Monitor pulmonary function tests.
Observe for bronchospasm listen for wheezing.
Beta2 Agonist
Rescue drug short acting beta2- adrenergic
agonist used for prevention and treatment of
Onset 15 to 30 minutes
Peak 60 to 90 minutes
Duration 3-6 hours

How Provided
Provided in extended-release tablet
Albuterol syrup
Nebulizer or dry powder inhaler
Often used in exercise induced asthma
Take 15 minutes before exercise
Albuterol INH - Nebulizer
Directions for use of inhaler
Shake well
Exhale (breathe out) through your nose while
keeping mouth shut
Close lips around mouth piece
Take slow, deep breath through the
mouthpiece as you press down on container
to release the medication
Hold breath for 5-10 seconds
Exhale slowly
May give up to 3 treatments at 20 minute
If no relief need to call PMD or go to ED
Long Term Control
Symptoms 2 days/week or less
Treat acute exacerbations with
Beta 2 agonist
Short course of systemic corticosteroid

Mild Persistent Asthma
Along with Beta 2 short term add:
Low-dose inhaled corticosteroids
Leukotriene modifier
Theophylline PO (not used as often)

Moderate Persistent Asthma
Daily symptoms
Inhaled corticosteroids
Long-acting beta 2 agonist
Leukotriene or theophylline
Long term control of asthma
Inhaled by Nebulizer or metered dose inhaler
For an infant hold the Nebulizer with a firm fitting
mask to the infant or small childs face
Metered dose have client rinse and spit after
dose to avoid developing thrush

Action of Corticosteroids
Suppress inflammation in the airways by
Movement of fluid and protein into tissues
Migration and function of neutrophils and
eosinophils WBCs
Synthesis of histamine in mast cells
Production of pro-inflammatory substances

Severe asthma used when multiple doses
of inhaled beta2 agonists are not beneficial
PO prednisone
IV methyl prednisone
In chronic asthma inhaled
COPD not as effective as the acute /
chronic asthma

When to call MD or go to ED
Tight chest wheezing difficulty breathing
Symptoms not relieved by home meds.
3 treatments with short-acting beta 2 agonist
such as albuterol with no relief.
Emergency Treatment
Epinephrine IV or Sub Q
For life threatening asthma when inhaled
short acting beta 2 drugs have been tried
either prior to coming to the ED or in the ED.
IV corticosteroids methyl prednisone or
Epinephrine 1 to 10,000 or 0.1 mg/mL
Epinephrine 1:1000 - 1 mg/mL
Intermediate Acting Corticosteroid
Brand name: Solu-medrol
Classification Pharmacologic: corticosteroid
Classification Therapeutic: antiasthmatic
Action: Suppresses inflammation and the
normal immune response.
Adult dosing: 40 to 250 mg every 4 to 6 hours
Pediatric dosing: 2 mg / kg / dose in asthma.
Peak expiratory flow measurements: used to
document severity as well as to serve as a
baseline to measure improvement.
Pulse Oximetry
WBC: eosinophils will be elevated if allergy
Arterial blood gas
Chest x-ray
Peak Flow Meter
Hyper-inflated Lungs in Asthma
COPD - Chronic Bronchitis
COPD more of a chronic disease due to
long-term exposure to airway irritants such as
Broncho-constriction and inflammation are
more constant and less reversible.
Changes have occurred over the years.
Blue Bloaters they are often cyanotic.

COPD - Emphysema
Loss of elasticity of the lung tissue
Destruction of structures supporting the
alveoli and capillaries feeding the alveoli
Air trapping at the alveolar level
Pink Puffers hyperventilate to maintain
adequate oxygen levels this prevents

COPD - Clinical Manifestations
Dyspnea difficulty breathing
Activity intolerance
Cough and sputum production

Short acting beta 2 agonist
Cessation of smoking
Immunization against flu
Moderate COPD
Add one or more long-acting bronchodilators
such as salmeterol
Inhaled Anticholinergic drugs such as
PO Theophylline
Brand name: Serevent
Classification Pharmacologic: adrenergic
Classification Therapeutic: bronchodilator
Action: Produces accumulation of cyclic
adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) at the
beta 2-adrenergic receptors.
Use with caution: Cardiovascular disease,
diabetes, glaucoma
Salmeterol Serevent
Indication: long-term control of reversible
airway obstruction due to asthma and for
maintenance treatment of asthma.
Onset in 10 to 25 minutes
Peak in 3-4 hours
Duration 12 hours
Ipratropium or Atrovent
Therapeutic classification: allergy, cold and
cough remedies, bronchodilators
Pharmacologic classification: anticholinergic
Action: inhibits cholinergic receptors in
bronchial smooth muscle, resulting in
decreased levels of cGMP.
Therapeutic effects: bronchodilates without
system anticholinergic effects.
Side effects: hypotension

Inhaled corticosteroids
Somewhat controversial
Some evidence that inhaled corticosteroids
help symptoms but do not effect rate of
decline in pulmonary function.
Xanthines - theophylline
Brand name: Accurbron, Theo-dur, Apo-Theo
Classification Pharmacologic: xanthines
Classification Therapeutic: bronchodilators
Action: Inhibits phosphodiesterase, producing
increased tissue concentrations of cAMP. Increased
levels of cAMP result in bronchodilation, CNS
stimulation, diuresis.
Indication: Long-term control of reversible airway
obstruction caused by asthma or COPD.
Xanthines - Theophylline
Theophylline mechanism of action unknown
Used in COPD and sometimes asthma
Inhibits pulmonary edema by decreasing vascular
Increases ability of cilia to clear mucus
Strengthens contractions of diaphragm
Mild diuretic
Side Effects - Complications
Stimulates the CNS
Need to monitor heart rate
Serum blood levels need to be monitored -
therapeutic versus toxic dose
Normal serum blood levels 5 to 15 mcg / mL
Leukotriene Modifiers
Newest class of drugs to treat asthma
Block the production of leukotrienes and
subsequently prevent inflammation
Drugs in this class
Singulair chewable tabs taken once a day in the
Accolate take twice daily one hour before or two
hours after meal.


Brand name: Singulair
Classification Pharmacologic: leukotriene antagonist
Classification Therapeutic: allergy, cold, and cough,
Action: Antagonizes the effects of leukotrienes,
which mediate the following: airway edema, smooth
muscle constriction, altered cellular activity. Results
in decreased inflammatory process which is part of
asthma and allergic rhinitis.

Mast Cell Stabilizer
Prevent the release of broncho-constrictive
and inflammatory substances when mast
cells are confronted with allergens and other
Inhaled drug
Nasal form available for allergic rhinitis
Toxicity of Drugs

Bronchodilator Overdose
Excessive cardiac and CNS stimulation
Angina, tachycardia and palpitations
Agitation, anxiety, insomnia, seizures and
Theophylline Overdose
Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, agitation,
nervousness, insomnia, tachycardia, and
Need to check serum drug levels
Not use as frequently as in the past

Antihistamines and Allergic
Chapter 45
First chemical mediator to be released in
immune and inflammatory response.

Contraction of smooth muscle in the bronchi
and bronchioles
Stimulation of vagus nerve cough reflex
Increases permeability of veins and
Increase secretion of mucous glands
Dilation of capillaries of skin causes
Types of Allergic Reactions
Type I IgE or atophy hay fever, skin
inflammation, food allergies, asthma
Type II mediated by IgG or IgM internal
harder to diagnoses and treat
Type III antigen-antibody complex
Type IV occurs several hours after
exposure TB test
Allergic Rhinitis
Inflammation of nasal mucosa caused by
Type I hypersensitivity.
Two types
Perineal or chronic
Allergic Dermatitis
Type IV by direct contact with antigens which
person has come in contact with
Poison Ivy, cosmetics, hair dyes, metals,
drugs etc
Urticaria vascular reaction of skin
characterized by papules or wheals and
severe itching
Allergic Drug Reactions
Immunologic response
Follows ingestion of a drug
May occur from 7 to 10 days after drug
May not occur the first time drug
Can occur minutes or hours after
Anaphylaxis Life-threatening allergy
Serious and rapid allergic reaction
Can happen from food and nuts
Antibiotics penicillin
Dyes injected into the body in special tests
Latex gloves, balloons, catheters
Bees or wasps

Anaphylaxis Symptoms
Urticaria, hives
Low blood pressure fainting
Swelling in throat angioedema
Asthma symptoms bronchocontriction
Tingling in lips and mouth
Death occurs with obstruction to breathing
and low blood pressure
Emergency Treatment
Adrenaline epinephrine
Dose for adult 0.3 mg
Dose for child 0.15 mg
After dose given must get client to the
hospital for more definitive treatment.
Antihistamines block the effects of histamine
at the H1 receptor. They do not block
histamine release, antibody production or
antigen-antibody reactions. Most
antihistamines have anticholinergic properties
and may cause constipation, dry eyes, dry
mouth and blurred vision. I addition, many
antihistamines cause sedation.
Use with Caution
Pyloric obstructions
Cardiovascular disease
Liver disease
Use with caution in pregnancy
Allergic rhinitis
Allergic conjunctivitis
Drug allergies
Blood transfusion reactions
Dermatologic conditions
H1 receptor antagonists
First generation
Non-selective or sedating
CNS depression

Brand name: Benadryl
Classification Pharmacologic: H1 antagonist
Classification Therapeutic: allergy, cold and
cough remedies, antihistamines, antitussive.
Action: Antagonizes the effects of histamine
at H1 receptor sites; does not bind to or
inactivate histamine. Significant CNS
depressant and anticholinergic properties.

High incidence of drowsiness
Well absorbed after oral administration
Acts within 15 minutes and lasts for 8 to 12
Available in combination drugs
Cold remedies
Brand name: Atarax, Vistaril
Classification Pharmacologic: CNS
Classification Therapeutic: Anti-
anxiety,antihistamine, sedative, hypnotic
Action: Acts as a CNS depressant at the
subcortical level of the CNS. Has
anticholinergic, antihistamine, and antiemetic

Nasal Decongestant, Antitussive
and Cold Remedies
Chapter 46
Common Cold
Viral infection of upper respiratory tract
Adults have two to four colds per year
Children can have up to ten a year
Management of common cold
Symptoms: cough, runny nose, blocked nose,
sore throat, fever, malaise, headache, loss of
No antibiotics unless super-imposed bacterial
infection otitis media (ear infection)
No drug therapy to cure or shorten duration
of URI.
No benefit of using anti-histamines
Cold Remedies
Antihistamines : Allegra, Benadryl, Claritin,
Clarinex, Zyrtec
Decongestants: cause constriction of swollen
blood vessels in nose, sinuses and chest
Sudafed most often used in combination
Brand name: Zyrtec
Classification Pharmacologic: piperzine
Classification Therapeutic: Allergy, cold and
cough remedies, antihistamine
Action: Antagonizes the effects of histamine
at H1 receptor sites; does not bind to or
inactivate histamine. Anticholinergic effects
are minimal and sedation is dose related.
Does not make client sleepy.
Coughing is a protective reflex especially
when secretions are copious.
Most coughs due to viral illness common
Cough Remedies
Centrally acting cough suppressants -
Soothing remedies (syrup or lozenges)
Oral hydration
Mist therapy

Antitussive Drugs
Cough Suppressants
Suppress cough by depressing the cough
center of the medulla oblongata or cough
receptors in the throat
Indication: dry, hacking, nonproductive cough
that interferes with rest or sleep
Example: cough syrups with codeine

Agents generally given orally to liquefy respiratory
secretions and allow for their easier removal.
Generic name: gualifenesin
Brand name: Robitussin
Classification Therapeutic: allergy, cold and cough
remedies, expectorants
Action: reduces viscosity of tenacious secretions by
increasing respiratory tract fluid.
H1-receptor inhibitors
Added to cough and cold remedies as both
antitussives and to treat the nasal
Do not have any direct antitussive effect but
may act indirectly by reducing postnasal drip.
Liquid that coats the throat and soothes
irritated mucous membranes.
May reduce coughing associated with a dry
Some cough syrups contain 40% alcohol
may have a sedating effect.
Do not over use
Mucolytic Drugs
Designed to alter the viscosity of bronchial
secretions, thereby making them easier to
clear by cough or ciliary transport.
Often used when client reports they feel like
they have mucous by cant cough it up.
Mucomyst only agent used inhalant.
Clinical pearl: mucomyst used in
acetaminophen or Tylenol overdose
Nasal Sprays
Nose sprays: decongestant for direct
application to nares
Has bounce back effect do not use for more
than three days