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Public Policy
Practice of
a plan,
Design for

Policy Implementation is the
stage of policy-making between
the establishment of a policy
and the consequences of the
policy for the people whom it
affects. Implementation
involves translating the goals
and objectives of a policy into
an operating, on going
Public policy
implementation consists
of organized activities by
government directed
toward the-achievement
of goals and objectives
articulated in authorized
policy statements.
Policy implementation

A well designed and developed policy and procedure document will be
effective only if it is implemented in an appropriate way to ensure
maximum impact is achieved to address the particular policy purpose,
issue or need. It is therefore critical to ensure that the implementation
process is well thought out and effective.
For major policy and procedure developments or changes, or where a
number of policy improvements are occurring simultaneously, an
implementation plan should be developed to ensure that maximum
impact of new policies and procedures is achieved.

Implementation is the carrying out
of a basic policy decision.

1. Identifies the problem(s) to be addressed
2. Stipulates the objective(s) to be pursued
3. Structures the implementation process
Ability of Statute to Structure Implementation
1. Clear and consistent objectives.
2. Financial resources.
3. Hierarchical integration with other
4. Decision-rules of implementing agencies..
6. Recruitment of implementing official(s).
Three Elements to implementation

1. Creation of a new agency or assignment
of a new responsibility to an old agency
2. Translation of policy goals into
operational rules and development of
guidelines for the program
3. Coordination of resources and personnel
to achieve the intended goals.

Variables affecting Implementation

1. Socioeconomic conditions and technology.
2. Media attention to the problem.
3. Public Support
4. Attitudes and resources of constituency
5. Support from sovereigns.
6. Commitment and leadership skill of
implementing officials


1) problem definition
2) alternative generation
3) analysis of alternatives
4) policy adoption
5) policy implementation
6) policy evaluation

the last three steps are equally
important. A thorough policy
analysis will include some
consideration of policy
implementation, monitoring,
and evaluation.
Implementation analysis might involve
writing a "best-case" scenario and a
"worst-case" scenario for each policy
alternative, as well as the "most
likely" outcome. The idea is to think
systematically through the
implementation process, identify
potential problems, and develop
actions that can be taken to either
avert catastrophes or reduce losses.

Methods of implementation
1. Direct cutover;
2. Parallel;
3. Phased;
4. Pilot.

Direct cutover -there is a set date and time where the new policy
overrides the old system, or a brand new system is implemented.
Parallel -the new policy/system runs in tandem with the old
system for a predetermined period of time. This implementation
process allows for the old policy or system to act as a 'backup'
process while any issues or problems with the new system are
Phased -the new policy/system is implemented in stages as the old policy
is 'phased out'.
Pilot -the new policy/system is trialed in a particular area, program or
department to rectify any issues before wide-scale implementation
The policy analyst can sketch out an
implementation plan for the most highly
ranked alternative(s) that considers:

1) relevant actors and their interests
2) required resources and who might provide them
3) facilitators and barriers likely to be encountered
4) reasonable time frame
Broad policy and procedure implementation processes, such as the
introduction of a registered training organization into business operations, or
initial achievement other than accreditations, will require the engagement of
change management processes across the organization.
Organizational change processes relevant to the particular situation
must be identified to integrate new/modified policies and procedures into the
organizations operations and culture. Examples of change processes to be
employed are the use of the company intranet to communicate changes and
provide documentation, internal and external coaching/mentoring
arrangements with key personnel, and the identification of 'organizational
experts' to assist all employees with implementation issues through advice and
To facilitate the change process, the
following components should be
addressed in the production and
execution of an implementation plan:
Mechanisms for the introduction and promotion of new
or amended policies and procedures within the
organization and to clients/stakeholders if required
Mechanism for involving personnel in the
decision making and implementation;

Mechanisms to facilitate continuous
improvement processes and review
Promotional materials;
Personnel responsible for the implementation

Physical equipment/resources required for

Action plan, timelines and responsibilities for
implementation stages;
Induction processes that include the discussion of
policies and procedures and their use, and
orientation kits for personnel involved in training,