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Chapter 4

DC to AC Conversion
(INVERTER)

General concept

Single-phase inverter

ar!onics

"o#\$lation

Three-phase inverter
DC to AC Converter (Inverter)

DE%INITI&N' Converts DC to AC po(er )*

s(itching the DC input voltage (or current) in a
pre-#eter!ine# se+\$ence so as to generate AC
voltage (or current) output,

General )loc- #iagra!

I
DC
I
ac
+

V
DC
V
ac
+

T./ICA0 A//0ICATI&NS'
1
2n-interr\$pti)le po(er s\$ppl* (2/S)3 In#\$strial
(in#\$ction !otor) #rives3 Traction3 VDC
Si!ple s+\$are-(ave inverter (4)

To ill\$strate the concept o5 AC (ave5or!

generation
V
DC
T1
T4
T3
T2
+ V
O
-
D1
D2
D3
D4
SQUARE-WAVE
INVERTER
I
O
S1 S3
S2 S4
EQUIVALENT
CIRCUIT
AC 6ave5or! Generation
V
DC
S4
S4
S7
+ v
O

V
DC
S4
S4
S7
S8
+ v
O

V
DC
v
O
t
1
t
2
t
S43S8 &N9 S73S4 &%% 5or t
4
: t : t
8
t
2
t
3
v
O
-V
DC
t
S73S4 &N 9 S43S8 &%% 5or t
8
: t : t
7
S8
AC 6ave5or!s
%2NDA"ENTA0 C&"/&NENT
7
RD
AR"&NIC
;
RD
AR"&NIC

DC V 4
V
dc
-V
dc
V
4
7
4 V
;
4 V
INVERTER &2T/2T V&0TAGE
2
ar!onics %iltering

&\$tp\$t o5 the inverter is <choppe# AC voltage (ith

=ero DC co!ponent>, It contain harmonics.

An LC section low-pass filter is nor!all* 5itte# at

the inverter o\$tp\$t to re#\$ce the high 5re+\$enc*
har!onics,

In so!e applications s\$ch as 2/S3 <high purity> sine

(ave o\$tp\$t is re+\$ire#, Goo# 5iltering is a !\$st,

In so!e applications s\$ch as AC !otor #rive3 5iltering

is not re+\$ire#,
v
O 1
?

0
C
v
O 2
(0&6 /ASS) %I0TER
?

v
O 1
v
O 2
@E%&RE %I0TERING A%TER %I0TERING
Varia)le Voltage Varia)le
%re+\$enc* Capa)ilit*
T
1
T
2
t
V
dc1
V
dc2 igher inp\$t voltage
igher 5re+\$enc*
0o(er inp\$t voltage
0o(er 5re+\$enc*

&\$tp\$t voltage 5re+\$enc* can )e varie# )* <perio#>

o5 the s+\$are-(ave p\$lse,

&\$tp\$t voltage a!plit\$#e can )e varie# )* var*ing

the <!agnit\$#e> o5 the DC inp\$t voltage,

Ver* \$se5\$l' e,g, varia)le spee# in#\$ction !otor

#rive
&\$tp\$t voltage har!onicsA
#istortion

0o(er or#er har!onics (7

r#
3 ;
th
etc) are ver*
#i55ic\$lt to 5ilter3 #\$e to the 5ilter si=e an# high 5ilter
or#er, The* can ca\$se serio\$s voltage #istortion,

6h* nee# to consi#er har!onicsB

1
Sin\$soi#al (ave5or! +\$alit*,
1
</o(er C\$alit*> iss\$e,
1
ar!onics !a* ca\$se #egra#ation o5
e+\$ip!ent, E+\$ip!ent nee# to )e <#e-rate#>,

Total ar!onic Distortion (TD) is a !eas\$re to

#eter!ine the <+\$alit*> o5 a given (ave5or!,
%o\$rier Series

St\$#* o5 har!onics re+\$ires \$n#erstan#ing o5 (ave

shapes, %o\$rier Series is a tool to anal*se (ave
shapes,
( )
( )
( )
t
n b n a a v
d n v b
d n v a
d v a
n
n n o
n
n
o

=
+ + =
=
=
=

=
(here
sin cos
8
4
) (
%o\$rier Inverse
ter!) sinD (D sin ) (
4
ter!) cosD (D cos ) (
4
ter!) DCD (D ) (
4
Series %o\$rier
4
8
E
8
E
8
E
ar!onics o5 s+\$are-(ave (4)
( ) ( )
( ) ( )

=
=

=
=

+ =

8
E
8
E
8
E
sin sin
E cos cos
E
4
d n d n
V
b
d n d n
V
a
d V d V a
dc
n
dc
n
dc dc o
V
dc
-V
dc
=t
2
ar!onics o5 s+\$are (ave (8)
( ) ( ) [ ]
[ ]
[ ]
[ ]

n
V
b
n
b
n n
n
n
V
n n
n
V
n n n
n
V
n n
n
V
b
dc
n
n
dc
dc
dc
dc
n
4
4 cos o##3 is n 6hen
eFist) not #o har!onics even i,e, (
E
4 cos even3 is 6hen
) cos 4 (
8
) cos 4 ( ) cos 4 (
) cos 8 (cos ) cos E (cos
cos cos
Solving3
8
E
=
=
=
=
=
+ =
+ =
+ =
C\$asi-s+\$are (ave (CS6)
( ) [ ]
( ) ( ) [ ]
( ) ( )
( ) [ ]
( )[ ]

n n
n
V
n n n
n
V
b
n n n n n n
n n n
n n
n
V
n
n
V
d n V b
a
dc
dc
n
dc
dc
dc n
n
cos 4 cos
8
cos cos cos
8
cos cos sin sin cos cos
cos cos
' EFpan#ing
cos cos
8
cos
8
sin
4
8
s*!!etr*) (ave - hal5 to (#\$e , E that Note
=
=
= + =
=
=
=

=
=

8

V
dc
-V
dc
ar!onics control
( )
( )
n
n
b
b
!ote
V
b
n
n
V
b
b
o
dc
dc
n
n
o
7
4
4
GE
' i5 eli!inate# )e (ill har!onic general3
In (ave5or!, the 5ro! eli!inate# is har!onic
thir# or the 3 E then 3 7E i5 eFa!ple %or
' n Eli!inatio ar!onics
3 a#H\$sting )* controlle# )e also can ar!onics
I )* var*ing controlle# is 3 3 l 5\$n#a!enta The
'
cos
4
' is l 5\$n#a!enta the o5 a!plit\$#e 3 partic\$lar In
cos
4
o##3 is n I5
3 E even3 is n I5
=
= =
=
=
=

V
o
R
0
+

V
C1
V
C2
?
-
?
-
S
4
S
8
V
dc
8
Vdc
8
Vdc

S4 &N
S8 &%%
S4 &%%
S8 &N
t
E
G

@asic )\$il#ing )loc- 5or 5\$ll )ri#ge3 three phase an#

higher or#er inverters,

@oth capacitors have the sa!e val\$e, Th\$s the DC

lin- is e+\$all* <spilt> into t(o,

The top an# )otto! s(itch has to )e

<co!ple!entar*>3 i,e, I5 the top s(itch is close# (on)3
the )otto! !\$st )e o553 an# vice-versa,
Single-phase3 5\$ll-)ri#ge (4)

)ri#ge leg,

The s(itching in the secon# leg is <#ela*e# )* 4JE

#egrees> 5ro! the 5irst leg,
S4
S4
S7
S8
+
-
G
+
8
dc
V
8
dc
V
-
8
dc
V
8
dc
V
dc
V
8
dc
V

8
dc
V

dc
V

8
8
8
t
t
t
"#
V
# "
V
K
o
V
# " o
V V V
"#
K
=
gro\$!#D virt\$al D is #
0EG R 0EG RK
R
RK
-
o
V +
dc
V
+
-
Three-phase inverter

#egrees,

A three-phase inverter (ith star connecte# loa# is

sho(n )elo(
L
.
L
R
L
@
G
R .
@
i
"
i
\$
i
%
i
a
i
b
+V
dc
N
S4
S4 SM
S7 S;
S8
+
+

V
dc
/2
V
dc
/2
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
A. Six-Step VSI (1)
7

Six-Step three-phase Voltage Source Inverter

Fig. 1 Three-phase voltage source inverter.
4
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
A. Six-Step VSI (2)
Fig. 2 Wavefors of gating signals! s"itching se#uence! line to negative voltages
for six-step voltage source inverter.

\$ating signals! s"itching se#uence an% line to negative voltages

I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
A. Six-Step VSI (&)
"here! '(1 eans that S
'
! S
(
an% S
1
are s"itche% on
Fig. & Six inverter voltage vectors for six-step voltage source inverter.

S"itching Se#uence)
'(1 (V
1
) (12 (V
2
) 12& (V
&
) 2&* (V
*
)
&*' (V
'
) *'( (V
(
) '(1 (V
1
)
;
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
A. Six-Step VSI (*)
Fig. * Wavefors of line to neutral (phase) voltages an% line to line voltages
for six-step voltage source inverter.
+ine to line voltages (V
a,
! V
,c
! V
ca
)
an% line to neutral voltages (V
an
! V
,n
! V
cn
)
V
a,
- V
a.
- V
,.
V
,c
- V
,.
- V
c.
V
ca
- V
c.
- V
a.

+ine to line voltages

V
an
- 2/&V
a.
- 1/&V
,.
- 1/&V
c.

0hase voltages
V
,n
- -1/&V
a.
1 2/&V
,.
- 1/&V
c.
V
cn
- -1/&V
a.
- 1/&V
,.
1 2/&V
c.
M
Three phase inverter (ave5or!s
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
A. Six-Step VSI (')
Aplitu%e of line to line voltages (V
a,
! V
,c
! V
ca
)
Fun%aental Fre#uenc2 3oponent (V
a,
)
1
4aronic Fre#uenc2 3oponents (V
a,
)
h
) aplitu%es of haronics %ecrease inversel2 proportional to their haronic or%er
#c #c
#c
V NJ , E V
M
8
V 4
8
7
= =

(rms) ) (V
1 ab
73,,,,,) 83 43 (n 4 Mn h (here3
V
NJ , E
#c a)
= =
=
h
(rms) ) (V
h
N
J
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
A. Six-Step VSI (()

It is calle% 5six-step inverter6 ,ecause of the presence of six 5steps6

in the line to neutral (phase) voltage "avefor

4aronics of or%er three an% ultiples of three are a,sent fro

,oth the line to line an% the line to neutral voltages
an% conse#uentl2 a,sent fro the currents

7utput aplitu%e in a three-phase inverter can ,e controlle%

,2 onl2 change of 83-lin9 voltage (V
%c
)
G
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
:. 0ulse-Wi%th ;o%ulate% VSI (1)

7,<ective of 0W;

8isa%vantages of 0W;

3ontrol of inverter output voltage

=e%uction of haronics
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
:. 0ulse-Wi%th ;o%ulate% VSI (2)

0ulse-Wi%th ;o%ulation (0W;)

Fig. ' 0ulse-"i%th o%ulation.
4E
I. Voltage Source Inverter (VSI)
:. 0ulse-Wi%th ;o%ulate% VSI (&)

Inverter output voltage

When v
control
? v
tri
! V
A@
- V
%c
/2
When v
control
A v
tri
! V
A@
- -V
%c
/2
AE 4 AE
4 E
V o5 co!ponent 5re+\$ecn* l 5\$n#a!enta ' ) (V (here3
3
8 A
) (
dc
A
tri
control
V
V o pea&
v
v
' = =

;o%ulation In%ex ()

3ontrol of inverter output voltage

Aplitu%e is controlle% ,2 the pea9 value of v
control
Fun%aental fre#uenc2 is controlle% ,2 the fre#uenc2 of v
control
0W; fre#uenc2 is the sae as the fre#uenc2 of v
tri
44
II. 0W; ;>T478S
A. Sine 0W; (1)
Fig. ( Three-phase Sine 0W; inverter.

Three-phase inverter
48
II. 0W; ;>T478S
A. Sine 0W; (2)
V
A
0
V
B
0
V
C
0
V
A
B
V
B
C
V
C
A
t
Fig. B Wavefors of three-phase sine 0W; inverter.

Three-phase sine 0W; "avefors

v
tri
v
controlCA
v
controlC:
v
controlC3
where, V
AB
= V
A0
V
B0
V
BC
= V
B0
V
C0
V
CA
= V
C0
V
A0
When v
control
? v
tri
! V
A@
- V
%c
/2
When v
control
A v
tri
! V
A@
- -V
%c
/2
Fre#uenc2 of v
tri
- f
s
Fre#uenc2 of v
control
- f
1
Fre#uenc2 of v
tri
an% v
control
where, f
s
= PWM frequency
f
1
= Fundaen!a" frequency

Inverter output voltage

47
II. 0W; ;>T478S
A. Sine 0W; (&)
Aplitu%e o%ulation ratio (
a
)
AE 4 AE
4 E
V o5 co!ponent 5re+\$ecn* l 5\$n#a!enta ' ) (V (here3
3
8 A
) (
dc
A
tri
control
a
V
V o value pea&
v o a'plitude
v o a'plitude pea&
' = =
Fre#uenc2 o%ulation ratio (
f
)
5re+\$enc* l 5\$n#a!enta 5 an# 5re+\$enc* /6" 5 (here3 3
4 s
4
= = =

'
(

f
shoul% ,e an o%% integer
if
f
is not an integer! there a2 exist sunhaonics at output voltage
if
f
is not o%%! 83 coponent a2 exist an% even haronics are present at output voltage

f
shoul% ,e a ultiple of & for three-phase 0W; inverter

An o%% ultiple of & an% even haronics are suppresse%

44
/\$lse 6i#th "o#\$lation (/6")
"o#\$lating 6ave5or! Carrier (ave5or!
4
"
4 +
4
E
8
dc
V
8
dc
V

E
E
t
4
t
8
t
7
t
4
t
;
t

Triang\$lation !etho# (Nat\$ral sa!pling)

1
A!plit\$#es o5 the triang\$lar (ave (carrier) an#
sine (ave (!o#\$lating) are co!pare# to o)tain
/6" (ave5or!, Si!ple analog\$e co!parator
can )e \$se#,
1
@asicall* an analog\$e !etho#, Its #igital
version3 -no(n as REG20AR sa!pling is
(i#el* \$se# in in#\$str*,
/6" t*pes

Nat\$ral (sin\$soi#al) sa!pling (as sho(n on

previo\$s sli#e)
1
/ro)le!s (ith analog\$e circ\$itr*3 e,g, Dri5t3
sensitivit* etc,

Reg\$lar sa!pling
1
si!pli5ie# version o5 nat\$ral sa!pling that
res\$lts in si!ple #igital i!ple!entation

&pti!ise# /6"
1
/6" (ave5or! are constr\$cte# )ase# on
certain per5or!ance criteria3 e,g, TD,

ar!onic eli!inationA!ini!isation /6"

1
/6" (ave5or!s are constr\$cte# to eli!inate
so!e \$n#esira)le har!onics 5ro! the o\$tp\$t
(ave5or! spectra,
1
ighl* !athe!atical in nat\$re

Space-vector !o#\$lation (SV")

1
A si!ple techni+\$e )ase# on volt-secon# that is
nor!all* \$se# (ith three-phase inverter !otor-
#rive
"o#\$lation In#eF3 Ratio
(ave5or! !o#\$lating the o5 %re+\$enc*
ve5or! carrier (a the o5 %re+\$enc*
"
) ( " Ratio) (%re+\$enc* Ratio "o#\$lation
ve5or! carrier (a the o5 A!plit\$#e
(ave5or! !o#\$lating the o5 A!plit\$#e
"
' " Depth) n ("o#\$latio In#eF "o#\$lation
R
R
I
I
= =
= =
=
=
p
p
"o#\$lating 6ave5or! Carrier (ave5or!
4
"
4 +
4
E
8
dc
V
8
dc
V

E
E
t
4
t
8
t
7
t
4
t
;
t
( )
(43837,,,) integer an is an#
signal !o#\$lating the o5 5re+\$enc* the is (here
"
' at locate# nor!all* are har!onics The
spectra, in the har!onics o5
(location) inci#ent the #eter!ines ratio #\$lation "
l*, respective voltage3 (DC) inp\$t an# voltage
o\$tp\$t the o5 l 5\$n#a!enta are 3 (here
"
43 " E I5
co!ponent l 5\$n#a!enta voltage
o\$tp\$t the s #eterr!ine In#eF "o#\$lation
R
4
I 4
I
&

&
o
V V
V V
'
'
in
in
=

=
< <
"o#\$lation In#eF3 Ratio
Reg\$lar sa!pling
h F ( ) i5 - F ( ) c F ( ) < 4 , i5 - F ( ) c F ( ) > 4 , E , ( ) , ( ) :=
4
"egular sa!pling /6"
Sin\$soi#al !o#\$lating
(ave5or!3 v
'
(t)
Carrier3 v
c
(t)
t
1
t
2
t)
1
t)
2
t
t

8
) (t v
(
p*'
v
Reg\$lar sa!pling (ave5or!3
As*!!etric an# s*!!etric
reg\$lar sa!pling
+
sa!ple
point
t ,
'
sin
4
4 +
4
4
+
4
7+
4
;+
4

8
dc
V
8
dc
V

E
t
4
t
8
t
7
t
t
as*!!etric
sa!pling
s*!!etric
sa!pling
t
Generating o5 /6" (ave5or! reg\$lar sa!pling
@ipolar S(itching
"o#\$lating 6ave5or! Carrier (ave5or!
4
"
4 +
4
E
8
dc
V
8
dc
V

E
E
t
4
t
8
t
7
t
4
t
;
t
2nipolar s(itching
4
2nipolar s(itching sche!e
A
@
Carrier (ave5or!
(a)
())
(c)
(#)
4 -
7 -
p*'
V
@ipolar /6" s(itching' /\$lse-
(i#th characteri=ation
& 4

& 8

&

8
carrier
(ave5or!
!o#\$lating
(ave5or!
pul(e
&th

8
Three-phase har!onics

%or three-phase inverters3 there is signi5icant

a#vantage i5 ,
"
is chosen to )e'
1
Odd: All even har!onic (ill )e eli!inate#
5ro! the pole-s(itching (ave5or!,
1
triplens (!\$ltiple o5 three (e,g, 73G34;3843 8N,,)'
All triplens har!onics (ill )e eli!inate# 5ro!
the line-to-line o\$tp\$t voltage,

@* o)serving the (ave5or!3 it can )e seen that

(ith o## ,
"
3 the line-to-line voltage shape loo-s
!ore <sin\$soi#al>,

As can )e note# 5ro! the spectra3 the phase voltage

a!plit\$#e is E,J (nor!alise#), This is )eca\$se the
!o#\$lation in#eF is E,J, The line voltage a!plit\$#e
is s+\$are root three o5 phase voltage #\$e to the
three-phase relationship
E55ect o5 o## an# <triplens>
8
dc
V
8
dc
V

8
dc
V
8
dc
V

8
dc
V

8
dc
V

8
dc
V
8
dc
V
dc
V
dc
V
dc
V
dc
V

8
"#
V
"#
V
"\$
V
"\$
V
\$#
V
\$#
V
M , E 3 J = = , p
M , E 3 G = = , p
I002STRATI&N &% @ENE%ITS &% 2SING A %REC2ENC. RATI&
TAT IS A "20TI/0E &% TREE IN A TREE /ASE INVERTER
Three phase inverter (ith R0
loa#

It is #esira)le to have ,
"
as large as possi)le,

This (ill p\$sh the har!onic at higher 5re+\$encies

on the spectr\$!, Th\$s 5iltering re+\$ire!ent is
re#\$ce#,

Altho\$gh the voltage TD i!prove!ent is not

signi5icant3 )\$t the c\$rrent TD (ill i!prove
greatl* )eca\$se the loa# nor!all* has so!e c\$rrent
5iltering e55ect,

o(ever3 higher ,
"
has si#e e55ects'
1
igher s(itching 5re+\$enc*' "ore losses,
1
/\$lse (i#th !a* )e too s!all to )e constr\$cte#,
</\$lse #ropping> !a* )e re+\$ire#,