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Partikel ini berada dalam gerakan yang

konstan, tetapi dapat bergabung


membentuk suatu kombinasi yang mantap.
Potongan paling kecil dari materi yang tidak
bisa dibagi lagi disebut atom

Melibatkan kejadian kimia
Berdasarkan asumsinya pada data
kuantitatif
Ditunjang oleh 2 percobaan ( 2 hukum alam)
Hukum kekekalan massa
Hukum perbandingan tetap
Using the Law of Conservation of Mass
You heat 2.53 g of metallic mercury in air, which produces 2.73 g of a red-
orange residue. Assume that the chemical change is the reaction of the
metal with oxygen in air.
Mercury + oxygen red-orange residue
What is the mass of oxygen that reacts?
When you strongly heat the red-orange residue, it
decomposes to give back mercury and releases the
oxygen, which you collect.
What is the mass of oxygen you collect?

Jumlah massa zat-zat yang ada sebelum
reaksi sama dengan jumlah massa zat-
zat yang ada setelah reaksi
Percobaan ke
:
Sebelum
pemanasan (g
Mg)
Setelah
pemanasan (g
MgO)
Perbandingan
Mg/MgO
1 0.62 1.02 0.61
2 0.48 0.79 0.60
3 0.36 0.60 0.60

Setiap senyawa tersusun dari unsur-unsur
tertentu dengan perbandingan tetap
Tiap-tiap unsur kimia tersusun dari partikel-partikel kecil
yang tidak bisa dihancurkan dan dibagi yang disebut atom.
Selama perubahan kimia, atom tidak bisa diciptakan dan
dimusnahkan.
Semua atom dari suatu unsur mempunyai massa dan sifat
yang sama, tetapi atom-atom dari suatu unsur berbeda
dengan atom-atom dari unsur lain, baik masa maupun sifat-
sifatnya.
Dalam senyawa kimia, atom-atom dari unsur yang berlainan
melakukan ikatan dengan perbandingan numerik yang
sama, exs. 1 atom A dengan 2 atom B (AB2)
2
2.1
8 X
2
Y 16 X 8 Y +
2.1
Law of _________________________________
Adanya awan yang bermuatan positif dengan
sejumlah elektron yang terpusat yang cukup untuk
menetralkan.
However, if there are electrons (-), there must be a +
component.
2.2
1. atoms positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus
2. proton (p) has opposite (+) charge of electron
3. mass of p is 1840 x mass of e
-
(1.67 x 10
-24
g)
particle velocity ~ 1.4 x 10
7
m/s
(~5% speed of light)
(1908 Nobel Prize in Chemistry)
2.2
Sebagian besar masa dan semua muatan positif terpusat
pada daerah yang sempit yang disebut inti atom (nuklei)
Sebagian besar atom merupakan ruang kosong
Besarnya muatan pada inti berbeda untuk atom yang
berbeda, kira-kira setengah dari nilai numerik dari bobot
atom suatu unsur
Di luar inti suatu atom harus terdapat elektron yang
jumlahnya sama dengan satuan muatan inti
atomic radius ~ 100 pm = 1 x 10
-10
m
nuclear radius ~ 5 x 10
-3
pm = 5 x 10
-15
m
Rutherfords Model of
the Atom
2.2

H atoms - 1 p; He atoms - 2 p
mass He/mass H should = 2
measured mass He/mass H = 4
+
9
Be
1
n +
12
C + energy
neutron (n) is neutral (charge = 0)
n mass ~ p mass = 1.67 x 10
-24
g
2.2
Particle
Mass
(g)
Charge
(Coulombs)
Charge
(units)
Electron (e
-
) 9.1 x 10
-28
-1.6 x 10
-19
-1
Proton (p) 1.67 x 10
-24
+1.6 x 10
-19
+1
Neutron (n) 1.67 x 10
-24
0 0


mass p = mass n = 1840 x mass e
-

2.2
Particle
Mass
(g)
Charge
(Coulombs)
Charge
(units)
Electron (e
-
) 9.1 x 10
-28
-1.6 x 10
-19
-1
Proton (p) 1.67 x 10
-24
+1.6 x 10
-19
+1
Neutron (n) 1.67 x 10
-24
0 0


mass p = mass n = 1840 x mass e
-

2.2
The Atom
Nucleus
Electron
Shell or Orbit
The Atom Hydrogen
Proton
Electron
Hydrogen has one proton, one electron and NO neutrons
The Atom Helium
Electron
Proton
Neutron
Helium has two electrons, two protons and two neutrons
The Atom Helium
Electron
Proton
Neutron
Helium has two electrons, two protons and two neutrons
The Atom Lithium
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
The Atom Beryllium
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Beryllium has four electrons, four protons and five neutrons.
The Atom Boron
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Boron has five electrons, five protons and six neutrons.
The Atom Carbon
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Carbon has six electrons, six protons and six neutrons.
The Atom Nitrogen
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Nitrogen has seven electrons, seven protons and seven neutrons.
The Atom Oxygen
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Oxygen has eight electrons, eight protons and eight neutrons.
The Atom Fluorine
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Fluorine has nine electrons, nine protons and ten neutrons.
The Atom Neon
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Neon has ten electrons, ten protons and ten neutrons.
The Atom Sodium
Protons
Neutrons
Electrons
Sodium has eleven electrons, eleven protons and twelve neutrons.
_______________ (Z) = number of protons in nucleus
______________(A) = number of protons + number of neutrons
= atomic number (Z) + number of neutrons
___________ are atoms of the same element (X) with different
numbers of neutrons in the nucleus
X
A
Z
H
1
1
H (D)
2
1
H (T)
3
1
U
235
92
U
238
92
Mass Number
Atomic Number
Element Symbol
2.3
2.3
Menentukan perbandingan muatan terhadap massa (e/m)
dari ion positif yang dihasilkan dalam sebuah tabung sinar
kanal
Dalam gas neon biasa kira-kira 91% dari atom-atom
mempunyai massa normal dan 9% dari atom-atom
tersebut 22/20 lebih berat dari normal.
KESIMPULAN
Atom-atom dari unsur yang sama dapat sedikit berbeda
dalam massanya
ISOTOP
Symbols
Find each of these:
a) number of protons
b) number of neutrons
c) number of electrons
d) Atomic number
e) Mass Number
symbol Cl
name Chlorine
atomic number 17
mass number 35.453
An ____ is formed when an atom, or group of atoms, has a net positive or
negative charge (why?).
_____ ion with a positive charge
If a neutral atom _______ one or more electrons
it becomes a cation.
_____ ion with a negative charge
If a neutral atom _______ one or more electrons
it becomes an anion.
Na
11 protons
11 electrons
Na
+

11 protons
10 electrons
Cl
17 protons
17 electrons
Cl
-

17 protons
18 electrons
2.5
Period
G
r
o
u
p

A
l
k
a
l
i

M
e
t
a
l

N
o
b
l
e

G
a
s

H
a
l
o
g
e
n

A
l
k
a
l
i

E
a
r
t
h

M
e
t
a
l

2.4
Naturally occurring carbon consists of three isotopes,
12
C,
13
C,
and
14
C. State the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons
in each of these carbon atoms.

12
C
13
C
14
C

6 6 6
#p _______ _______ _______
#n_______ _______ _______
#e _______ _______ _______


LecturePLUS Timberlake 38


12
C
13
C
14
C

6 6 6
#p __6___ _ 6___ ___6___
#n __6___ _ _7___ ___8___
#e __6___ _ 6___ ___6___


LecturePLUS Timberlake 39
Listed on the periodic table

Gives the mass of average atom of each
element compared to
12
C
Average atom based on all the isotopes
and their abundance %


LecturePLUS Timberlake 40
Na
22.99
Percent(%) abundance of isotopes
Mass of each isotope of that element
Weighted average =
mass isotope
1
(%) + mass isotope
2
(%) +
100 100
LecturePLUS Timberlake 41

Isotopes Mass of Isotope Abundance
24
Mg = 24.0 amu 78.70%


25
Mg = 25.0 amu 10.13%


26
Mg = 26.0 amu 11.17%


Atomic mass (average mass) Mg = 24.3 amu

LecturePLUS Timberlake 42
Mg
24.3
Gallium is a metallic element found in
small lasers used in compact disc
players. In a sample of gallium, there is
60.2% of gallium-69 (68.9 amu) atoms and
39.8% of gallium-71 (70.9 amu) atoms.
What is the atomic mass of gallium?



LecturePLUS Timberlake 43
Ga-69
68.9 amu x 60.2 = 41.5 amu for
69
Ga
100
Ga-71 (%/100)
70.9 amu x 39.8 = 28.2 amu for
71
Ga
100

Atomic mass Ga = 69.7 amu
LecturePLUS Timberlake 44
A sample of boron consists of
10
B (mass
10.0 amu) and
11
B (mass 11.0 amu). If the
average atomic mass of B is 10.8 amu,
what is the % abundance of each boron
isotope?


LecturePLUS Timberlake 45
Assign X and Y values:
X = %
10
B Y = %
11
B
Determine Y in terms of X
X + Y = 100
Y = 100 - X

Solve for X:
X (10.0) + (100 - X )(11.0) = 10.8
100 100

Multiply through by 100
10.0 X + 1100 - 11.0X = 1080

LecturePLUS Timberlake 46
Collect X terms
10.0 X - 11.0 X = 1080 - 1100

- 1.0 X = -20

X = -20 = 20 %
10
B
- 1.0
Y = 100 - X
%
11
B = 100 - 20% = 80%
11
B

LecturePLUS Timberlake 47
Copper has two isotopes
63
Cu (62.9 amu)
and
65
Cu (64.9 amu). What is the %
abundance of each isotope? (Hint:
Check periodic table for atomic mass)




LecturePLUS Timberlake 48