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Noramly Muslim PhD.

Noramly Muslim PhD.

Radiation Around You

Nature

Cosmic (direct and cosmic-produced radioactivity

Terrestrial (including radon)

Medical Consumer Products Transportation Nuclear Power Nuclear Weapons Fallout

Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material

Primordial radionuclides- left over from when the earth was created.

Cosmogenic radioactivity - Radionuclides produced when cosmic radiation interacts with the upper atmosphere

Cosmic Radiation

The primary source of cosmic radiation is outside this solar system: sun and stars

The atmosphere and the earth’s magnetic field act as a shield against radiation, reducing the radiation that reaches the earth’s surface.

Higher doses at higher altitudes.

Cosmic Radiation Dose Rates

At 43° latitude (Boston/Chicago)

30,000 ft: 0.002 mSv (0.2 mrem)/hr 40,000 ft: 0.005 mSv (0.5 mrem)/hr Higher at larger latitudes

Annual doses at ground level:

U.S. Average: 0.24 mSv (24 mrem) Denver Plateau: 0.50 mSv (50 mrem)

Cosmogenic Radioactivity

Most important

Carbon-14:

Half-life: 5730 years Used to determine age of artifacts Low-energy beta only; low doses

Hydrogen-3 (tritium)

Half-life: 12.3 years Found in all water Low-energy beta only; low doses

Terrestrial Radiation

Primordial radionuclides in rock and soil Primarily long lived nuclides

K-40 (also in food)

Body contains about 0.1 µCi which produces 0.2 mSv(20 mrem) per year

U-238 series

Source of radon in buildings

Th-232 series

Terrestrial Radiation Doses

U.S. population average:

0.44 mSv (44 mrem)/yr

Coastal plains

0.23 mSv (23 mrem)/yr

Denver Plateau

0.90 mSv (90 mrem)/yr

Radon (from the Uranium Decay Chain)

Uranium-238 Uranium-238 4.5 billion years 4.5 billion years Polonium-218 Polonium-218 Polonium-214 Polonium-214 3.1 min. (RaA) 3.1
Uranium-238
Uranium-238
4.5 billion years
4.5 billion years
Polonium-218
Polonium-218
Polonium-214
Polonium-214
3.1 min. (RaA)
3.1 min. (RaA) 163.7 us (RaC’)
163.7 us (RaC’)
Radium-226
Radium-226
1600 years
1600 years
Bismuth-214
Bismuth-214
19.9 min (RaC)
19.9 min (RaC)
Radon-222
Radon-222
3.825 days
3.825 days
Lead-214
Lead-214
Lead-210
Lead-210
27 min. (RaB)
27 min. (RaB)
22.3 y (RaD)
22.3 y (RaD)
Radon (from the Uranium Decay Chain) Uranium-238 Uranium-238 4.5 billion years 4.5 billion years Polonium-218 Polonium-218

Radon Entry Into a Home

Radon Entry Into a Home 7. 6. 4. 1. 3. 1. Cracks in Solid Floors 2.
Radon Entry Into a Home 7. 6. 4. 1. 3. 1. Cracks in Solid Floors 2.
7. 6. 4.
7.
6.
4.

1.

3.

  • 1. Cracks in Solid Floors

  • 2. Construction Joints

  • 3. Cracks in Walls

  • 4. Gaps in Floors

  • 5. Gaps around Pipes

  • 6. Cavities in Walls

  • 7. Water Supply (wells

only)

Radon Entry Into a Home 7. 6. 4. 1. 3. 1. Cracks in Solid Floors 2.

5.

2.

Radon Dose and Detection

Dose

Average U.S. effective annual dose:

mSv (200 mrem)

Detection methods

Charcoal Canisters Alpha Track Detectors Electret monitors Radon Sniffers

2.0

Medical Radiation

Diagnostic

X-rays

Ave. U.S. dose: 0.39 mSv (39 mrem)/yr

Nuclear Medicine

Ave. U.S. dose: 0.14 mSv (14 mrem)/yr

Therapeutic

Cancer treatment Thyroid treatment

Consumer Products

Many sources

Television sets accelerate electrons to make the picture on the screen and in the process produce a few low energy x-rays.

Smoke detectors emit radiation that is easily stopped even by smoke, and in that way detect the presence of smoke.

Some more products or services: long lasting light bulbs, building materials, and luminous dials, among many others.

Transportation of Radioactive Materials

Daily need

Radiopharmaceuticals Low level waste Industrial sources Reactors

Regulations developed for safe transport

Nuclear Industry

The public is exposed to a variety of radiation sources

Radioactivity in air and water Radioactive waste Direct irradiation.

Nuclear Industry

Radiation Doses from Nuclear Power are Small

Less than 0.03% of the total annual effective dose is from nuclear power (less than 0.01 mSv (1 mrem)/yr)

That’s considerably less than the total average annual effective dose of about 3 mSv (300 mrem) per year from natural radiation sources

Fallout Radiation

Radioactivity remaining after atmospheric nuclear weapons testing Less than 0.01 mSv (1 mrem)/yr Long-lived radionuclides:

Cesium-137: 30 year half-life

Mimics potassium - found in muscle

Strontium-90: 29 year half-life

Mimics calcium - found in bones

Pressurized Water Reactor

m: Joseph Gonyeau, P.E., Virtual Nuclear Tour http://www.nucleartourist.com/

Radiation Exposure to the U.S. Population

Radiation Exposure to the U.S. Population

Patrick Moore*: Going Nuclear

A Green Makes the Case

(for Nuclear Power)

In the early 1970s when I helped found Greenpeace, I believed that nuclear energy was synonymous with nuclear holocaust, as did most of my compatriots. ….

…. Thirty years on, my views have changed, and the rest of the environmental movement needs to update its views, too, because nuclear energy may just be the energy source that can save our planet from

"It doesn’t matter what is true; what matters is what people think is true."

Founder, Greenpeace

(2000)

Acknowledgement