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CCGT AT A GLANCE

27
th
Dec 2011
By- K. S. YADAV

GAS TURBINE

Principle of working:- Works on
Braton Cycle with two nos.
Adiabatic processes of compression
& expansion in compressor and
turbine respectively and Two
processes at constant pressure i.e.
Heat addition in combustion
chambers and exhaust at constant
pressure.

GAS TURBINE
Principle of Operation:- Rotor is initially
brought to speed by starting means.
Atmospheric air is drawn into the
compressor and raised to static
pressure more than the atmospheric.
This high pressure air is allowed to
pass through continuous flow
Combustion Chambers where fuel is
ignited with high voltage igniters. The
product of combustion is expanded in
the turbine which cause it to spin and
thus applying a torque to the driven
accessories i.e. Generator
WORKING PRINCIPLE
BRATON
CYCLE
BRAYTON CYCLE
Developed by Georg Brayton (1832
-1890)
Heat is added and discharged at
constant pressure
Applied in Gas Turbines (GT)
(Combustion Turbines)
BRAYTON CYCLE
Efficiency
(K-1)/K
= 1 1/ rp
where
rp = compressor pressure ratio = p2/p1
k = gas constant
The Actual
Thermodynamic
cycle
For all practical reasons
the actual thermal
efficiency will depend
on
Pressure ratio
Turbine inlet Temp
Compressor inlet temp
Efficiency of Compressor
and Turbine
PRINCIPLE



FLANGE TO FLANGE VIEW OF
A GAS TURBINE

Model ISO Rating (kw) ISO Efficiency (%)
(1) MS1002 5070 24.5
(2) MS3142(J) 10450 25.6
(3) PG5371(PA) 26300 28.5
(4) PG6581(B) 42100 32.0
(5) PG6111(FA) 75900 35.0
(6) PG9171(E) 123400 33.8
(7) PG9231(EC) 169200 34.9
(8) PG9351(FA) 255600 36.5
(9) PG9551(H) 380,000 -
Note: ISO output is : 15 deg C, 60% RH, Zero MSL, Gas fuel
and standard Inlet/Exh. Pr. drops
GT MODELS AND RATING
GE Generator Drive Product Line
Model Fuel ISO Base
Rating(kW)
Heat Rate
(Btu/kWh)
Heat Rate
(kJ/kWh)
Exhaust
Flow
(lb/hr)
x10-3
Exhaust Flow
(kg/hr)
x10-3
Exhaust
Temp
(degrees F)
Exhaust
Temp
(degrees C)
Pressure Ratio
PG5371 (PA) Gas
Dist
26,070
25,570
12,060
12,180
12,721
12,847
985
998
446
448
905
906
485
486
10.6
10.6
PG6581 (B) Gas
Dist
42,100
41,160
10,640
10,730
11,223
11,318
1158
1161
525
526
1010
1011
543
544
12.2
12.1
PG6101 (FA) Gas
Dist
69,430
74,090
10,040
10,680
10,526
10,527
1638
1704
742
772
1101
1079
594
582
14.6
15.0
PG7121 (EA) Gas
Dist
84,360
87,220
10,480
10,950
11,054
11,550
2361
2413
1070
1093
998
993.
536
537
12.7
12.9
PG7241 (FA) Gas
Dist
171,700
183,800
9,360
9,965.
9,873
10,511
3543
3691
1605
1672
1119
1095
604
591
15.7
16.2
PG7251 (FB) Gas
Dist
184,400
177,700
9,245
9,975
9,752
10,522
3561
3703
1613
1677
1154
1057
623
569
18.4
18.7
PG9171 (E) Gas
Dist
122,500
127,300
10,140
10,620
10,696
11,202
3275
3355
1484
1520
1009
1003
543
539
12.6
12.9
PG9231 (EC) Gas
Dist
169,200
179,800
9,770
10,360
10,305
10,928
4131
4291
1871
1944
1034
1017
557
547
14.4
14.8
PG9351 (FA) Gas
Dist
255,600
268,000
9,250
9,920
9,757
10,464
5118
5337
2318
2418
1127
1106
608
597
15.3
15.8
STEAM TURBINE

The Steam Turbine
is Steam Driven
rotary engine that
converts Heat
Energy of Steam to
Mechanical Energy
at Shaft.

STEAM TURBINE

Working Principle

Steam Turbine works
on Rankin
Thermodynamic
Cycle
RANKINE CYCLE
Scottish engineer William Rankine (1820-
1872) developed a theory of steam cycles
Heat is added in a water boiler, where the
water becomes steam
Steam is fed to a steam turbine, which
generates mechanical energy After turbine
the steam becomes water again
in a condenser
RANKINE CYCLE
The efficiency varies from 20 % in
small subcritical steam turbines to
45 % in large double reaheat
supercritical
steam turbines The rankine cycle is
ideal for solid fuel (coal, wood)
power plants
RANKINE CYCLE
Steam turbines are most sold
machines for power plants as
measured in output
They are used in coal fired, nuclear
and combined cycle power plants
Coal and nuclear plants generate
about 50 % of world electricity
STEAM TURBINE
1-2 Exp. in Steam ST
2-3 Heat Rej. In Cond.
3-4 Compression in BFP
4-5 Heat addition in Eco
5-6 Heat addition in Blr
6-1 Heat addition in SH
Construction of steam turbines
1 steam pipeline
2 inlet control valve
3 nozzle chamber
4 nozzle-box
5 outlet
6 stator
7 blade carrier
8 casing
9 rotor disc
10 rotor
11 journal bearing
13 thrust bearing
14 generator rotor
15 coupling
16 labyrinth packing
19 steam bleeding (extraction)
21 bearing pedestal
22 safety governor
23 main oil pump
24 centrifugal governor
25 turning gear
29 control stage impulse blading
Construction of steam turbines
Construction of steam turbines
In combined cycle high
temperature exhaust gases of
gas turbine are made to pass
through HRSG to generate
steam and further this steam is
used in steam turbine for power
production. Thus cycle efficiency
is increased by about 50 %
COMBINED CYCLE
COMBINED CYCLE
COMBINED CYCLE
Combines a gas turbine (Brayton
cycle) and steam turbine (Rankine
Cycle)
About 66 % of power is generated in gas
turbine and 34 % in steam turbine
Efficiency of GTCC plant is typically
1.5 times the efficiency of the single
cycle gas turbine plant
GAS TURBINE WITH HRSG
HRSG
Air
Fuel
Exhaust gas
Steam
Turbine
Steam
G
G
Combined Cycle Power Plant
WHRB
15%
100%
33%
16%
36%
Gas Turbine
Input
Condensor
Air
Air
Fuel
Fuel
Exhaust gas
Exhaust gas
GT-1
GT-2
ST-1
Steam
G
G
G
255 MW
255 MW
276 MW
2 X 255 + 1 X 276 = 786 MW
Combined Module Cycle Configurations
Exhaust gas
Air
Fuel
Fuel
Exhaust gas
GT-1
GT-2
ST-1
Steam
Air
Fuel
GT-3
Air
Exhaust gas
3 X 140 + 1 X 230 = 650 MW
Combined Cycle Module Configurations
G
G
G
G
250 MW GT + 140 MW ST = 390 MW
Combined Cycle Module Configurations

Single Shaft Module
G
Air
Exhaust gas
Steam
Gas Turbine
Fuel
Steam Turbine
GAS TURBINE AUXILIARIES
STARTING MEANS- ENGINE/MOTOR/FC
LUBE OIL PUMPS - MOP
- AOP
- EOP
HYDRAULIC PUMPS- MHOP
- AHOP
AGB
COOLING WATER PUMP

GAS TURBINE AUXILIARIES
BOOSTER COMPRESSOR
ATOMIZING AIR COMPRESSOR
FUEL GAS CONDITIONING SKID
LP FUEL OIL PUMP
HP FUEL OIL PUMP
COMP. WASHING SKID
STARTING CLUTCH
GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS
AIR INLET SYSTEM
COMPRESSION SYSTEM
- AIR COMPRESSOR
- VIGVs
- STATOR BLADES
- ROTOR BLADES
- EGVs

INLET PLENUM
TURBINE FILTERS
TURBINE FILTERS
VIGVs
VIGVs
COMPRESSOR ROTOR
COMP. STATOR BLADES
COMP. ROTOR X- SECTION

GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS
COMBUSTION SYSTEM
- FUEL NOZZLES
- CLs
- TPs
- X- FIRE TUBES
- SPARK PLUGS
- FLAME SCANNERS
FUEL NOZZLE
FUEL NOZZLE

X- FIRE TUBES
COMBUSTION LINER
TRANSITION PIECE
SPARK PLUGS
FLAME SCANNER
GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS
EXPANSION
- I, II, III STAGE NOZZLES
- I, II, III STAGE BUCKETS
- I, II, III STAGE SHROUDS
- WHEEL SPACERS
U/H TURBINE VIEW
I STAGE BUCKETS
I STAGE NOZZLE

GAS TURBINE SYSTEMS
EXHAUST
-EXHAUST DIFFUSERS
- EXHAUST THERCOUPLES

HRSG & STEAM TURBINE
HRSG -
DIVERTER DAMPER
ECONOMIZER
FEED CONTROL STATION
EVAPORATORS
SUPER HEATERS
MAIN STEAM STOP VALVE
STEAM TURBINE
STEAM TURBINE
STEAM CONTROL & STOP VALVE
HP TURBINE
LP TURBINE
CONDENSER
SEALING STEAM SYSTEM
VACUUM PUMP

STEAM TURBINE AUXILIARIES
STEAM CONTROL SYSTEM
BARREN GEAR
SEALING SYSTEM
LUBRICATION SYSTEM
CEPs
BFPs
AUX. COOLING WATER SYSTEM
CONDENSER & COOLING SYSTEM
CONDENSER
COOLING TOWER
COOLING TOWER
COOLING TOWER
HRSG
TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES
Based on the steam
expansion-
- Impulse Turbine
- Reaction Turbine
TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES
TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES
Based on the direction
of steam flow-
- Radial Flow Turbine
- Axial Flow Turbine
TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES
TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES
Based on the no. of stages
- Single Stage Turbine
- Multi Stage Turbine
TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES


TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES
Based on the Power
Utilization-
- Industrial Turbine
- Transport Turbine
TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES
TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES
Based on the Exhaust Pressure

- Condensing Turbine
- Back pressure Turbine
- Extraction Turbine
TYPES OF STEAM TURBINES


QUESTIONS ?
K. S YADAV
Manager (M-I),PPCL
Contact
Cell - 09717694741
email- ksyadavipgcl@yahoo.co.in