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2011 Pearson Education, Inc.

Lectures by Stephanie Scher Pandolfi


BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE
FOURTH EDITION
SCOTT FREEMAN
48
Animal Reproduction
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Introduction
Reproduction is:

- unconscious goal of virtually everything an animal does
- fundamental attribute of life.
- impt issue for physicians, veterinarians, farmers, zookeepers, etc.

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Asexual vs Sexual Reproduction
Asexual reproduction:
- based on mitosis
- efficient
- offspring identical to each another & parent.

Sexual reproduction:
- based on meiosis & fusion of gametes
- offspring genetically different from
each other & parents.
Advantages of each?
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Asexual Reproduction - Individuals clone themselves
3 main mechanisms:
- offspring forms w/in or on parent, then breaks free &
grows on its own = mini-me
S. cerevisiae
1.
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a5oH
MjGqjyo
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- individual simply splits into 2+
2.
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- female offspring develop
from unfertilized eggs
(identical to mother no
males exist)
3.
- virgin-origin
ie: guppies
crustacean
, diploid
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Spring/Summer = parthenogenesis.

Late Summer/Fall switch to sexual reproduction & next Spring sexually-prod.
offspring hatch


.

Many species switch b/w asexually & sexual reprod.
released upon molting
ie: Daphnia (crustaceans) switch w/in yr.
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What Environmental Cues Trigger the Switch?
2 environmental conditions affect mode of reprod. in Daphnia:

1. Day length.

2. Population densityparticularly H
2
O quality & food supply.

Switched to sexual reprod. only if exposed to all of these

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- therefore, need 3 cues
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Why Do Daphnia start reproducing sexually when
environmental conditions worsen?
Hypothesize: genetically variable offspring have fitness helps in
environments w/deteriorating conditions (also seen in snail in parasite-
infested environ.)
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Fertilization: External vs. Internal
External: - aquatic environments - produce large # of gametes.
1. In response to
environ. -
lengthening days &
warmer H
2
O temp =
favorable season for
breeding.



2. In response to
chemical messengers,
pheromones.
Gamete release must be coordinated:
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Internal Fertilization: - terrestrial & aquatic animals.
Occurs in 1 of 2ways:
Copulation - sperm deposited directly into female reproductive tract

Males package sperm into spermatophore thats placed into females reprod. tract
by male or female.
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Sperm Competition:
- b/w sperm from different males to fertilize 1 female.

Dr. Parkers expts on dung flies: when 2 males mated w/single female, last to
copulate fathered 85% offspring.

= second-male advantage is widespread (insects)
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2
nd
males sperm physically dislodged & replaced 1
st
males gametes.
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Unusual Aspects of Mating
- Cryptic female choice - females choose last partner or physically eject sperm from
undesirable males.

-Femmes fatales - arthropod females cannibalize male before copulation is completed.

- Infidelityin monogamous bird species, 60 % of nests have 1+ illegitimate offspring

- Love darts - some species fire love darts into partner no contact

- Hermaphroditic (both male & female gonads) snails & slugs are - simultaneous
sperm deposition and cross-fertilization.

- Hypodermic insemination (bedbugs) structure analogous to hypodermic needle thru
females abdominal wall!


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Some Females Lay Eggs - Others Give Birth

Oviparous animals = egg-bearing fert. egg laid outside
mother's body, embryo develops externally
(sea-star, sea urchin, insects vs. birds, fish).

Viviparous species - egg remains in mother's body - nutrition
directly from mother.

Ovoviviparity - offspring develop in mother, but nourished by
nutrient-rich yolk in egg.
- natural selection may favor ovoviviparity or viviparity in cold habitats
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Key Concepts
Animal reproductive systs highly variable.

Some species switch b/w asexual & sexual reproduction.

Sexual reprod. - fertilization may be external or internal (egg
devel. may be inside or outside mothers body)
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asexual reproduction
cloning
budding
fission
Parthenogenesis
sexual reproduction
gametogenesis
gametes
zygote
external fertilization
pheromone
internal fertilization
sperm competition
second-male advantage
cryptic female choice
femme fatale
love dart
hermaphroditic
hypodermic insemination
oviparous
viviparous
ovoviviparous
Chapter Vocabulary
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There are no parthenogenic vertebrates.
a. True
b. False
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In what environments would you expect
external fertilization to be ineffective?
a. desert
b. pond
c. ocean
d. lake