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CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT

Module 2
Crafting the Curriculum




Prepared by:
Christy C. Ador

The planned and guided learning experiences
and intended learning outcomes, formulated
through the systematic reconstruction of
knowledge and experiences, under the auspices of
the school, for the learners continuous and
willful growth in the personal social competence.
( Daniel Tanner, 1980)

CURRICULUM DESIGN MODELS
Objective:

This lesson will present the different design
models curriculum and;

This will guide to discover that curricula are
organized.


This model focuses on the content of
the curriculum.

The subject centered design
corresponds mostly to the textbook
written for the specific subject.
EXAMPLES OF THE SUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGN
Subject design

is the oldest and the most familiar design for
teacher, parents and other laymen.


Discipline design
refers to the specific knowledge learned
through a method which the scholars use to
study a specific content of their fields.
EXAMPLES OF THE SUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGN
Correlation design

this comes from the core, correlated
curriculum design that links separate subject
designs in order to reduce fragmentation.

EXAMPLES OF THE SUBJECT-CENTERED DESIGN
Broad field design/interdisciplinary

this design was made to prevent the
compartmentalization of subjects and
integrate the contents that are related to
each other.


centered on certain aspects of the
learners themselves.

the learner is the center of the educative
process.
EXAMPLES OF THE LEARNER-CENTERED DESIGN
Child-centered design

( John Dewey, Rouseau, Pestallozi, and Froebel)

the curriculum design is anchored on the needs
and interests of the child.

the learner is not considered as a passive
individual but as one who engages with his/her
environment.


EXAMPLES OF THE LEARNER-CENTERED DESIGN
Experience-centered design


experiences of the learners become the
starting point of the curriculum, thus the
school environment is left open and free.
Humanistic design

( Abraham Maslow and Carl Rogers)

the development of self is the ultimate
objective of learning.

it stresses the whole person and integration
of thinking, feeling and doing.
EXAMPLES OF THE LEARNER-CENTERED DESIGN
draws on social problem, needs, interests
and abilities of the learners.

content cuts across the subject boundaries
and must be based on the needs, concerns
and abilities of the students .
Life-situation design

it uses the past and present experiences of the of
learners as a means to analyze the basic areas of
living.

the pressing immediate problem of the society
and the students existing concerns are utilized.
EXAMPLES OF THE PROBLEM-CENTERED DESIGN
Core design

it centers on the general education and the
problem are based on the common human
activities.

the central focus of the core design includes
common needs, problems, concerned of the
learners.
EXAMPLES OF THE PROBLEM-CENTERED DESIGN

DIMENSIONS AND PRINCIPLES OF
CURRICULUM DESIGN
Objective:

this lesson will allow us to consider some
of the dimensions and provide some
principles in its use in curriculum
development.



Scope

defines as all the content, topics,
learning experiences and organizing
threads comprising the educational
plan.


Scope

provides boundaries in curriculum as it
applies to the different educational levels.

it should include time, diversity and
maturity of the learners, complexity of
content, and level of education.

Sequence

contents and experiences are arranged
in hierarchical manner, where the basis
can either be logic of the subject or on
the developmental patterns of growth of
the cognitive, affective and psychomotor
domains.
(Smith, Stanley and Shore, 1957)
Simple to Complex learning
content and experiences are organized
from simple to complex, from concrete to
abstract, form easy to difficult.

Prerequisite learning
it means that there are fundamental things
to be learned ahead.



Whole to part learning
the meaning can very well be understood if
everything will be taken as a whole.

Chronological learning
the order of events is made as a basis of
sequencing the content and the experiences. This
can be arranged from the most recent to the
distant past or vice versa.

(Posner and Rudnitsky 1957)

a. Space
- spatial relation will be the basis for the
sequence.
b. Time
- the content is based from the earliest to the
more recent.
c. Physical attributes
- this principles refers to the physical
characteristics of the phenomena.
a. Class relation
- refers to the group or set of things that share
common practices. Teaching the characteristics
of the class ahead of the member of the class.

b. Proportional relations
- a statement that asserts something. Sequence
are arranged so that the evidence presented
ahead before proposition.
- this is based on the scientific method of
inquiry. Based on the process of
generating, discovering and verifying
knowledge, content and experiences are
sequence logically and methodically.
a. Empirical prerequisites
- sequence is primarily based on empirical
study where the prerequisite is required before
learning the next level.
b. Familiarity
- prior learning is important in sequence. What
is familiar should be taking up first before the
unfamiliar.
c. Difficulty
- easy content is taken ahead than the
difficult one.

d. Interest
- contents and experiences that stimulate
interest are those that are novel. These can
arouse curiosity and interest of learners.
Continuity
- this process enables learners strengthen the
permanency of learning and development of
skills. Gerome Bruner called this spiral
curriculum where the content is organized
according to the interrelationship between the
structure of the basis ideas of a major
discipline.


Integration
Everything is integrated and
interconnected. Life is a series of
emerging themes.
- organization is drawn from the
world themes from real life concerns.
Articulation
Vertical Articulation
- the contents are arranged from level to level or
grade to grade so that the content in the lower level is
connected to the next level.
Horizontal Articulation
- happens when the association is among or
between elements that happen at the same time.
Balance
- equitable assignment of content,
time, experiences and other elements
to establish balance is needed in
curriculum design.

APPROACHES TO THE CURRICULUM
Objective
this lesson will bring the various phases of
designing a curriculum.
identify the commonly used approaches in the
design of curriculum.
enhance and integrate the experiences and
observations based on the features and
characteristics of the different approaches.
1. Who teaches?
-- the Teacher
Good teachers bring a shining light
into the learning environment, and are
needed to sort out the knowledge from
the information but more important,
excellent teachers are needed to sort the
wisdom from the knowledge.
2. Who do the teachers teach?
-- the Learners
the learners are at the center stage in
the educative process. They are the most
factors in the learning environment.
There is no teaching without them.
they come from different sectors of the
society.
3. What do the teachers teach?
-- knowledge, skills, values
to help the learners cope with the rapid
changes to understand and to succeed in the new
work in the work place, we must design a
curriculum oriented to tomorrow.
4. How do teachers teach?
-- Strategies and Methods
Teachers should select teaching methods,
learning activities and instructional
materials or resources appropriate to
learners and aligned to the objective of
the lesson. Situations should be creative
to encourage learners to use higher order
thinking skills.
5. How much of the teaching was
learned?
-- Performance
These learning outcomes indicate the
performance of both teachers and the learners.
Learning outcomes are the product performance
of the learners as the result of teaching.
Performance is the feature of a curriculum that
should be given emphasis.
6. With whom do we teach?
-- Community Partners
Teaching is a collaborative undertaking
Partnership is the means not an end to be
pursued in itself. Society changes, teachers will
have a new beginning, an opportunity to recast
their role in their communities, to change their
attitude to their community, to change the
attitude of their communities and societies about
them.
REFERENCE:
Bilbao, Purita,. et.al, (2008) Curriculum
Development,. LORIMAR Publishing Company

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