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DM Plant consists of two pressure vessels containing cation and anion

exchange resins.
Various types of ion exchange resins can be used for both the cation
and the anion process, depending on the type of impurities in the water
and what the fnal water is used for.
DEMINERALIZATION PLANT
USE OF DEMINERALISED WATER
he high!purity water from a demineralised plant is typically used
for high pressure boiler feed where high!purity water is a re"uirement.
TYPES OF RESINS USED IN
DEMINERALISATION
he type of resins employed and selected depends on numerous factors#
reated water "uality re"uired
$nput water "uality
Presence of organic foulants
here is a vast range of resins to select from, e.g. enhanced capacity
resins, gel polystyrene resins, clear gel resins, resins for water containing
organic matter, resins to achieve low silica levels.
WATER FLOW DIAGRAM
CLARIFLOCC
ULATOR
GRAVITY
FILTER
D.M.
PLANT
SOFTENING
PLANT
COOLING
WATER
U/G STORAGE
TANK
RAW
WATER
DRINKING
WATER
BOILER
MAKEUP
C.W.
MAKEUP
D.M. PLANT
WEAK
ACID
CATION
STRONG
ACID
CATION
ACF
WEAK
BASE
ANION
STRONG
BASE
ANION
MIXED
BED
DEGASSER
D.M.
WATER
STORAGE
TANK
From filter
water pumps
DM
water
storage
tank
ACF
WAC
SAC WBA
SBA
MB
DEGASSER
Air
To main plant for
boiler make up
For circuit rinse
D.M. PLANT
ACTIVATED CARBON FILTER
%ervice and &egeneration ' (ac) wash*
%$ ! %ervice $nlet
%+ ! %ervice +utlet
(,$ ! (ac)wash $n
(,+ ! (ac)wash +ut
&+ ! &inse +ut
Air
vent
SO
SI
BO
RO
BI
o -ation
.xchange
r
Drain
,ater "uality at di/erent stages of Demineralisation process#!
0eed water to DM plant
urbidity ! 12 34
5-0 out
&esidual chlorine ! 3il
urbidity ! 1 6.7 34
-ation .xchanger out
3a ! 12 ppm
Degasser out
Dissolved -+
2
! 17 ppm

D.M. PLANT
5nion .xchanger out
%ilica ! 1 266 ppb
-onductivity ! 1 86 s9cm
p: ! ;.< ! =.2
Mixed bed out
%ilica ! 1 26 ppb
-onductivity ! 1 6.8 s9cm
p: ! ;.< ! =.2
D.M. PLANT
ypically, the cation resin operates in the hydrogen cycle.
he cations in the water 'i.e. calcium, magnesium and sodium* pass
through the cation exchange resin where they are chemically exchanged
for hydrogen ions.
he water then passes through the anion exchange resin where the
anions 'i.e. chloride, sulphate, nitrate and bicarbonate* are chemically
exchanged for hydroxide ions.
The fnal wate !"# th$% &"'e%% '"n%$%t% e%%ent$all( "! h()"*en $"n%
an) h()"+$)e $"n%, wh$'h $% the 'he#$'al '"#&"%$t$"n "! &-e wate.
CATION E.C/ANGER
ANION E.C/ANGER
Chemica Reac!i"#$ i# Demi#e%ai&a!i"# '%"ce$$(
E)ha*$!i"# "+ ca!i"# %e$i#(
R,- . Na RNa . -
/
SO
0

K RK -C
Ca R
/
Ca -NO
1
M2 R
/
M2 -NO
1
-
/
CO
1
3i# !he +"%m "+ ch"%i4e 5 3%e$i# i# 3 %em"6e4 78
$*'ha!e5 7ica%7"#a!e e)cha*$!e4 ae%a!i"# i#
#i!%a!e5 7ica%7"#a!e e!c.9 +"%m9 4e2a$$i+ie%9
Re2e#e%a!i"# "+ !he ca!i"# %e$i#:
R-Na NaC
R,K . -C R- . KC
R,Ca CaC
/
R,M2 M2C
/
3e)ha*$!e4 3+%e$h 3%em"6e4/4%ai#e4
%e$i#9 %e$i#9 78 %i$i#29
E)ha*$!i"# "+ a#i"# %e$i#(
A#i"# Re$i#( RO- . -
/
SO
0
RSO
0
. -
/
O
-C RC
-NO
1
RNO
1
3Mi#e%a aci4$ 3%e$i#
"7!ai#e4 +%"m i# e)ha*$!e4
ca!i"# e)cha#2e9 +%"m9
Re2e#e%a!i"# "+ !he a#i"# %e$i#(
A#i"# %e$i#( RSO
0
. NaO- RO- . Na
/
SO
0
RC NaC
RNO
1
NaN"
1
3e)ha*$!e4 %e$i#9 3+%e$h 3%em"6e4 78
%e$i#9 %i#$i#29
TYPES OF RESINS USED IN DEMINERALI:ATION PLANT
;.S!%"#2 aci4 ca!i"# %e$i#$ 3SAC9(
The strong acid cation resin derived their exchange activity from sulphonic
acid group(-SO3H) phosphonic (H2O3-)! "hen operated on hydrogen
cycle these remove nearly all cations present in ra# #ater! The strong
acid cations can convert neutral salts into corresponding acids! $fter
exhaustion the resin can %e regenerated #ith H&l('()) *a&l(+,() for
deminerali-ation and softening purpose. repectively!
/.Wea< aci4 ca!i"# %e$i#$3WAC9(
The #ea/ acid cation resins have 0&OOH group as exchange sites!
These resins have the capa%ility of removing all cations associated #ith
al/alinity to a much greater degree than S$& resin! These do not function
efficiently %elo# pH 1!,. so these cannot split neutral salts effectively! The
main asset of "$& resins is their high regeneration efficiency #hich not
only reduces the amount of acid re2uired for regeneration. %ut also
minimi-es the #aste disposal pro%lem! These are useful #here there is
high degree of hardness and al/alinity! 3re2uently these are used in
con4unction #ith a strong acidic polishing resin!
1.S!%"#2 7a$e a#i"# %e$i#3SBA9(
5
The Strong %ase anion resins derived their functionality from
2uaternary ammonium exchange sites!These are capa%le of
exchanging anions li/e &l-.H&O3-.Silica! T#o type of S6$ resins
are commercially availa%le and commonly referred as Type-7 )
Type-77!
5
Type-7 site have three methyl groups #hile in Type-77 resins an
ethanol group replaces one of the methyl groups! The Type-7 resin
has higher %asicity. greater chemical sta%ility %ut some#hat less
exchange capacity and lo# regeneration efficiency particularly
#hen the resin is exhausted #ith monovalent anions i!e! chloride
and nitrate! 7t is effective against organics ) silica! The Type-7
resins are favoured for the high temperature applications #here
chemical sta%ility difference is most apparent!
5
The Type-77 resin is less sta%le %ut having slightly more capacity
and regeneration efficiency! 7n general. a Type077 S6$ resin is
recommended #here silica effluent 2uality is not as critical and
also #here a relatively high chloride and8or sulphate content
prevails in ra# #ater!
5
$fter exhaustion S6$ resin can %e regenerated #ith '( *aOH!
0.Wea< 7a$e a#i"# %e$i#3WBA9(
5
"ea/ anion resins derive their functionality from primary
(9*H2).secondary(9-*H9:)) tertiary amine (93*)groups! The
#ea/ #ea/-%ase anion resins remove free minerals acidity(3;$)
such as H&l ) H2SO' %ut doesn:t remove #ea/ly ioni-ed acids
such silicic acid and %icar%onates!
5
The main advantage of #ea/ %ase exchangers is that they can
%e regenerated #ith stoichiometric amount of regenerant. and are
therefore. much more efficient! These have a higher capacity for
the removal of chlorides. sulphates!
5
These are used in con4unction #ith S6$ in deminerali-ation
system to reduce regenerant cost and to attract organics there%y
protecting the more suscepti%le strongly %asic resins. and for
service in #hich car%on dioxide and silica are not important!
"here silica removal is not critical. "6$ may %e used %y
themselves in con4unction #ith air stripper to remove
&O2(degaser)!
CATIONIC LOAD ( = M,a<ai#i!8 . EMA
A#i"#ic "a4 = M,a<ai#i!8 . EMA . SILICA . CO/
Ca%7"#ic aci4 7ei#2 >ea<8 i"#i$e4 2e! %ea4i8 4i$$"cia!e4 !" +"%m CO/
a#4 >a!e%.
DEGASSER ( 'a$$i#2 !he >a!e% 4">#>a%4$ !h%"*2h a 'ac<e4 c"*m#
>he%e ai% i$ 7"># i# c"*#!e% c*%%e#! 4i%ec!i"# 78 mea#$ "+ a 7">e%.
Cat$"n E+'han*e An) An$"n E+'han*e
DF 0 D"wn Fl"w
NF 0 N"11le 2-%h$n*
Re*eneat$"n l$ne
t" wea3
e+'han*e
Drain
Drain
Weak Strong
SI
SO
SO
A'$)4Al3al$ $n5e't$"n
DF
Air
Vent
Air
Vent
NF
SI
BO
BO
BI
BI
RO
RO
Se6$'e an) Re*eneat$"n
Re ?2e#e%a!i"# "+ mi)e4 7e4 e)cha#2e% (
;. Re$i# $e'a%a!i"#/7ac<>a$h
2! acid and al/ali in4ection
3! acid and al/ali displacement 0 using <; #ater
'! <rain to %ed level
1! $ir mix
=! 3ill up
>! 3inal rinse
he resin in the pressure vessel has about 76> free space above
the resin.
his free space allows bac)washing,removal of any entrained
solids.
,ater and acid9caustic regeneration is carried out in a down!?ow
direction.
CO0CURRENT FLOW REGENERATION
The e*eneant a'$) an) 'a-%t$' &a%%e% $n the "&&"%$te )$e't$"n t"
the %e6$'e 2"w wate.
W$th '"-nte02"w e*eneat$"n, the e*eneant &a%%e% th"-*h
the e%$n nea t" the "-tlet "! the -n$t .
COUNTER0CURRENT FLOW REGENERATION
P"l$%h$n* #$+e) 7e)% '"#e a!te the 'at$"n an) an$"n
%tan)a) 6e%%el%
an), a% the na#e $#&l$e%, the( ae thee t" &"l$%h the
wate.
The 7e) $% an $nt$#ate #$+ "! an$"n an) 'at$"n e%$n%.
MI.ED0BED DEMINERALISATION
MI.ED BED
Se6$'e an) Re*eneat$"n
Air
Vent
SI
SO
Drain
Alkali injection
Aci injection
NF
$ir
Ca!i"# E)cha#2e Mecha#i$m
S!a%! "+ %*# D*%i#2 !he %*# E#4 "+ %*#
Ca
M2
Na
Ca
M2
Na
Ca
M2
Na
Na
A#i"# E)cha#2e Mecha#i$m
SO
0
/,
C
,
SiO
/
SO
0
/,
C
,
SiO
/
SO
0
/,
C
,
SiO
/
Ca!i"# e)ha*$!i"# ea4$ !" Na ea<a2e
>hie a#i"# e)ha*$!i"# ea4$ !" SiO
/
ea<a2e
R"e "+ WTP( T" '%"4*ce U!%a,'*%e >a!e%
SiO2: ? 2, pp%
H @ =!A and / @ ,!,As8cm (upto)
R"e "+ 4i++e%e#! 7e4$ i# DM 'a#!
U#i! Rem"6e$ !he i"#ic "a4
5 "ea/ $cid &ation : $l/aline hardness (temperature hardness)
5 Strong $cid &ation : permanent hardness Bslip from
"$&B3eB*a
5 "ea/ 6ase $nion : 3;$ (&l
-
SO
-
'
.*O
-
3
. 3
-
)
5 Strong 6ase $nion : $ll anions slip from "6$ SiO
2
. slip
from degaser!C
5 ;ixed 6ed : ionic slips from previous unit-1
(final polisher)
5<egeneration removes &O
2
%y air agitation hence economically lessening
the ionic load for anion exchange unit-1! *ormally after a #ell designed unit-
the degassed #ater #ill have al/anity of = mg8Dil
as &a&O
3
!
Than3%