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Performance-based education poses a
challenge for teachers to design
instruction that is task-oriented.

Based on the premise that learning needs
to be connected to the lives of the students
through relevant tasks that focus on
students ability to use their knowledge and
skills in meaningful ways.

Product-Oriented Learning
Products can include a wide range of student
works that target specific skills.

Communication skills such as those
demonstrated in reading, writing, speaking,
and listening, or psychomotor skills
requiring physical abilities to perform a
given task
Using rubrics can help evaluate
student performance or
proficiency in any given task as it
relates to a final product or
learning outcome.
The learning competencies associated
with products or outputs are linked
with an assessment of the level of
expertise manifested by the product.

3 Levels
Novice or beginner level
Skilled level
Expert level

Other ways to state product-
oriented learning competencies
Level 1: Does the finished product or project
illustrates the minimum expected parts
or functions?

Level 2: Does the finished product or project
contain additional parts and functions on
top of the minimum requirements?

Level3: Does the finished product contain the basic
minimum parts and functions, have
additional features on top of the
minimum, and is aesthetically pleasing?

The desired product is a representation of a cubic
prism made out of cardboard in an elementary
geometry class.

Learning competencies: The final product
submitted by the students must:

1. Possess the correct dimensions (5x5x5)

2. Be sturdy, made of durable cardboard and
properly fastened together

3. Be pleasing to the observer, preferably properly
colored for aesthetic purposes
The product desired is a scrapbook illustrating the
historical event called EDSA I People Power

Learning competencies: The scrapbook presented by
the students must:
1. Contain pictures, newspaper clippings, and other
illustrations of the main characters of EDSA I

2. Contain remarks and captions for the illustrations
made by the student himself for the roles played
by the characters of EDSA I People Power

3. Be presentable, complete, informative and
pleasing to he reader of the scrapbook

Example for assessing output of
short-term tasks
The desired output consists of the output in a typing
Learning competencies: The final typing outputs of
the students must:
1. Possess no more than five errors in spelling
2. Possess no more than 5 errors in spelling while
observing proper format based on the document
to be typewritten
3. Posses no more than 5 errors in spelling, has the
proper format, and is readable and presentable

Product-oriented performance based learning are
Task Designing
The design of the task depends on what the teacher
desires to observe as outputs of the students.
1. Complexity. It should be within the range of
the ability of the students
2. Appeal. The project should be appealing to
students and should lead to self-discovery of
information by the students.
3. Creativity. It needs to encourage students to
exercise creativity and divergent thinking.
4. Goal-based. The project is produced to attain a
learning objective. Thus, reinforcing learning.


Paper folding is a traditional Japanese art.
However, it can be used as an activity to teach
the concept of plane and solid figures in
geometry. Provide the students with a given
number of colored papers and ask them to
construct as many plane and solid figures from
these papers without cutting them (by paper
folding only)

Scoring Rubrics
These are descriptive scoring
schemes that are developed by
teachers to guide the analysis of
the products or processes of
students efforts.

Criteria Setting
Criteria are statements which
identify what really counts in
the final output.
Identify substatements that would make the
major criteria more focused and objective.

Example: Essay on The Three Hundred
Years of Spanish Rules in the Philippines

Interrelates the chronological events in an
interesting manner
Identifies the key players in each period of
the Spanish rule and the roles that they
Succeeds in relating the history of
Philippine Spanish rule
When are scoring rubrics an
appropriate evaluation technique?
Evaluate group activities
Oral presentations

Where and when a scoring rubric
is used does not depend on the
grade level or subject, but rather
on the purpose of the assessment
Other Methods
Checklists are appropriate for evaluation when
the information that is sought is limited to the
determination of whether specific criteria have
been met.

Scoring rubrics are based on descriptive scales
and support the evaluation of the extent to
which criteria have been met.
If the purpose of assessment have been met

Benefits of scoring rubrics:
1. They support the examination of the extent to
which the specified criteria have been reached.

2. They provide feedback to students concerning
how to improve their performances
Process of Developing Scoring
1. Identify the qualities and attributes that you
wish to observe in the students outputs that
would demonstrate their level of proficiency

2. Decide whether a holistic or analytical rubric
would be appropriate

In analytic scoring rubric, each criteria is
considered one by one and the descriptions of
the scoring levels are made separately while in
holistic rubric, the collection of criteria is
considered throughout the construction of each
level of the scoring rubric and the result is a
single descriptive scoring schemes.

3. Identify and define the criteria for the
top level and lowest level of
4. Create additional categories such as
average, etc. Each score category
should be defined using descriptors of
the work rather than value-judgment
about the work
Example: Students sentences
contain no errors in subject-verb
agreements, is preferable than
students sentences are good

5. Test whether scoring rubric is
reliable. Ask two or more
teachers to score the same set of
projects or outputs and correlate
their individual assessments
Holistic vs. Analytical

Holistic rubrics give a single score or
rating for an entire product or
performance based on overall
impression of a students work.
The ratter considers all quality
judgments in one big component and
overall judgment and comes up with
one single score.

Example of a Holistic scoring rubric
designed to evaluate college writing
Major Criterion: Meets Expectations for a first Draft of a Professional Report
The document can be easily followed. A combination of the following are
apparent in the document:
1. Effective transitions are used through.
2. A professional format is used.
3. The graphics are descriptive and clearly support the documents purpose.
The document is clear and concise and appropriate grammar is used
The document can be easily followed. A combination of the following are
apparent in the document:
1. Basic transitions are used,
2. Structured format is used.
3. Some supporting graphics are provided, but are not clearly explained.

The document contains minimal distractions that appear in a
combination of the following forms:
1. Flow in thought
2. Graphical presentations
3. Grammar/mechanics
Needs Improvement
Organization of document is difficult to follow due to a combination of
the following:
1. Inadequate transitions
2. Rambling format
3. Insufficient or irrelevant information
4. Ambiguous graphics
The document contains numerous distractions that appear in the
combination of the following forms:
1. Flow in thought
2. Graphical presentation
3. Grammar/mechanics
There appears to be no organization of the documents contents
Sentences are difficult to read and understand
Excellent level
Student shows complete understanding of the tasks and concepts
Clear identification of key concepts and important elements
Excellent writing style
Pertinent insight and demonstration of appropriate application of main ideas
Good level
Understanding of most critical concepts
Shows identification of some key concepts but most of the parts are missing
Adequate writing style with minor errors, some limited clarity in expressions
Scarce demonstration of application of main ideas
Poor level
Misunderstanding of majority of concepts or no understanding of concepts and
Irrelevant or illegible response that has no relation to the key concepts
Unsuccessful attempt to communicate
Lack of demonstration in application of main ideas
Example of Holistic

Holistic Rubrics Are Suitable for
Judging simple products or performances
Getting a quick snapshot of overall quality or achievement;
often used when a large number of students are graded
Judging the impact of a product or performance more than
the specific detailed parts of the performance.
There is no detailed analysis of the strengths and
weaknesses of the performance or product, so holistic
rubrics are not useful as diagnostics or for giving
students detailed feedback on their performance. Holistic
rubrics offer little in the way of help to students who
would improve their performance.

Analytical rubrics divide a product into essential
dimensions (traits), and each dimension is
judged separately. A separate score is given
for each dimension or trait considered
important for the assessed performance.
Scoring of each trait can be done by using a
Likert scale (e.g., 1 to 5 where 1 is poor
quality, 3 is average, and 5 is excellent

Analytical Rubric



4 excellent

3 very good

2 Good

1 needs improvement


The poster is
attractive in term
of design lay out

The poster is
attractive in term
of design lay out

The poster is
attractive thought it
may be a bit messy

The poster is
distractingly messy or
very poorly design it is
not attractive


Several of the
graphics used on
the poster reflect a
exceptional degree
of student
creativity in their
creation and

One or two of the
graphics used on
the poster reflect
student creativity
in their creation or

The graphic are
made by the
student but are
based on the design
or ideas of others.

The graphic are made
by the student but
based on the design or
ideas of others.


Graphics are all in
focus and the
content easily
viewed &identified
from 6ft away

Most graphics are
in focus and the
content easily
viewed &identified
from 6ft away

Most graphics are in
focus &the content
is easily viewed &
identified from 4ft

Many graphics not clear
or too small

A, excellent 10-12
B, above average 7-9
C, below average 6-5
D, needs improvement 4-0
Analytical Rubric Are Suitable for
Judging complex performances that involve multiple dimensions (skills that
must be assessed). Each step in the rubric can be designed to measure
one specific trait.
Provide more specific information and feedback to students about their
strengths and weaknesses.
Can be used to target instruction to specific areas in need for improvement.
Analytical rubrics help students come to a better understanding about the
nature and quality of work they must perform.
More time consuming to craft and use in grading
Lower inter-rater agreement because of the many and detailed traits
Less desirable in large scale assessment context when many students must
be graded and when speed in grading is essential

Guidelines for Stating
Performance Criteria
1. Identify the steps or features of the
performance or task to be assessed
imagining yourself performing it,
observing students performing it or
inspecting finished products.

2. List the important criteria of the
performance or product.

3. Try to keep the performance criteria
few so that they can be reasonably
observed and judged.
4. Have teachers think through the criteria as a

5. Express the criteria in terms of observable
student behavior or product characteristics.

6. Avoid vague and ambiguous words like
correctly, appropriately, and good.

7. Arrange the performance assessment
instruments to use or modify them before
constructing them.
Scoring Rubric for Response
Journal Questions
3 Excellent.
Answers are very complete and accurate.
Most answers are supported with specific information from the reading, including
direct quotations
Sentence structure is varied and detailed
Mechanics are accurate, including spelling, use of capitals, and appropriate

2 Good.
Answers are usually complete and accurate.
These answers are supported with specific information from the reading.
Sentence structure is varied. Mechanics are generally accurate including spelling, use
of capitals, and appropriate punctuation.

1 Needs Improvement.
Answers are inaccurate.
These answers need to be supported with specific information.
Sentence structure is incomplete. Mechanics need significant improvement.

Rosita De Guzman-Santos, Ph.D. ADVANCED
EVALUATION (Assessment of Learning 2)