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CHAPTER 3

PROJECT CONTROL AND MONITORING


CC603: PROJECT MANAGEMENT
MOHD RUSHDY BIN YAACOB
RAFIKULLAH BIN DERAMAN
POLISAS
Chapter 3 - Project Planning,
Scheduling and Controlling 2
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION

Mrs. Maria, your blood pressure is


quite high. But. dont worry, I will
ask my assistant to monitor the
pressure hourly. And please take
medicine that will gien to you
shortly to control your pressure.!
"aid #r Allan to Mrs. Maria.
3
INTRODUCTION
INTRODUCTION

Monitoring and controlling procee are !er"


i#portant in our li$e% Monitoring in!ol!e
deter#ining what in$or#ation to collect& how,
when and who 'ill collect the in$or#ation& anal"i
o$ the in$o& and reporting current progre%

(o'e!er controlling in ter# o$ a project i a


proce o$ co#paring the actual per$or#ance 'ith
)aeline per$or#ance and dicerning an" de!iation%
The project #anage#ent tea# then deal 'ith thi
de!iation, anal"e it, and ugget olution to
)ring the chedule )ac* on trac*, i$ poi)le% In
i#ple 'ord, it #eaure and e!aluate the
progre and per$or#ance o$ a project%
4
Proect Planning an!
Proect Planning an!
Controlling
Controlling
O"ecti#e$

%o arrange the acti#itie$ a&&ro&riatel'

%o (a)e a reali$tic ti(e $che!*ling

%o (a)e a re$o*rce$ e$ti(ation an!


&lanning

%o i(&le(ent ti(e an! co$t


controlling

%o ea$e the contract a!(ini$tration


5
Sche!*ling %echni+*e$
Sche!*ling %echni+*e$
6
+igure ,%2 Techni-ue o$ Project Planning, Scheduling and Controlling
Planning, Scheduling
And controlling Techniques

Bar
Charts
Matrix
Schedules
Linear Balance
Method

Critical Path
Method (CPM)
Progress Curve or
SCurves
Proect Sche!*ling
Proect Sche!*ling
%echni+*e$
%echni+*e$

By charts
Gantt chart or bar chart.
Linked bar chart/ Modified Bar Chart

By net work Techniques


A-O-A (Activity on arrow)
o
C.P.M (Critica !ath "#tho$)
o
P.E.R.T (Programme evaluation Review Techniue!"
A-O-N (Activity on no$#)
o
P.D.M (Pr#c#$#nc# Dia%ra""in% "#tho$)

L.B.S (Line of baance syste!"


1
,antt Chart or Bar Chart
,antt Chart or Bar Chart

Bar Chart wa! develo#ed b$ %enr$ &antt in '(')

*t i! a gra#hical re#re!entation of work activitie!

+ct! a! #lanning,!cheduling model and re#orting,control model

The length of bar re#re!ent! duration of activit$


1!
!
"# Tas$ %a&e ' Co&(lete
) Site (osession )**'
+ Setting ,ut )**'
3 -xcavate )**'
4 Pad .ooting )**'
5 Colu&n Stu&( )**'
6 /round Bea& )**'
0 /rd1 .lr1 Sla2 3 #oc$ing 4ard )**'
5 A(ron Sla2 3 Su2 Soil 3 Para&eter #rain *'
! /rd1 .lr1 Colu&n )**'
)* )st1 .lr1 Bea& 3 Sla2 3 Staggered .loor )**'
)) )st1 .loor Colu&n )**'
)+ 6oo7 Bea& 0*'
)3 6oo7 Structure 3 Covering 4*'
)4 -xt1 8all 3 "nt1 8all 6*'
)5 #oor 3 8indo9 3 /lass *'
)6 "nt1 8all 3 Ceiling .inishes *'
)0 "nt1 .lr1 .inishes 3 :and 6ailing *'
)5 -xt1 8all 3 Ceiling .inishes *'
)! -xt1 .loor .inishes *'
+* Plu&2ing 3 Sanitar; "nstallation *'
+) 6oad 3 Car(ar$ 3 <er2 3*'
++ Site Clearing *'
+3 Tur7ing 3 Landsca(ing *'
+4 6a&( *'
+5 -arth9or$s )**'
+6 6u22ish Bin Center 3 Pu&( :ouse 3 Toilet 65'
+0 Soil #rainage 3 Se9erage !5'
+5 Sur7ace 8ater #rainage 0*'
+! -xt1 8ater 6eticulation *'
3* -lectrical 3 Tele(hone +*'
3) .ire (rotection *'
3+ Air conditioner *'
33 :anding ,ver Practical Co&(letion *'
)**'
)**'
)**'
)**'
)**'
)**'
)**'
*'
)**'
)**'
)**'
0*'
4*'
6*'
*'
*'
*'
*'
*'
*'
3*'
*'
*'
*'
)**'
65'
!5'
0*'
*'
+*'
*'
*'
0=)*
) + 3 4 5 6 0 5 ! )* )) )+ )3 )4 )5 )6 )0 )5 )! +* +) ++ +3 +4 +5 +6 +0 +5 +! 3* 3) 3+ 33 34
>une >ul; August Se(te&2er ,cto2er %ove&2er #ece&2er >anuar;
Bar Chart$
Bar Chart$
)*
+igure ,%3 Techni-ue o$ Project Planning, Scheduling and Controlling
-
Simple graphical
-
Easy for general
comprehension
-
Wide spread used in industry
-
Mostly used in small project
-
Fairly broad planning and
scheduling tools, so they
require less revision and
updating than more
sophisticated systems
-
Very cumbersome as the number
of line activities, or bars
increases
-
Logical interconnections and
constraints of the various
activities is not epressed
-
!ifficult to use it for
forecasting the effects that
changes in a particular
activity "ill have on the
overall schedule
A"#ANTAGE$ "%$A"#ANTAGE$
A#$anta%es &antt Chart or Bar Chart
A#$anta%es &antt Chart or Bar Chart

+bilit$ to clearl$ and uickl$ #re!ent the !tate! of #ro-ect.

To conve$ often to u##er management. the over all !tatu! of a #ro-ect.

/o e0ten!ive training i! reuired to learn how to e0tract in formation from


them.

The #eriod reuired for e0ecution of each activit$ or o#eration can be


ob!erved.

1# date #rogre!! of each activit$.

Re!ource aggregation.

Lagging of activitie! can be noticed to manage work.


1&
Li!itation' (isa#$anta%es &antt Chart or
Li!itation' (isa#$anta%es &antt Chart or
Bar Chart
Bar Chart

Com#licated inter, de#endencie! of variou! item of work can not be de#icted

The critical activitie! can not be !hown b$ bar chart!.

Bar! on chart do not !how the actual #rogre!! becau!e the!e onl$ re#re!ent the
time ela#!ed in a #articular activit$. %ence it i! not #o!!ible to detect till the
allotted i! over and work remain! in com#lete a! the rate of #rogre!! i! not !hown
!e#aratel$.

*t i! ver$ difficult to find out the alternative cour!e! of action the$ might be taken
and effect of each on #ro-ect com#letion i! e0erci!ed in ca!e of variation of the
con!truction #rogramme from the #lanned #rogramme. The length and #o!ition
can not be ad-u!ted.
1'
Sa(&le o- Bar Chart$
Sa(&le o- Bar Chart$
NO(

"E$CR%PT%ON

MONT)
1 * 3 ! 6 & ' + 10
# Mobili$ation
% Foundation Ecavation
& !iversion Stage
' Foundation (routing
) !am *oncrete
+ ,nstall -utlet (ates
. ,nstall /rash 0ac1s
2 3restress
4 0adial (ates
#5 Spill"ay 6ridge
## *urtain (rout
#% !ismantle 3lant, *lean 7p
)3
Ta)le ,%. /ar Chart $or Concrete 0ra!it"-1rch Da#
Ori,i-al $ched.le
Act.al
/ro,ress
Bar Charts
Bar Charts

E0a1/le 3(1
1 project conit o$ i2 acti!itie that hould )e done in a period o$
ti#e% Tr" to create a )ar chart to eae the project planning and
cheduling%
1cti!it" 1 3 . 'ee*, tarting $ro# . Oct 24.3
1cti!it" / 3 2 'ee*, tarting $ro# 5 Oct 24.3
1cti!it" C 3 3 'ee*, tarting $ro# .5 Oct 24.3
1cti!it" D 3 2 'ee*, tarting $ro# 25 Oct 24.3
1cti!it" 6 3 2 'ee*, tarting $ro# 27 Oct 24.3
1cti!it" + 3 . 'ee*, tarting $ro# 5 No! 24.3
)4

STEP )* +#entify start #ate , finish #ate for a acti$ities


+ctivit$

+2 ' week. !tarting from ' 3ct 45'6

B2 4 week. !tarting from 7 3ct 45'6

C2 6 week. !tarting from '7 3ct 45'6

82 4 week. !tarting from 47 3ct 45'6

E2 4 week. !tarting from 4( 3ct 45'6

92 ' week. !tarting from 7 /ov 45'6


()')-')3 . /')-')3"
(0')-')3 . )1')-')3"
()0')-')3 . 0'))')3"
(20')-')3 . /'))')3"
(21')-')3 . )2'))')3"
(0'))')3 . )2'))')3"
Bar Chart
*1
Bar Chart 7or -xa&(le )
'/'5 :/'5 '7/'5 44/'5 4(/'5 7/''
No Acti2it3 ".ratio-
4ee5
1 * 3 ! 6


' + '
4 B 4
6 C 6
; 8 4
7 E 4
< 9 '
'/'5 :/'5 '7/'5
44/'5 4(/'5 7/'' '4/''
=TEP 42 8raw outline of Bar Chart
Bar Chart
**
Bar Chart 6or E0a1/le 1
'/'5 :/'5 '7/'5 44/'5 4(/'5 7/''
No Acti2it3 ".ratio-
4ee5
1 * 3 ! 6

' + '
4 B 4
6 C 6
; 8 4
7 E 4
< 9 '
)')- /')- )0')-
22')- 21')- 0')) )2'))
8
=TEP 62 *n!ert activit$ bar!
A*()')-')3 . /')-')3"
B*(0')-')3 . )1')-')3"
C*()0')-')3 . 0'))')3"
(*(20')-')3 . /'))')3"
E*(21')-')3 . )2'))')3"
3* (0'))')3 . )2'))')3"
Bar Chart
*3
Modi6ied Bar Charts
Modi6ied Bar Charts
No

Acti2it3

".ratio-
(7ee5)
$tarti-,
date
).1a-
Reso.rces
(/eo/le)
$.ccessor

1 G 1 01October2013 5 H,I
2 H 2 08October2013 8 J
3 I 3 10October2013 15 K
4 J 2 22October2013 4 K
5 K 2 05November2013 3 -
)5
E0a1/le 3(*
Data of a project con!t of fo"r act!v!t!e #!t$ t$e!r
%"rat!onan%a&oamo"ntofamo"ntnee%e%fort$!project'
(reateamo%!f!e%barc$artaccor%!n)tot$e%ataabove'
$te/ 1: %de-ti63 start 8 6i-ish date 6or all acti2ities
No Acti2it3 ".ratio- $tarti-, ).1a- Reso.rces $.ccessor
(4ee5) "ate (Peo/le)
1 G 1 01 Octo9er *013 ! ): %
* ) * 0' Octo9er *013 ' J
3 % 3 10 Octo9er *013 1! ;
J * ** Octo9er *013 ;
! ; 1 0! No2e19er *013 3 <
&*()')-')3 . /')-')3"
H*(/')-')3 . 22')-')3"
+*()-')-')3 . 3)')-')3"
4*(22')-')3 . 0'))')3"
5*(0'))')3 . )2'))')3"
MODIFIED BAR CHAR%
*!
No


Acti2it3


".ratio-
(7ee5)

).1a- Reso.rces
(/eo/le)

4ee5
1 * 3 ! 6

1 G 1 !
* ) * '
3 % 3 1!
J *
! ; 1 3
'/'5
:/'5 '7/'5
44/'5
4(/'5
7/''
'4/''
$te/ *: "ra7 o.tli-e o6 Bar Char
MODIFIED BAR CHAR%
*6
Modi9ed /ar Chart $or 62a#ple 2
No

Acti2it3

".ratio-
(7ee5)

).1a- Reso.rces
(/eo/le)

4ee5
1 * 3 ! 6

) / ) 5
+ : + 5
3 " 3 )5
4 > + 4
5 < ) 3
.:.4 ;:.4
.5:.4 22:.4 27:.4
5:..
.2:..
$te/ 3: %-sert acti2it3 9ars
MODIFIED BAR CHAR%
*&
Modi9ed /ar Chart $or 62a#ple 2
No

Acti2it3

".ratio-
(7ee5)

).1a- Reso.rces
(/eo/le)

4ee5
1 * 3 ! 6

) / ) 5
+ : + 5
3 " 3 )5
4 > + 4
5 < ) 3
.:.4
;:.4 .5:.4
22:.4 27:.4
5:..
.2:..
$te/ : %-sert the relatio-shi/ o6 all acti2ities
6o#ifie# Bar Chart
*'
Modi9ed /ar Chart $or 62a#ple 2
No

Acti2it3

".ratio-
(7ee5)

).1a- Reso.rces
(/eo/le)

4ee5
1 * 3 ! 6

) / ) 5
+ : + 5
3 " 3 )5
4 > + 4
5 < ) 3
.:.4
;:.4 .5:.4
22:.4 27:.4 5:..
.2:..
/
$te/ !: Calc.late h.1a- reso.rces 6or each 7ee5
6o#ifie# Bar Chart
*+
&*()')-')3 . /')-')3"
H*(/')-')3 . 22')-')3"
+*()-')-')3 . 3)')-')3"
4*(22')-')3 . 0'))')3"
5*(0'))')3 . )2'))')3"
Modi9ed /ar Chart $or 62a#ple 2
No

Acti2it3

".ratio-
(7ee5)

).1a- Reso.rces
(/eo/le)

4ee5
1 * 3 ! 6

) / ) 5
+ : + 5
3 " 3 )5
4 > + 4
5 < ) 3
.:.4
;:.4 .5:.4
22:.4 27:.4
5:..
.2:..
0
/
0
$te/ !: Calc.late h.1a- reso.rces 6or each 7ee5
6o#ifie# Bar Chart
30
&*()')-')3 . /')-')3"
H*(/')-')3 . 22')-')3"
+*()-')-')3 . 3)')-')3"
4*(22')-')3 . 0'))')3"
5*(0'))')3 . )2'))')3"
Modi9ed /ar Chart $or 62a#ple 2
No

Acti2it3

".ratio-
(7ee5)

).1a- Reso.rces
(/eo/le)

4ee5
1 * 3 ! 6

) / ) 5
+ : + 5
3 " 3 )5
4 > + 4
5 < ) 3
.:.4
;:.4 .5:.4
22:.4
27:.4
5:..
.2:..
0
/
0
0
$te/ !: Calc.late h.1a- reso.rces 6or each 7ee5
6o#ifie# Bar Chart
31
&*()')-')3 . /')-')3"
H*(/')-')3 . 22')-')3"
+*()-')-')3 . 3)')-')3"
4*(22')-')3 . 0'))')3"
5*(0'))')3 . )2'))')3"
Modi9ed /ar Chart $or 62a#ple 2
No

Acti2it3

".ratio-
(7ee5)

).1a- Reso.rces
(/eo/le)

4ee5
1 * 3 ! 6

) / ) 5
+ : + 5
3 " 3 )5
4 > + 4
5 < ) 3
.:.4
;:.4 .5:.4
22:.4
27:.4
5:.. .2:..
0
/
0
/ /
1
1
2
3
0
$te/ !: Calc.late h.1a- reso.rces 6or each 7ee5
6o#ifie# Bar Chart
3*
&*()')-')3 . /')-')3"
H*(/')-')3 . 22')-')3"
+*()-')-')3 . 3)')-')3"
4*(22')-')3 . 0'))')3"
5*(0'))')3 . )2'))')3"
No

Acti2it3

".ratio-
(7ee5)

).1a- Reso.rces
(/eo/le)

4ee5
1 * 3 ! 6

) / ) 5
+ : + 5
3 " 3 )5
4 > + 4
5 < ) 3
TOTA= )>MAN RE$O>RCE$ ! ' + & 3 3
.:.4
;:.4 .5:.4
22:.4
27:.4
5:..
.2:..
0
/
0
/ /
1
1
2
3
0
$te/ 6: Calc.late total a1o.-t o6 h.1a- reso.rces 6or each 7ee5
Modi9ed /ar Chart $or 62a#ple 2
6o#ifie# Bar Chart
33
No

Acti2it3

".ratio-
(7ee5)

).1a- Reso.rces
(/eo/le)

4ee5
1 * 3 ! 6

) / ) 5
+ : + 5
3 " 3 )5
4 > + 4
5 < ) 3
T,TAL :?MA% 6-S,?6C-S ! ' + & 3 3
.:.4
;:.4 .5:.4
22:.4 27:.4 5:..
.2:..

! !
* *
1
3

$te/ &: "ra7 reso.rce a,,re,atio- (histo,ra1)


Modi9ed /ar Chart $or 62a#ple 2
#uration @9ee$A
6
e
s
o
u
r
c
e
s

@
P
e
o
(
l
e
A
!
10
0
6o#ifie# Bar Chart
Progre$$ C*r#e$
Progre$$ C*r#e$
+!
No(

"escri/tio-

Mo-th
1 * 3 ! 6 & ' + 10
# Mobili$ation
% Foundation Ecavation
& !iversion Stage
' Foundation (routing
) !am *oncrete
+ ,nstall -utlet (ates
. ,nstall /rash 0ac1s
2 3restress
4 0adial (ates
#5 Spill"ay 6ridge
## *urtain (rout
#% !ismantle 3lant, *lean 7p
Ta)le ,%2 Co#)ination )et'een S-Cur!e and /ar Chart
Ori,i-al $ched.le
Act.al /ro,ress
C
.
1
.
l
a
t
i
2
e

/
r
o
,
r
e
s
s

(
?
)
100
0
Progre$$ C*r#e$
Progre$$ C*r#e$
3*
+igure ,%, Step )" Step to Ma*e Progre or S-Cur!e
-
(a&c"&atecotforeac$act!v!t*
-
(a&c"&atetota&cotfora&&act!v!t*
-
(a&c"&atet$epro)rerat!obet#eencotforeac$
act!v!t*an%tota&cot
-
D!v!%et$oepro)rerat!oe+"a&&*foreac$act!v!t*
accor%!n)to!t%"rat!on
-
,%%t$epro)rerat!o#$!c$a&rea%*%!v!%e%foreac$
"n!toft!me
-
(a&c"&atet$ec"m"&at!vepro)rerat!o
-
Dra#--("rveaare&at!on$!pbet#eenc"m"&at!ve
pro)rerat!oan%%"rat!onofaproject
$te/ 93 ste/ to 1a5e s<c.r2e
Progre$$ C*r#e$
Progre$$ C*r#e$
3)
E0a1/le 3(3
8s a bar chart is created in Eample &9#, try to dra" a
progress or S:*urve of the project "ith additional data as
follo" ;
No
ACT%#%T@

">RAT%ON
(4EE;)
CO$T
(RM)
4OR;
PROGRE$$
RAT%O (?)
1
, 1 1.00 8
2 / 2 2000 10
3 ( 3 .000 30
4 D 2 4000 24
5 1 2 3.00 18
. 2 1 2000 10
TOTA= +**** 100?
Progre$$ C*r#e$
Progre$$ C*r#e$
3+
Ta)le ,%3 Progre or S-Cur!e
No


acti2it3


d.ratio-

(7ee5)
/ro,ress
ratio
(?)
7ee5
1 * 3 ! 6

# 8 # 2
% 6 % #5
& * & &5
' ! % %'
) E % #2
+ F # #5
8or$ (rogress ratio @'A
10'1 5 12'0 1.'0 31 24'1
Cu&ulative 9o$ (rogress ratio @'A
10'1 15'1 28 44'0 35'0 100
.:.4
;:.4
.5:.4
22:.4 27:.4
5:..
*(1
10 10 10
1*
!
+
10
+
*(+
6(+
'
!(1
100
!0
0
C
.
1
.
l
a
t
i
2
e

/
r
o
,
r
e
s
s

(
?
)

CPM pro!ide the $ollo'ing )ene9t3


o
Pro!ide a graphical !ie' o$ the project%
o
Predict the ti#e re-uired to co#plete
the project%
o
Sho' 'hich acti!itie are critical to
#aintaining the chedule and 'hich are
not%

CPM (o!el$ the acti#itie$ an!


e#ent$ o- a &roect a$ a networ)4
33
Critical Path Metho!
Critical Path Metho!
5CPM6
5CPM6

Activity on Arrow - ARROW DIAGRAM

Activity on Node - PRECEDENCE DIAGRAM


N6T=OR>IN0 T6C(NI?U6
T@PIC1A 1RRO= DI10R1M B1O1C
Fa"ricate Re"ar
E7ca#a
te
%rench
Fa"ricate
-or(wor)
Fi7e!
For(wor)
Fi7e!
Re"ar
Po*r
Concrete
T@PIC1A PR6C6D6NC6 DI10R1M B1ONC
Fa"ricate
Re"ar
E7ca#ate
%rench
Fa"ricate
-or(wor)
Fi7e!
For(wor)
Fi7e!
Re"ar
Po*r
Concrete
Critical Path Metho!
Critical Path Metho!
5CPM6
5CPM6
30
+igure ,%5 1d!antage and Diad!antage o$ Critical Path Method
-
Net#or4canm"c$more
conc!e&*repreent&ar)e
n"mberofact!v!t!e
-
5$e&o)!ca&!nterre&at!on$!p
an%%epen%enc!eamon)
act!v!t!e!rea&&*$o#n
-
6"c$more"ef"&for
forecat!n)an%contro&
-
It!%ent!f*t$emotcr!t!ca&
e&ement!nt$eproject
c$e%"&e
-
1a*toa%j"t!fan*%e&a*!
$appen!nt$eproject
-
,&!tt&eb!t%!ff!c"&tto
"n%ertan%t$enet#or4*tem
A"#ANTAGE$
"%$A"#ANTAGE$
-
,rro#D!a)ram6et$o%7,D68
-
9rece%enceD!a)ram6et$o%
79D68
T@PE$ OA CPM
EARLY START (ES)
The earliest possible time to start an activity. It is determine by forward
pass calculation through every paths of the network
EARLY INIS! (E)
The earliest possible time to finish an activity (ES+Duration
LATE START (LS)
The latest possible time to start an activity without delaying the overall
completion of the pro!ect
LATE INIS! (L)
The latest possible time to finish an activity without delaying the overall
completion of the pro!ect It is determine by backward pass calculation
through every paths of the network

TOTAL LOAT (T) " AP#NGAN $ESEL#R#!AN


The time available to delay the start or finish of an activity
without delaying the completion of the pro!ect
"ormula # L " ES " D % T

REE LOAT () " AP#NGAN &E&AS


The time available to delay the start or finish of an activity
without delaying the E$%&' ST$%T TI(E (ES of the
proceeding activity)ies
"ormula # E " ES " D %
ADM #$4 PDM
ADM #$4 PDM
4*
%te1 A"M (AOA) P"M (AON)
Acti2it3
-SB -arl; Start LSB Late Start
-.B -arl; .inish L.B Late .inish
# B #uration T.B Total .loat
E2e-t
Ta)le ,%, DiDerence )et'een 1DM and PDM Method
A
E$ EA
=$ =A
A
"
TA
E$
EA
=$
=A
A
"
TA
E$
EA
=$
=A
B
"
TA
1 E$
=$
1
=A
*
A
EA
ADM #$4 PDM
ADM #$4 PDM
4)
%te1 A"M P"M
#u&&;
Activit;
or
#e7inition
Activit; 9hich has not duration1 "t
is onl; used to sho9 an;
relationshi( 2et9een activities1
.unction
C "7 there is a situation 9here one
event is used to sho9
relationshi( &ore than one
activit;1
C To sho9 a co&(licated
relationshi( clearl;
".113 acti2it3 is -ot .sed i-
Precede-ce "ia,ra1 Method
(P"M)
Ta)le ,%, DiDerence )et'een 1DM and PDM Method Bcont%C
"
ADM #$4 PDM
ADM #$4 PDM
4+
%te1 A"M
#u&&;
Activit;
or
.alse True
Ta)le ,%, DiDerence )et'een 1DM and PDM Method Bcont%C
"
A
B
A
B
C
#
A
B
A C
B #
ADM #$4 PDM
ADM #$4 PDM
44
%te1 A"M P"M
Relatio-shi/
. S . D S
. D .
S D S
S .
Critical /ath
Critical Path
B A (ath consist o7 7e9 activities 9hich 9ill deter&ine the overall (roEect
duration1
Possi2le to have &ore than one critical (ath
Activities 9hich la; on critical (ath cannot su77er an; dela;
Ta)le ,%, DiDerence )et'een 1DM and PDM Method Bcont%C
1( Es B E6: or
*( =s B =6: or
3( Total Aloat (TA) B 0
ADM #$4 PDM
ADM #$4 PDM
45
%te1 A"M P"M
Total 6loat
Total 7loat
B The &axi&u& a&ount o7 ti&e that the activit; can 2e dela;ed 9ithout
extending the co&(letion ti&e o7 the overall (roEect1
Esti1ati-,
d.ratio-
.,68A6# PASS D select 2ig nu&2er @durationA
B To esta2lish the earliest ex(ected start and 7inish ti&es 7or each
activit; in the net9or$1 @-S n -.A
BAC<8A6# PASS D select s&all nu&2er @durationA
B To esta2lish the latest allo9a2le start and 7inish ti&es 7or each activit;
in the net9or$1 @LS n L.A
Ta)le ,%, DiDerence )et'een 1DM and PDM Method Bcont%C
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
5ADM6
5ADM6
46
+igure ,%E 6ti#ating Project Duration uing 1rro' Diagra# Method B1DMC
A
)
a
b
*
c
%
F
B
3
e
f 4
Aor7ard /ass
9ac57ard /ass
%ote
a:1ar&*-tart71-8
,
b:;ate-tart7;-8
,
c:1ar&*2!n!$7128
,
<71-8
/
%:;ate2!n!$7;28
,
<7128
/
e:1ar&*2!n!$7128
/

%:;ate2!n!$7;28
/
=:D"rat!onofact!v!t*,
>:D"rat!onofact!v!t*/
6or7ard /ass Bac57ard /ass
a<0f<e
c<a?=%<f@>
e<c?>b<%-=
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
40
Acti2it3
E2e-t
$.ccessor
".ratio-
(7ee5)
A )+ B, C +
B +3 # 3
C +4 - +
# 35 . 4
- 46 / 3
. 50 : +
/ 60 : 3
: 05 )

-sti&ate the total (roEect duration1

Calculate the total 7loat 7or each activit; in the (roEect

#ra9 the 2ar chart according to ;our calculation


E0a1/le 3(
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
45
$ol.tio- 3(

Total ProEect #uration G )+ 9ee$s
A
)
+
*
+
+
+
+
3
5
,
4
-
,
5
!
.
6
/
0
0
11
11
5
1*
1*
B
C
#
-
.
/
:
3
+
4
3
+
3
)
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
E2e-t Acti2it3 ".ratio- E$ =$ EA =A Total Aloat
(1) (*) (3) () (!) (6) (&) (') B &<3<
1 < * A * 0 0 * * 0 C
* < 3 B 3 * * ! ! 0 C
* < C * * * ! 1
3 < ! " ! ! + + 0 C
< 6 E 3 ! & ' 1
! < & A * + + 11 11 0 C
6 < & G 3 & ' 11 11 1
& < ' ) 1 11 11 1* 1* 0 C
4!
$ol.tio- 3( (co-t()
Critical Path : A D B D " D A D )
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
No Acti2it3
7ee5
1 * 3 ! 6 & ' + 10 11 1*
# 8
% 6
& *
' !
) E
+ F
. (
2 <
5*
$ol.tio- 3( (co-t()

ACTIVITY EVENT DURATION
(DAY)
PREDECESSOR
START . - .
A ).2 7 START
B ).3 0 START
C ).8 8 START
( 2.9 0 A
E 3.7 8 B
3 ((:66;" 8.7 - C
& 8.0 9 C
H 9./ 2 (
+ 9.1 3 (
4 7.1 0 E<3
5 0.1 8 &
L 1.)- 0 +<4<5
6 /.)- 2 H
3+=+SH . - 6<L
E0a1/le * o- Acti2it3<o-<Arro7 (A<O<A)
C -sti&ate the total (roEect duration1
C Calculate the total 7loat 7or each activit; in the (roEect
C #ra9 the 2ar chart according to ;our calculation
.
2 F
;
3 E 7 .4
, 5
A
E
/
5
C
,
6
,
5
"
I
)
2
G
5
A
2
M
0
F
>
,
+
4
5
3
.
2 F
;
3 E 7 .4
, 5
1
E
/
5
C
,
6
,
5
D
I
(
2
G
5
A
2
M
0
F
>
,
+
4
5
3
4
E ..
5
,
7
.3
.5
..
24
4
F .2
E
,
.4
.;
.5
..
24
Total ProEect ".ratio- B *0 7ee5s
Critical Path B C<G<;<=
54
ACT+>+T; E#ENT (:RAT+?= ES LS E3 L3 33 T3
$TART . < < < < < < <
A ).2 6 0 0 6 & 0 1
B ).3 ! 0 0 ! 6 0 1
C ).8 0 0 0 0
" 2.9 ! 6 & 11 1* 0 1
E 3.7 ! 6 + 10 0 1
A (">MM@) 8.7 0 < < < < < <
G 8.0 & 11 11 0 0
) 9./ * 11 1* 13 1' 0 !
% 9.1 3 11 1* 1! 1! 1 1
J 7.1 ! + 10 1! 1! 1 1
; 0.1 11 11 1! 1! 0 0
= 1.)- ! 1! 1! *0 *0 0 0
M /.)- * 13 1' *0 *0 ! !
A%N%$) . < < < < < < <
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
No Acti2it3
Total
Aloat
">RAT%ON ("A@)
1 * 3 ! 6 & ' + 10 11 1* 13 1 1! 16 1& 1' 1+ *0
1 A 1

* B 1

3 C 0

" 1

! E 1

6 G 0

& ) !
' % 1
+ J 1
10 ; 0
11 = 0

1* M !
55
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
56
E0a1/le 3(!
Acti2it3 E2e-t Predecessor ".ratio-
(7ee5)
A 1<* < *
B 1<3 < 1
C 1< < 3
" *<! A 1
E 3<6 B 3
A <& C *
">MM@ !<6 < <
G !<' "
">MM@ 6<& < <
) 6<+ ": E 1
% &<10 ": E: A *
J '<11 G 1
; +<11 ) *
= 10<11 % 3
C Esti1ate the total /roEect
d.ratio-(
C Calc.late the total 6loat 6or
each acti2it3 i- the /roEect
C "ra7 the 9ar chart accordi-,
to 3o.r calc.latio-
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
50
$ol.tio- 3(! (co-t()
TOTA= PROJECT ">RAT%ON B 10 4EE;$
5
A
B
C
"
E
A
G
=
;
3
*
*
3
1
*
.
+
+
2
*
-
3
1
*
,
2
2
2
,
;
/
.
7
,
0
F
,
,
..
1+
1+
3
1
E
-
,
.4
/
/
%
)
1
3
3
J
+
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
E2e-t Acti2it3 ".ratio- E$ =$ EA =A Total Aloat
(1) (*) (3) () (!) (6) (&) (') B &<<3
1<* A * 0 0 * *
1<3 B 1 0 0 1 * 1
1< C 3 0 0 3 3 0 C
*<! " 1 * 3 ! *
3<6 E 3 1 * ! 1
<& A * 3 3 ! ! 0 C
!<' G 3 ! & + *
6<+ ) 1 ! ! ' 3
&<10 % 3 ! ! & & 0 C
'<11 J 3 & + 10 10 0C
+<11 ; * ! ' 10 10 3
10<11 = 3 & & 10 10 0 C
55
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
Arrow Diagra( Metho!
No Acti2it3
Total
Aloat
7ee5
1 * 3 ! 6 & ' + 10
1 A *

* B 1

3 C 0

" *

! E 1

6 A 0

& G *

' ) 3
+ % 0
10 J *
11 ; 3
1* = 0

1( Total ProEect ".ratio- B 10 7ee5s
5!
$ol.tio- 3(! (co-t()
Prece!ence Diagra( Metho!
Prece!ence Diagra( Metho!
5PDM6
5PDM6
ite1 A<B (A<$) A<C ($<$)
Aor7ard Pass (choose the lar,est -.19er: i6 F1)
E$
A
a 0
EA
A
c B a G H
E$
B
e B c G =
A<B
EA
B
, B e G @
E$
C
i B a G =
A<C
EA
C
5 B i G I
Bac57ard Pass (choose the lo7er -.19er: i6 F1)
=A
B
h B ,
=$
B
6 B h < @
=A
A
d
B 6 < =
A<B
=$
A
9 B d < H B E < =
A<C

=A
C
l B 5
=$
C
E B l < I
6*
+igure ,%E Ti&e Calculation 7or .S and SS 6elationshi(
Ta)le ,%F +or#ula $or Calculating Ti#e +-S and S-S
C
!
j
4
&
I
=
A<B
$ < $
A < $
B
e
f
)
$
@
=
A<C
A
2
c
d
H a
Prece!ence Diagra(
Prece!ence Diagra(
Metho!
Metho!
ite1 A<C ($<A) A<B (A<A)
Aor7ard Pass (choose the lar,est -.19er: i6 F1)
E$
A
a 0
EA
A
c B a G H
E$
B
e 0
EA
B
, B e G @
EA
C
5 B a G =
A<C
B , G =
A<B
E$
C
% B 5 D I B 5 D I
Bac57ard Pass (choose the lo7er -.19er: i6 F1)
=A
C
l B 5
=$
C
E B l < I
=$
A
9 B l < =
A<C
=A
A
d B 9 G H
=A
B
h
B l < =
A<B
=$
B
6 B h < @
6)
+igure ,%F Ti#e Calculation $or S-+ and +-+ Relationhip
=
A<B
$ < A
A < A
B
e
f
)
$
@
=
A<C
C
!
j
4
&
I
A
b
c
%
H
a
Ta)le ,%; +or#ula $or Calculating Ti#e S-+ and +-+
Prece!ence Diagra(
Prece!ence Diagra(
Metho!
Metho!
No Acti2it3 d.ratio- s.ccessor relatio-shi/ =a, (l)
(7ee5) (7ee5)
1 A * B:" A<B (A<$) 0
A<" ($<$) 1
* B * C B<C (A<$) 1
3 C 1 < < <
" 1 E "<E (A<$) 0
! E 1 C E<C (A<$) 0
6+
E0a1/le 3(6
1( Esti1ate the total /roEect d.ratio-(
*( Calc.late the total 6loat 6or each acti2it3 i- the /roEect
3( "ra7 the 9ar chart accordi-, to 3o.r calc.latio-
Prece!ence Diagra(
Prece!ence Diagra(
Metho!
Metho!
63
$O=>T%ON 3(6

Total ProEect #uration G 6 9ee$s


A
+
+
*
*
*
B
*
*
-
-
*
"
1
2
*
-
1
= B 0
= B 1
E
*
-
2
,
1
C
,
,
3
3
1
= B 1
= B 0
= B 0
0 0 0
*
*
Note
Total Aloat (TA):
Critical Path :
TA
Prece!ence Diagra(
Prece!ence Diagra(
Metho!
Metho!
64
$O=>T%ON 3(6 (CONT()

No Acti2it3
7ee5
1 * 3 ! 6
# 8
% 6
& *
' !
) E
=B1
=B1
Prece!ence Diagra( Metho!
Prece!ence Diagra( Metho!
-sti&ate the total (roEect duration1 -sti&ate the total (roEect duration1
Calculate the total 7loat 7or each activit; in the (roEect Calculate the total 7loat 7or each activit; in the (roEect
#ra9 the 2ar chart according to ;our calculation #ra9 the 2ar chart according to ;our calculation

$4TI5IT'

D6%$TI78
(9EE:S
S644ESS7%

$ - ;< 4< D< E
; * 4< =
4 - "< >
D 2 >
E , D< :
" 1 I
> 3 I< ?
= / &
I , =< (
? 0 (< :
: . 8
& 1+ 7
( , &< 7< @< 8
8 3 @
7 / >
@ 0 >
A * 8I&
65
Chapter 3 - Project Planning,
Scheduling and Controlling 66
%otal Proect Perio! 8 /2 wee)$
Critical &ath 8 A9E9D9,9:9:9K9N9P9;
Sche!*ling %echni+*e
=i-e o6 Bala-ce
Pili-, Pile<ca/ Piers "ec5
Ti1e
J
.
a
-
t
i
t
3
*0
3
LINE OF BALANCE
LINE OF BALANCE

$ scheduling techniBue suitable for repetitive


nature of activitiesC pro!ect

Incorporate productivity rate

7riginated from manufacturing


CONC6PT O+ CONTROAIN0
CONC6PT O+ CONTROAIN0

ProjectControl can )e de9ned a H


Manage#ent action, either preplanned to
achie!e the deired reult or ta*en a a
correcti!e #eaure pro#pted )" the #onitoring
proce% Project control i #ainl" concerned
'ith the #etric o$ the project, uch a
-uantitie, ti#e, cot, and other reource&
ho'e!er, alo project re!enue and cah Io'
can )e part o$ the project #etric under control%
Thu, 'e )elie!e an eDecti!e Project Control
proce can )e applied in a colla)oration o$ it
!ariou u)-dicipline, uch a3
6!
CONC6PT O+ CONTROAIN0
CONC6PT O+ CONTROAIN0
.C Planning, Scheduling J Project Reporting
K Scope #anage#ent&
K Project deli!era)le3
K =or* )rea*do'n : Cot )rea*do'n tructure&
K Schedule #anage#ent&
K Schedule $orecating&
K Correcti!e action&
K Progre #eaure#ent : reporting&
K Producti!it" 1nal"i J Calculation&
2C 6arned Lalue 1nal"i J Manage#ent
0*
CONC6PT O+ CONTROAIN0
CONC6PT O+ CONTROAIN0
3C Cot 6ngineering J 6ti#ating
K 6ti#ating&
K Cot #anage#ent&
K Cot control&
K Cot $orecating
,C Change Manage#ent J Control
K Change order control&
K Trend 1nal"i&
5C Ri* and Dela" Clai#
K Ri* 1e#ent J #anage#ent&
K Dela" Clai# ?uanti9cation
K +orenic Schedule 1nal"i
0)
?ualit" #anage#ent "te#
?ualit" #anage#ent "te#
0+
?ualit" #anage#ent proce
?ualit" #anage#ent proce
and concept
and concept

The project #anager ha the ulti#ate reponi)ilit" $or -ualit"


#anage#ent on the project%

?ualit" #anage#ent ha e-ual priorit" 'ith cot and chedule


#anage#ent% (o'e!er, the direct #eaure#ent o$ -ualit" #a"
)e the reponi)ilit" o$ the -ualit" aurance depart#ent or the
aitant project #anager $or -ualit"%

+or a la)or-inteni!e project, #anage#ent upport Bi%e%, the


project oMceC i t"picall" .2H.5 percent o$ the total la)or
dollar o$ the project% 1ppro2i#atel" 3H5 percent can )e
attri)uted to -ualit" #anage#ent% There$ore, a #uch a 24H
34 percent o$ all the la)or in the project oMce could eail" )e
attri)uted to -ualit" #anage#ent%
03
?ualit" #anage#ent proce
?ualit" #anage#ent proce
and concept
and concept

+ro# a project #anagerN perpecti!e, there are three -ualit"


#anage#ent concept that hould e2it upport each and e!er"
project% The" include3
;UALI%Y PLANNIN,
The -ualit" planning i created )" the project #anager and
project tea# #e#)er )" )rea*ing do'n the project o)jecti!e into
a 'or* )rea*do'n tructure% Uing a treeli*e diagra##ing
techni-ue, the project acti!itie are )ro*en do'n into lo'er-le!el
acti!itie until peci9c -ualit" action can )e identi9ed% The project
#anager then enure that thee action are docu#ented and
i#ple#ented in the e-uence that 'ill #eet the cuto#erN
re-uire#ent and e2pectation% Thi ena)le the project #anager to
aure the cuto#er that he ha a road #ap to deli!ering a -ualit"
product or er!ice and there$ore 'ill ati$" the cuto#erN need%
04
?ualit" #anage#ent proce
?ualit" #anage#ent proce
and concept
and concept
1 good -ualit" planning 'ill3
O Identi$" all o$ the organiPationN e2ternal and
internal cuto#er
O Caue the deign o$ a proce that produce
the $eature deired )" the cuto#er
O /ring in upplier earl" in the proce
O Caue the organiPation to )e reponi!e to
changing cuto#er need
O Pro!e that the proce i 'or*ing and that
-ualit" goal are )eing #et
05
?ualit" #anage#ent proce and
?ualit" #anage#ent proce and
concept
concept
;UALI%Y ASSURANCE
?ualit" aurance i the collecti!e ter# $or the $or#al acti!itie and
#anagerial procee that atte#pt to enure that product and er!ice
#eet the re-uired -ualit" le!el% ?ualit" aurance alo include eDort
e2ternal to thee procee that pro!ide in$or#ation $or i#pro!ing the
internal procee% It i the -ualit" aurance $unction that atte#pt to
enure that the project cope, cot, and ti#e $unction are $ull" integrated%
The Project Manage#ent Intitute 0uide to the /od" o$ >no'ledge BPM/O>C
Q re$er to -ualit" aurance a the #anage#ent ection o$ -ualit"
#anage#ent% Thi i the area 'here the project #anager can ha!e the
greatet i#pact on the -ualit" o$ hi project% The project #anager need to
eta)lih the ad#initrati!e procee and procedure necear" to enure
and, o$ten, pro!e that the cope tate#ent con$or# to the actual
re-uire#ent o$ the cuto#er% The project #anager #ut 'or* 'ith hi
tea# to deter#ine 'hich procee the" 'ill ue to enure that all
ta*eholder ha!e con9dence that the -ualit" acti!itie 'ill )e properl"
per$or#ed% 1ll rele!ant legal and regulator" re-uire#ent #ut alo )e #et%
06
?ualit" #anage#ent proce and
?ualit" #anage#ent proce and
concept
concept
1 good -ualit" aurance "te# 'ill3
O Identi$" o)jecti!e and tandard
O /e #ulti$unctional and pre!ention
oriented
O Plan $or collection and ue o$ data in a
c"cle o$ continuou i#pro!e#ent
O Plan $or the eta)lih#ent and
#aintenance o$ per$or#ance #eaure
O Include -ualit" audit
00
?ualit" #anage#ent proce and
?ualit" #anage#ent proce and
concept
concept
;UALI%Y CON%ROL
?ualit" control i a collecti!e ter# $or acti!itie and techni-ue,
'ithin the proce, that are intended to create peci9c -ualit"
characteritic% Such acti!itie include continuall" #onitoring
procee, identi$"ing and eli#inating pro)le# caue, ue o$
tatitical proce control to reduce the !aria)ilit" and to increae
the eMcienc" o$ procee% ?ualit" control certi9e that the
organiPationN -ualit" o)jecti!e are )eing #et%
The PM/O>Q re$er to -ualit" control a the technical apect o$
-ualit" #anage#ent% Project tea# #e#)er 'ho ha!e peci9c
technical e2pertie on the !ariou apect o$ the project pla" an
acti!e role in -ualit" control% The" et up the technical procee
and procedure that enure that each tep o$ the project pro!ide a
-ualit" output $ro# deign and de!elop#ent through
i#ple#entation and #aintenance% 6ach tepN output #ut
con$or# to the o!erall -ualit" tandard and -ualit" plan, thu
enuring that -ualit" i achie!ed%
05
?ualit" #anage#ent proce and
?ualit" #anage#ent proce and
concept
concept
1 good -ualit" control "te# 'ill3
O Select 'hat to control
O Set tandard that pro!ide the )ai $or deciion
regarding poi)le correcti!e action
O 6ta)lih the #eaure#ent #ethod ued
O Co#pare the actual reult to the -ualit" tandard
O 1ct to )ring noncon$or#ing procee and #aterial
)ac* to the tandard )aed on the in$or#ation
collected
O Monitor and cali)rate #eauring de!ice
O Include detailed docu#entation $or all procee
0!