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PHYSICS

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OF ENERGY

Energy is needed in order to carry out changes on an

object. Physically, this change is expressed in the

change of displacement due to an applied force on the

object. Thus, we formally define energy as the capacity

to do work.

Moreover, the extremely important principle is the

law of conservation of energy which states that:

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed

but can be converted from one form to

another.

The only thing that changes is the form in

which energy appears.

In a mechanical energy, its total mechanical

energy ME is the sum of its kinetic and

potential energies:

ME = KE

+ PE

ME = mv

2

+ mgh

When there is no transfer of energy into or out of the

system, the total energy of a system remains constant

and is said to be conserved:

ME

before

= ME

after

PE

before

+ KE

before

= PE

after

+ KE

after

This gives us the expression,

KE = - PE

which means that, of the total mechanical energy

conserved, the changes in the kinetic and potential

energy must be equal but opposite in sign. In other

words, a gain in one must be matched by a

corresponding loss in the other.

For example, a ball

thrown upward would

gain potential energy as

it continues to rise but

as a consequence, it will

lose its kinetic energy as

it slows down.

Consider the motion of a pendulum. When you pull the bob

sideways to position A, work is done on the bob. This work

transforms part of your bodys energy to GPE of the bob. As

the bob swings from A to B, the bobs PE changes to KE. As it

continues to swing to C, the bobs KE at B transforms again

to PE. The motion of a pendulum is an example of KE and PE

exchanges or energy transformation.

KE +PE = constant

Kinetic and potential energy are forms of mechanical

energy. If friction is negligible, the sum of the kinetic

and potential energies of a body remains constant. In

equation,

KE + PE = constant

This applies to the motion of a pendulum as shown in

the figure.

It also applies to any freely

falling body. Consider the

example in the figure.

At the highest point, A

(PE)

A

= mgh; (KE)

A

= 0

At any point in its path, say, B

(PE)

B

+ (KE)

B

= constant

= mgh

At the lowest point, C

(PE)

C

= 0

(KE)

C

= (PE)

A

= mgh

A stone with mass 0.1 kg is

dropped from a height of

80 m. Calculate its PE and

KE (a)at the time it was

dropped, (b) after it has

traveled 20 m, and (c) at

the instant it touches the

ground. Assume that air

friction is negligible and

the reference point is the

ground.

Solution:

a. PE =mgh

= (0.1kg)(9.8m/s

2

)(80m)

PE = 78.4 J; KE = 0

b. PE = mgh

= (0.1kg)(9.8m/s

2

)(60m)

KE= 58.8 J; KE = 19.6 J

c. PE = 0;

KE = 78.4 J

The conservation law also applies to vibrating bodies

such as the spring. The figure shows different

conditions of a spring. At A, the spring is at

equilibrium position.

When you stretch the spring to position B, you do

work on the spring. The work done on the spring is

stored as EPE of the spring. When you release the

spring, it compresses to C and then stretches back to

B, changing its PE to KE. Then the spring is

compressed again, changing its KE to PE.

The spring attains maximum PE at C. From there, it stretches again to B,

where maximum PE is also attained, and so on. Thus, in a vibrating

spring, there is a continuous exchange of KE and PE. But the total energy

remains constant if friction is negligible. It is commonly observed that

after a few minutes of oscillating, the spring eventually stops. This is due

to friction.

All the examples we have given are based on the

assumption that there is negligible fiction. In reality,

some amount of energy is often lost due to friction, as

in pendulum. After several swings, the pendulum will

not be able to swing back to its maximum height. It

will gradually slow down until it stops. This is due to

friction.

Important points to remember

1. When work is done on an object, the object

gains energy; when work is done by the

object, the object loses energy.

2. When a body loses a certain amount of energy,

another body gains this energy.

3. If a bodys kinetic energy is lost, this energy has

been converted to potential energy or some other

form of energy.

Example 1

Suppose you throw an

object with mass 0.2 kg

and at an initial speed of

50 m/s, applying the law

of conservation of

mechanical energy,

(a) what will be the

maximum GPE the

object can attain and

(b) how high will it go?

Assume that the stones

initial GPE is zero and

air friction is negligible.

Solution: (PE)

i

= 0; (KE)

f

= 0

a. (PE)

i

+(KE)

i

= (PE)

f

+ (KE)

f

0 + (KE)

i

= (PE)

f

+0

(KE)

i

= mv

i

2

= (0.2kg)(50 m/s)

2

(KE)

i

= 250 J

Now, (PE)

f

= (KE)

i

(PE)

f

= 250 J

b. PE =mgh

250 J = 0.2 kg(9.8 m/s

2

) h

127.55 m = h

A 30-kg package slides from rest

down a frictionless ramp from a

height of 5.0m. At the bottom of

the ramp is a spring of force

constant 400 N/m. The package

slams into the spring, compressing

the spring a distance x before

stopping momentarily. Find the

value of x.

Solution:

(GPE)

i

+(EPE)

i

= (GPE)

f

+(EPE)

f

(GPE)

i

+0 = 0 +(EPE)

f

(GPE)

i

= +(EPE

)f

mgh = kx

2

x

2

= 2mgh

k

x

2

= 2(30kg)(9.8m/s

2

)(5m)

400 kg/s

2

x

2

= 7.35 m

2

x = 2.71 m

Example 2

A baseball player throws a

baseball straight upward with a

velocity of 17 m/s.

a. How high does the ball go?

b. How fast is it traveling when

it is at a height of 10 m, and

then on its way down?

Given:

v

i

= 17 m/s

v

f

= 0; at max. height

(PE)

i

= 0; at lowest point

(KE)

f

= 0; at highest point

Solution:

a.(PE)

i

+(KE)

i

= (PE)

f

+ (KE)

f

0+ mv

i

2

= mgh

f

+ 0

Thus, the max. height is

h

f

= v

i

2

= (17 m/s)

2

= 14.74 m

2g 2(9.8m/s

2

)

b. (PE)

i

+(KE)

i

= (PE)

f

+ (KE)

f

0+ mv

i

2

= mgh

f

+ mv

f

2

1/m [ mv

i

2

= mgh

f

+ mv

f

2

]

v

i

2

= gh

f

+ v

f

2

2 2 x 2

v

f

2

= v

i

2

2gh

f

v

f

= v

i

2

-2ghf

v

f

= (17m/s)

2

2(9.8m/s

2

)(10m)

v

f

= 9.64 m/s

Example 3

With what speed should the

baseball be thrown if it

should reach a height of 20

m?

Given:

v

i

=?

v

f

= 0; at max. height

(PE)

i

= 0; at lowest point

(KE)

f

= 0; at highest point

Solution:

(PE)

i

+(KE)

i

= (PE)

f

+ (KE)

f

0+ mv

i

2

= mgh

f

+ 0

1/m [ mv

i

2

= mgh

f

]

( v

i

2

= gh

f

) x 2

v

i

2

= 2gh

v

i

= 2(9.8m/s

2

)(20m)

v

i

= 19.8 m/s

Example 4

Consider the roller coaster

illustrated below. What is the

speed of the cart at the lowest

point if the initial speed is 25

m/s?

Given:

v

i

= 25 m/s

h

i

= 15 m

h

f

= 3m

Solution:

(PE)

i

+(KE)

i

= (PE)

f

+ (KE)

f

mgh

i

+ mv

i

2

= mgh

f

+ mv

f

2

( gh

i

+ v

i

2

= gh

f

+ v

f

2

) x 2

2gh

i

+ v

i

2

= 2gh

f

+v

f

2

v

f

2

= 2gh

i

+v

i

2

2gh

2

= 2(9.8m/s

2

)(15m)+(25 m/s)

2

2(9.8m/s

2

) (3m)

v

f

2

= 860.2 m

2

/s

2

v

f

= 29.33 m/s

Example 5

A large chunk of ice with mass

15 kg falls from a roof 8.0 m

above the ground.

a. Ignoring air resistance, find

the KE of the ice when it

reaches the ground?

b. What is the speed of the ice

when it reaches the

ground?

Given:

m = 15 kg

h = 8.0 m

KE

i

= 0; at the highest point

PE

f

= 0; at the lowest point

Solution:

a. (PE)

i

+(KE)

i

= (PE)

f

+ (KE)

f

(PE)

i

+ 0 = 0 + (KE)

f

(PE)

i

= (KE)

f

(PE)

i

= mgh

= 15 kg(9.8 m/s

2

)(8m)

(PE)

i

= 1,176 J = (KE)

f

b. KE = mv

2

v

2

= 2 KE = 2(1,176 J)

m 15 kg

v

2

= 156.8 m

2

/s

2

v = 12.51 m/s

Exercise 1

Exercise 2

The outline of a roller coaster

track is shown in the figure.

The roller coaster car has a

mass of 1000 kg. It starts

from rest at point A on the

track.

Determine the KEs, PEs, and

speeds at points indicated.

Position PE(J) KE(J) V(m/s) PE

+KE(J)

A

B

C

D

E

Position PE(J) KE(J) V(m/s) PE

+KE(J)

A 1.47 x10

5

0 0 1.47 x10

5

B 9.8 x10

4

4.9 x10

4

9.9 1.47 x10

5

C 4.9 x10

4

9.8 x10

4

14 1.47 x10

5

D 2.94 x10

4

1.18 x10

5

15.34 1.47 x10

5

E 0 1.47 x10

5

17.15 1.47 x10

5

A golf ball (mass =0.22 kg) was struck

at the tee, leaving at a speed of 44

m/s at an angle of 45

0

.

a. What was the initial kinetic energy

of the ball?

b. What was the horizontal

component of this initial speed?

c. What was the velocity of the ball at

the highest point?

d. What was the maximum height

reached by the ball?

Given:

m = 0.22 kg

v

i

= 44 m/s

v

f

= 0; at the highest point

= 45

0

KE

f

= 0; at the highest point

PE

i

= 0; at the lowest point

Solution:

a. KE

i

= mv

2

= (.22kg)(44m/s)

2

KE

i

= 219.96 J

b. v

ix

= v

i

cos = 31.11 m/s

c. v

if

= 0

d. (PE)

i

+(KE)

i

= (PE)

f

+ (KE)

f

0 +(KE)

i

= (PE)

f

+ 0

(KE)

i

= mgh

f

mg mg

__219.96 J __ = hf

(0.22kg)(9.8m/s

2

)

102 m = h

f

Exercise 3

A 60-kg high-diver starts

his/her dive at a height of 20

m.

a. What is his/her total

mechanical energy at the

start of his dive?

b. What is his/her velocity

halfway into the dive?

c. What is his/her velocity just

before hitting the water

below?

Solution:

a. ME

T

= PE

i

+ KE

i

= mgh + 0

= 60kg(9.8m/s

2

)(20m)

= 11,760 J

b. (PE)

i

+(KE)

i

= (PE)

f

+ (KE)

f

mgh

i

+ 0 = mgh

f

+ mv

2

( mv

2

= mgh

f

+ mgh

i

)1/m

v

2

= gh

f

gh

i

v

2

= g(h

f

h

i

)

v = 14 m/s

c. v

f

2

= v

i

2

+ 2gd

v

f

2

= 0 + 2gd

v

f

2

= 2(9.8m/s

2

)(20m)

v = 19.8 m/s

Exercise 4

ASSIGNMENT

Answer Test Yourself Problem Nos. 9-11 on p. 223.

Reference: Breaking Through Physics

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