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Candra Aditya Wiguna

(6512010005)

Agenda
Introduction
Examples of Crystal
Conclucion
INTRODUCTION

Introduction
A crystal or crystalline solid is
a solid material whose
constituent atoms, molecules,
or ions are arranged in an ordered
pattern extending in all three spatial
dimensions. In addition to their
microscopic structure, large crystals
are usually identifiable by their
macroscopic geometrical shape,
consisting of flat faces with specific,
characteristic orientations.
Introduction
Crystallization is the (natural or
artificial) process of formation of
solid crystals precipitating from
a solution, melt or more
rarely deposited directly from a gas.
Crystallization is also a chemical
solidliquid separation technique, in
which mass transfer of a solute from
the liquid solution to a pure solid
crystalline phase occurs. In chemical
engineering crystallization occurs in a
crystallizer. Crystallization is
therefore an aspect of precipitation,
obtained through a variation of
the solubility conditions of
the solute in the solvent, as
compared to precipitation due to
chemical reaction.
Introduction
Pyramidal
Dipyramidal
Disphenoidal
Trapezohedral
Scalenohedral
Dipyramidal
Pyramidal
Disphenoidal
Domatic
Prismatic
Sphenoidal
Pedial
Pinacodial
Tetartoidal
Diploidal
Rhombohedral
Cubic
Trigonal
Hexagonal Tetragonal Orthohombic
Monoclinic
Triclinic
Dipyramidal
Pyramidal
Trapezohedral
Pyramidal
Trapezohedral
Seven Crystall Structure System
Gyroidal
EXAMPLES OF CRYSTALL

Examples of Crystall
Chesium Chlorida (CsCl)

Potassium Allum (KAl(SO
4
)
2
.12H
2
O)

Silica Dioxide (SiO
2
)

Sucrose (C
12
H
22
O
11
)

Calcite (CaCO
3
)

Caesium chloride
Separation of DNA
Nuclear Medicine
Analytical Chemistry
Caesium chloride

Solubility Graph

G
r
a
m

/

1
0
0

g
r
a
m

H
2
O

Temperature (C
o
)
Caesium chloride

Crystall Structure

Body Centered
Cubic

Caesium chloride

Manufacture

Potassium Alum
Deodorant
Water Treatment
Fire Protection Coating
Potassium Alum
Solubility Graph

Potassium Alum
Crystall Structure

Orthorhombic
Potassium Alum
From alunite[edit]
In order to obtain alum from alunite, it is calcined and then exposed to the action of air for a considerable time. During this
exposure it is kept continually moistened with water, so that it ultimately falls to a very fine powder. This powder is then lixiviated
with hot water and sulfuric acid, the liquor decanted, and the alum allowed to crystallize. The alum schists employed in the
manufacture of alum are mixtures of iron pyrite, aluminium silicate and various bituminous substances, and are found in
upper Bavaria, Bohemia, Belgium, andScotland. These are either roasted or exposed to the weathering action of the air. In the
roasting process, sulfuric acid is formed and acts on the clay to form aluminium sulfate, a similar condition of affairs being
produced during weathering. The mass is now systematically extracted with water, and a solution of aluminium sulfate of specific
gravity 1.16 is prepared. This solution is allowed to stand for some time (in order that any calcium sulfate and basic ferric sulfate
may separate), and is then evaporated until ferrous sulfate crystallizes on cooling; it is then drawn off and evaporated until it
attains a specific gravity of 1.40. It is now allowed to stand for some time, decanted from any sediment, and finally mixed with the
calculated quantity of potassium sulfate, well agitated, and the alum is thrown down as a finely divided precipitate of alum meal.
If much iron should be present in the shale then it is preferable to use potassium chloride in place of potassium sulfate.
From clays or bauxite[edit]
In the preparation of alum from clays or from bauxite, the material is gently calcined, then mixed with sulfuric acid and heated
gradually to boiling; it is allowed to stand for some time, the clear solution drawn off and mixed with acid potassium sulfate and
allowed to crystallize. When cryolite is used for the preparation of alum, it is mixed with calcium carbonate and heated. By this
means, sodium aluminate is formed; it is then extracted with water and precipitated either by sodium bicarbonate or by passing a
current of carbon dioxide through the solution. The precipitate is then dissolved in sulfuric acid, the requisite amount of
potassium sulfate added and the solution allowed to crystallize.
[citation needed]

Manufacture

Silica Dioxide
Glass Production
Wine Fining
Extraction of DNA and RNA
Silica Dioxide
Solubility Graph

Silica Dioxide
Crystall Structure

Trigonal

Hexagonal

Na
2
Si
3
O
7
+ H
2
SO
4
3 SiO
2
+
Na
2
SO
4
+ H
2
O
Silica Dioxide
SiCl
4
+ 2 H
2
+ O
2
SiO
2
+ 4 HCl
Manufacture

Sucrose
Food Production
Drink Production
Extraction of Fructose
Sucrose
Solubility Graph

Sucrose
Crystall Structure

Hexagonal

Sucrose
Extraction
Process
Boiling
Process
Centrifugal
Separation
Raw Sugar
Washing
Proces
Filter
Syrup
Pressure
Manufacture

Calcium Carbonate
Construction Material
Argicultural
Fruit Deacidifaction
Calcium Carbonat
Solubility Graph

Calcium Carbonat
Crystall Structure

Hexagonal

Calcium Carbonat
Manufacture

CONCLUSION

Conclucion
Crystall is a solid material whose
constituent atoms, molecules, or ions are
arranged in an ordered pattern extending
in all three spatial dimensions
There are seven crystall structure system
which are: monocylinic, tricylinic,
orthohombic, trigonal, tetragonal,
hexagonal, and cubic
There are many examples of crystall in
everyday material such as sucrose in sugar,
calcite in walls, silica dioxide in stone,
potassium allum in water, and chesium
chloride in metal industry