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Feed Water Deaeration

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Removal of oxygen, carbon dioxide and other
non-condensable gases from feed water.
What is Deaeration?
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Why Deaeration?
Corrosion in boilers is caused by three factors:
1. Feed water temperature
2. Feed water pH value
3. Feed water oxygen content
Temperature and pH value influence the aggressiveness of
corrosion. The higher the temperature, and the lower the pH value
the increased aggressiveness of the feed water. The dissolved
oxygen content of the feed water is a large factor in determining the
amount of corrosion that will take place. The presence of oxygen,
and other non-condensable gases, in the feed water is a major
cause of corrosion in the feed water piping, boiler, and condensate
handling equipment.
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Why Deaeration?
Reduce corrosion by dissolved gas: oxygen,
carbon dioxide. Oxygen is the most aggressive
even in small concentrations.
Sources of oxygen: makeup water, condensate
return system.
Pitting corrosion. Degree of oxygen attack
depends on concentration of dissolved oxygen,
the pH and the temperature of the water.
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Deaerator Principles
Deaeration is the mechanical removal of dissolved gases from the boiler
feed water. There are three principles that must be met in the design of any
deaerator.
1. The incoming feed water must be heated to the full saturation temperature,
corresponding to the steam pressure maintained inside the deaerator. This will
lower the solubility of the dissolved gases to zero.
2. The heated feed water must be mechanically agitated. This is accomplished in
a tray deaerator by first spraying the water in a thin film into a steam atmosphere.
Creating a thin film reduces the distance, the gas bubble has to travel to be
released from the water. Next, the water is cascaded over a bank of slotted trays,
further reducing the surface tension of the water. This allows for the removal of
any gases not liberated by the initial spraying.
3. Adequate steam supply must be passed through the water, in both the spray
section and the tray section to sweep out the gases from the water.
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The easiest way to de-aerate is to force steam into the feed
water, this action is called scrubbing. Scrubbing raises the water
temperature causing the release of O2 and CO2 gases that are then
vented from the system. In boiling section steam is used to "scrub"
the feed water as
(1)steam is essentially devoid of O2 and CO2,
(2)steam is readily available and
(3)steam adds the heat required to complete the reaction.
Deaerator Principles
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For efficient operation, de-aerating equipment must satisfy
the following requirements:
(1)Heating of the feed water: The operating temperature in the unit
should be saturation temperature. If this temperature and pressure
cannot be economically achieved then it is important to get as close
to it as possible.
(2)Agitation decreases the time and heat energy necessary to remove
dissolved gases from the water.
(3)Maximization of surface area by finely dispersing the water to
expose maximum surface area to the steam. This enables the water
to be heated to saturation temperature quicker and reduces the
distance the gases have to travel to be liberated.
(4)The liberated gases must be vented to allow their escape from the
system as they are released.
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DEAERATION
Oxygen reacts with water ( H20 ) to give (
OH - ) ION
Fe = Fe+ + e-
O2 + 2H2O + 4e- = 4OH-
Fe+ + 2OH - = Fe(OH)2
2Fe + O2 + 2H2O = Fe(OH)2

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DEAERATION
Carbon dioxide is an acidic gas and
could form carbonic acid with water,
carbonic acid liberates H+ ions that
attacks on metal.
CO2 + H20 H2CO3 H+ + HCO
2H+ + 2e- = H2

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TYPES OF DEAERATION
1. Physical deaeration.
2. Chemical deaeration.

PRINCIPAL FOR PHYSICAL DEAERATION
The principle of deaeration is based on the following
laws
HENERYS LAW
DALTONS LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURE

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Daltons Law of Partial Pressure
It states that the pressure in a container
having a mixture of a gas and vapour, is the sum of
partial pressure of the vapour at the common
temperature and the partial pressure of the gas, at
any point inside.

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HENERYS LAW
The mass of gas with a definite mass of liquid,
which will dissolve at a given temperature, is directly
proportional to the partial pressure of the gas in
contact with the liquid.
This hold with in the close limit for gases which
dont unite chemically with water.
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Decreasing the partial pressure of the gas in
water may be achieved by following methods:
Use of another gas to remove the undesirable gases
e.g. Nitrogen can be used to remove oxygen.
Decreasing the total pressure so as to approach the
vapour pressure of the water.
Increasing the vapour pressure by heating the
water
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(A) According to working pressure under which they
operate:
Vacuum deaerator
Atmospheric deaerator
High pressure deaerator

Classification of Deaerator
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Vacuum Deaerator
Atmospheric deaerator

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Classification of Deaerator
(B) Also deaerator can be classified in accordance with
the mode of steam-water distribution:
Atomizing ( spray ) type
Tray type
Film type ( combination of both spray and tray type)

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Tray Type Deaerator
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Tray Type Deaerators
These are composed of a deaerating section and a feed water storage
section. Incoming water is sprayed through a perforated distribution pipe into a
steam atmosphere where it is atomized. There it is heated to within a few
degrees of the saturation temperature of the steam. Most of the non-
condensable gases are released to the steam as the water enters the unit. The
water then cascades through the tray section, breaking into fine droplets, which
immediately contact incoming steam. The steam heats the water to the
saturation temperature of the steam and removes all but a trace of
oxygen. Deaerated water falls to the feed water storage section below and is
protected from recontamination by a blanket of steam. As the non-condensable
gases are liberated, they as well as a small amount of steam are vented to
atmosphere. It is essential that sufficient venting is provided at all times or
deaeration will be incomplete.
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Trays
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Spray Type Deaerators
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Spray Type Deaerators
The spray-type deaerators do not use trays for dispersion of the water. In
this case, spring loaded nozzles located in the top of the unit spray water into a steam
atmosphere which is heated to within a few degrees of the saturation temperature of
the steam. Most of the non-condensable gases are released to the steam, and the
heated water falls to a water seal and drains to the lowest section of the steam
scrubber. The water is scrubbed by large quantities of steam and heated to the
saturation temperature prevailing at this point. The intimate steam to water contact
achieved in the scrubber efficiently strips the water of dissolved gases. As the steam-
water mixture rises in the scrubber, a slight pressure loss causes the deaerated water
temperature to remain a few degrees below the inlet steam saturation
temperature. The deaerated water overflows from the steam scrubber to the storage
section below. The steam, after flowing through the scrubber, passes up into the spray
heater section to heat the incoming water. Most of the steam condenses in the spray
section to become part of the deaerated water. A small portion of the steam, vented
to atmosphere, removes non-condensable gases from the system.
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Spray Type Deaerators
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Spray Valve
Spray cum Tray type
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Counter & Parallel Flow Deaerator
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1.In this design, the inlet water is sprayed into a steam atmosphere
spray nozzles.
2.This action heats the water to liberate most of the dissolved gases.
3.This flows down through water seals for distribution over the tray
bank, which serve two functions.
4.First they prevent gases liberated in the initiate heating, from
entering the tray bank.
5.Second they direct the steam to flow down through the trays, before
entering the upper heating section.
6.The main function of the tray bank is to remove the remaining
amounts of dissolved gases, not liberated in the initial heating.
Parallel Down Flow
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7.Since very little, or no heating takes place in the trays, the entire
volume of steam is used to scrub out the remaining gases.
8.The trays are slotted, and provide a great amount of spilling edge.
9.This allows for a great amount of water surface area to be exposed
to the steam.
10.Water and steam flow downward through the trays.
11.The steam, after exiting the tray bank, steam is condensed by the
colder inlet water, and a small amount is vented to atmosphere,
along with the dissolved gases.
Parallel Down Flow
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Disadvantages of Counter Flow Deaerators
Inability to deliver 0.007 ppb outlet quality in applications with a
low inlet water temperature, or when 100% make-up is required.
Low tray loading. This reduces the flow rating for a given diameter
deaerator vs. a parallel down flow unit.
High vent rate. This reduces operating efficiency
Advantages of Counter Flow Deaerators
The counter flow deaerator is cheaper to manufacture.
The higher capacity and the ability to perform under varying steam
and water conditions make the parallel down flow (and packed tower
for smaller applications) design competitive, and the only logical
choice.
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Disadvantages of Atomizer Deaerators
Inability to deliver 7 ppb outlet quality when plant conditions vary
from design specifications. Requires constant plant conditions.
Failure rate of the atomizer valve, and maintenance required to
keep it operating properly.

Advantages of Atomizer Deaerators
1. Low cost
2. Low overall height

The atomizer type deaerator is only effective when applied to an application with no
plant or process swings. Along with the maintenance required, this type deaerator, while
inexpensive, has only limited applications.
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Disadvantages of Parallel Down Flow
More complicated design, resulting in slightly higher cost.

Advantages of Parallel Down Flow
Time proven design
Design suitable for small to medium size plants
Can meet outlet guarantees at varying plant conditions.
High tray loading, resulting in higher outlet capacity for any given
diameter.
Large tray spilling edge, resulting in high deaerating efficiency
Low vent rate, resulting in increased operating efficiency.
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Deaerator Functions
Deaerator has to meet following needs.
It does deaeration
Acts as a feed water heater.
Acts as a storage tank (reservoir)
Accept the leak-off flows from the BFP.
Accept the H.P. Heater drains.
Heat the tank content from cold to provide hot
deaerated water for unit start-up.
Ensure NPSH for BFP
W

W
DR-6
DR - 13
CRH
-2
AS-7
AS-2
DR - 36
CD - 39
DR - 38
DEAERATOR
FEED STORAGE TANK
VENT
BFP A R/C
BFP
B R/C
FROM CBD TANK VENT
INITIAL FILLING
DR - 40
TO UNIT FLASH TANK
FROM
AUX. PRDS
BFP SUCTIONS
FROM CEP DISCHARGE
TO LP FLASH TANK
HPH 5 DRIP
HPH 6 DRIP
CRH
- 5
AS-5
BFP
C R/C
EX-
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CRH
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TECHNICAL PARTICULARS OF DEAERATOR
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Operating Conditions of Deaerator
Temperature of deaerated water must be equal to
saturation temp. of water corresponding to the pressure at
which deaerator operates.
Sufficient heating steam must be delivered to the
deaerator to ensure continuous boiling of water undergoing
deaeration.
The feed water charge to deaerator must be disintegrated
into fine droplets to ensure better heat transfer
Deaerator must be provided with sufficient venting to
purge all the non-condensing gases out of the system and
to ensure minimum partial Pressure of these gases in the
upper part of the deaerator.
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Causes of High O2/CO2 Concentration

Inadequate deaerator vent leading to accumulation of non-
condensing gases and increase in their partial pressure.
High feed-water flow rate.
Delivery of O2 - containing condensate directly into the
storage tank.
Frequent pressure drop in the deaerator.
Faulty deaerator internals.
Delivery of relatively cold flows with higher O2 - content
to deaerator.
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While the most efficient mechanical
deaerators reduce oxygen to very low levels
(.005cc/l or 5 ppb), even trace amounts of oxygen
may cause corrosion damage to a
system. Consequently, good operating practice
requires removal of that trace oxygen with a
chemical oxygen scavenger such as sodium sulfite
or hydrazine.
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Chemical Deaeration
The addition of an oxygen scavenging chemical (Sodium Sulphite or
Hydrazine) will remove the remaining oxygen and prevent corrosion.
Na2SO3 + O2 = Na2SO4
Sodium Sulphite Oxygen Sodium Sulphate
Now obsolete, as it increases the total dissolved solids.

Modern Practice: Hydrazine is used for chemical Deaeration.
N2H4 + O2 = N2 + 2H2O
3N2H4 = 4NH3 + N2
Additional ammonia reacts with
2NH3 + CO2 + H2O = (NH4)2CO3
(acidic) Ammonium Carbonate (Neutral)

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FST - Deaerator
Deaerator connection
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CORROSION is defined as the destruction of a metal by chemical or
electromechanical reaction with its environment. Corrosion dramatically increases
maintenance costs and can cause unnecessary safety risks. It will occur when
levels of oxygen or carbon dioxide are high, where pH values are low, where
contact occurs between dissimilar metals and in corrosive atmospheres. Corrosion
is an electrochemical process in which electricity flows through a solution of ions
between areas of metal. Deterioration occurs when the current leaves the
negatively charged metal or anode and travels through the solution to the
positively charged metal or cathode, completing an electrical circuit in much the
same manner as a battery cell. The anode and the cathode can be different metals
or areas of the same metal. Corrosion occurs when there is a difference in the
electrical potential between them.
SCALE is a very hard substance that adheres directly to heating surfaces
forming a layer of insulation. This layer of insulation will decrease heat transfer
efficiency. Scale also results in metal fatigue/failure from overheating, energy
waste, high maintenance costs and unnecessary safety risks. A one-sixteenth inch
thickness of scale in a fire tube boiler can result in a 12.5% increase in fuel
consumption.

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FOULING occurs when a restriction develops in piping and equipment
passageways and results in inefficient water flow. The fouling of boiler room
equipment directly impacts energy efficiencies and cost of operations.
FOAMING is a condition in which concentrations of soluble salts,
aggravated by grease, suspended solids or organic matter, create frothy bubbles
or foam in the steam space of a boiler. When these bubbles collapse it creates a
liquid that is carried over into the steam system. Foaming degrades steam
quality and in some cases can create a water slug that is discharged into the
steam lines.
CAUSTIC GAUGING will occur when there is a high concentration of
alkaline salts (a pH value of 11 or greater) that will liberate hydrogen absorbed
by the iron in the steel. It will be more evident in high temperature areas of the
boiler's waterside and manifests itself in the form of hairline cracks.
HYDROGEN EMBRITTLEMENT occurs in the event of lower pH value of
the water in evaporator
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