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- Lecture 23
- Active Compensation for High-frequency Effects in Op-Amp Circuits With Applications for Active RC Filters (CATHERINE VERA)
- Class B Amplifier Dissipation Calculations
- Filters 4
- BLW77
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- 07a10201-basic-electrical-and-electronics-engineering
- Multidimensional Measurements on RF Power Amplifiers
- Reference Design Low Cost Compass
- Lecture 1 Mathematical Modelling and Block Diagram Algebra

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Filters

What is a filter?

It is sometimes desirable to have circuits capable of

selectively filtering one frequency or range of frequencies

out of a mix of different frequencies in a circuit.

A circuit designed to perform this frequency selection is

called a filter circuit, or simply a filter.

Filters are essential to the operation of most electronic

circuits.

It is therefore in the interest of anyone involved in

electronic circuit design to have the ability to develop

filter circuits capable of meeting a given set of

specifications.

This course is intended to serve as a very basic

introduction to some of the fundamental concepts

and

terms associated with filters.

Filters and Signals: What Does a Filter Do?

In circuit theory, a filter is an electrical network that

alters the amplitude and/or phase characteristics of a

signal with respect to frequency.

Ideally, a filter will not add new frequencies to the

input signal, nor will it change the component

frequencies of that signal, but it will change the

relative amplitudes of the various frequency

components and/or their phase relationships.

Filters are often used in electronic systems to

emphasize signals in certain frequency ranges and

reject signals in other frequency ranges. Such a filter

has a gain which is dependent on signal frequency. As

an example, consider a situation where a useful signal

at frequency f1 has been contaminated with an

unwanted signal at f2. If the contaminated signal is

passed through a circuit (Figure 1) that has very low

gain at f2 compared to f1, the undesired signal can be

removed, and the useful signal will remain.

Note that in the case of this simple example, we are

not concerned with the gain of the filter at any

frequency other than f1 and f2.

As long as f2 is sufficiently attenuated relative to f1,

the performance of this filter will be satisfactory.

In general, however, a filter's gain may be specified at

several different frequencies, or over a band of

frequencies.

Since filters are defined by their frequency-domain

effects on signals, it makes sense that the most useful

analytical and graphical descriptions of filters also fall

into the frequency domain. Thus, curves of gain vs

frequency and phase vs frequency are commonly

used to illustrate filter characteristics,and the most

widely-used mathematical tools are based in the

frequency domain.

The frequency-domain behavior of a filter is described

mathematically in terms of its transfer function or

network function. This is the ratio of the output and

input signals.

) (

) (

) (

e

e

e

j V

j V

j H

IN

OUT

=

The transfer function defines the filter's response to

any arbitrary input signal, but we are most often

concerned with its effect on continuous sine waves.

Especially important is the magnitude of the transfer

function as a function of frequency, which indicates

the effect of the filter on the amplitudes of sinusoidal

signals at various frequencies.

Knowing the transfer function magnitude (or gain) at

each frequency allows us to determine how well the

filter can distinguish between signals at different

frequencies.

The transfer function magnitude versus frequency is

called the amplitude response or sometimes,

especially in audio applications, the frequency

response.

Similarly, the phase response of the filter gives the

amount of phase shift introduced in sinusoidal signals

as a function of frequency. Since a change in phase

of a signal also represents a change in time, the

phase characteristics of a filter become especially

important when dealing with complex signals where

the time relationships between signal components at

different frequencies are critical.

The magnitude and the phase of the transfer function are:

) (

) (

) (

e

e

e

j V

j V

j H

IN

OUT

=

) (

) (

arg ) ( arg

e

e

e

j V

j V

j H

IN

OUT

=

With respect of passed frequency in the filter, we have four

categories of filters:

Low-pass filter allow pass of low frequencies and reject

high frequencies

High-pass filter - allow pass of high frequencies and reject

low frequencies

Band-pass filter - allow pass a band of frequencies and

reject all others frequencies

Notch or band-reject filter - reject a band of frequencies and

allow to pass all others frequencies

H

f fo

1

0

H

f fo

0

1

H

f f1 f2

0

1

H

f f1 f2

0

1

Defining the Cutoff Frequency, wc (fH)

The definition for cutoff frequency is the frequency for

which the transfer function magnitude is decreased by

the factor 1 / 2 from its maximum value.

Where Hmax is the maximum magnitude of the transfer

function. Because 1 / 2 = 0.707 , we can say cutoff

frequency is the frequency for which the transfer function

magnitude is decreased by 70% of its maximum value.

Because 20Log(1 / 2) = -3dB , again we can say cutoff

frequency is the frequency for which the transfer function

magnitude is decreased by 3dB of its maximum value.

The study of frequency response of RC circuits is based on

the Bode diagrams. This method consists in study of

magnitude and phase variation, as a functions of frequency.

As a result, we have two diagrams:

Magnitude-frequency diagram

Phase-frequency diagram

Bode diagrams use logarithmic units.

Advantages:

Logarithmic function transform the multiplying operation in

add operation (much simple on graphics)

The nonlinear function can be asymptotic approximated

with linear segments

Using logarithms allow visualization for a large interval or

frequency

Low-pass filters

By definition, a low-pass filter is a circuit offering easy

passage to low-frequency signals and difficult passage to

high-frequency signals. There are two basic kinds of

circuits capable of accomplishing this objective, and many

variations of each one:

U2 U1

2

C1

3

R1

4

1

The capacitor's impedance decreases with increasing

frequency. This low impedance in parallel with the load

resistance tends to short out high-frequency signals,

dropping most of the voltage gets across series resistor R

1

.

The transfer function:

= = =

C j

C j

R

C j

U

U

=

=

=

+

=

+

=

1

1

1

1

1

2

RC x e =

2

1

2

1

1

x

jx

U

U

+

=

For a complex number

jb a y + =

-Magnitude

-phase

2 2

b a y + =

( )

a

b

arctg y phase =

2

1

2

1

1

x

U

U

+

=

) ( x arctg phase =

All low-pass filters are rated at a certain cutoff frequency.

That is, the frequency above which the output voltage falls

below 70.7% of the input voltage. This cutoff percentage of

70.7 is not really arbitrary, all though it may seem so at first

glance. In a simple capacitive/resistive low-pass filter, it is

the frequency at which capacitive reactance in ohms equals

resistance in ohms. In a simple capacitive low-pass filter

(one resistor, one capacitor), the cutoff frequency is given

as:

RC

f

o

t 2

1

=

For x = 1 (f = f

o

) we have:

dB

U

U

3 lg 20

1

2

=

4

t

=

o

In band pass, for x << 1, we have:

1

1

2

U

U

0

In band rejected, for x >> 1, we have:

0

1

2

U

U

2

t

REVIEW:

A low-pass filter allows for easy passage of low-

frequency signals from source to load, and difficult

passage of high-frequency signals.

Capacitive low-pass filters insert a resistor in series and a

capacitor in parallel with the load. The former filter design

tries to "block" the unwanted frequency signal while the

latter tries to short it out.

The cutoff frequency for a low-pass filter is that frequency

at which the output (load) voltage equals 70.7% of the

input (source) voltage. Above the cutoff frequency, the

output voltage is lower than 70.7% of the input, and visa-

versa.

High-pass filters

A high-pass filter's task is just the opposite of a low-pass

filter: to offer easy passage of a high-frequency signal and

difficult passage to a low-frequency signal. As one might

expect, the high-pass filter are just the opposite of their

respective low-pass filter designs:

U1

4

2

R1

3

1

C1

U2

The transfer function:

jx

jx

RC j

RC j

jwC

R

R

U

U

+

=

+

=

+

=

1 1

1

1

2

e

e

x = eRC

magnitude

phase

2

1

2

1 x

x

U

U

+

=

x

arctg

1

=

The cutoff frequency:

RC

f

o

t 2

1

=

: si

dB

U

U

3 lg 20

1

2

=

4

t

=

o

: si

dB

U

U

3 lg 20

1

2

=

4

t

=

o

For x = 1 (f = f

o

) we have: dB

U

U

3 lg 20

1

2

=

4

t

=

o

In band pass, for x >> 1, we have:

1

1

2

U

U

0

In band rejected, for x << 1, we have:

0

1

2

U

U

2

t

REVIEW:

A high-pass filter allows for easy passage of high-

frequency signals from source to load, and difficult

passage of low-frequency signals.

Capacitive high-pass filters insert a capacitor in series

with the load. The former filter design tries to "block" the

unwanted frequency signal while the latter tries to short it

out.

The cutoff frequency for a high-pass filter is that

frequency at which the output (load) voltage equals

70.7% of the input (source) voltage. Above the cutoff

frequency, the output voltage is greater than 70.7% of the

input, and visa-versa.

Band-pass filters (Wien Bridge)

There are applications where a particular band, or spread, or

frequencies need to be filtered from a wider range of mixed

signals. Filter circuits can be designed to accomplish this

task by combining the properties of low-pass and high-pass

into a single filter. The result is called a band-pass filter.

Creating a band-pass filter from a low-pass and high-pass

filter can be illustrated using block diagrams:

What emerges from the series combination of these two

filter circuits is a circuit that will only allow passage of those

frequencies that are neither too high nor too low. Using real

components, here is what a typical schematic might look

like:

R1

4

1

3

R2

2

U1

C2

U2

C1

1

1 1

1

1 1

1 1

C j

C R j

C j

R Z

=

=

=

+

= + =

2 2

2

2

1 C R j

R

Z

e +

=

For R

1

=R

2

= R si C

1

=C

2

= C :

C j

RC j

Z

=

= +

=

1

1

RC j

R

Z

= +

=

1

2

The transfer function:

( ) RC j RC j

RC j

RC j

R

C j

RC j

RC j

R

Z U

U

e e

e

e e

e

e

+ +

=

+

+

+

+

=

+

=

2

2 1

2

1

2

1

1

1

1

Z

Z

RC x e =

( )

( )

( )

2

2

2

2 2

2 2

1

2

9 1

1 3

3 1

1

x x

x jx x

jx x

jx

jx jx

jx

U

U

+

+

=

+

=

+ +

=

magnitude

phase

2 2 2

1

2

9 ) 1 ( x x

x

U

U

+

=

)

3

1

(

2

x

x

arctg

=

The resonant frequency

At the resonant frequency, the reactive component of the

transfer function must be zero (the circuit behavior is

resistive) .

0 1

2

= x

RC

f

o

t 2

1

=

For x=1

3

1

1

2

=

U

U

0

0

=

For x->0 0

1

2

U

U

2

t

For x-> 0

1

2

U

U

2

t

Band-pass = band of 3dB attenuation

L H dB

f f B =

3

fH and fL are the cutoff frequencies, where the module of

transfer function is with 3dB lower (or 2 times lower) than

the maximum value

2 3

1

2

3

1

1

2

= =

U

U

1 = tg

1 = tg

1

3

1

2

=

x

x

0 >

L

x

2

13 3 +

=

L

x

Determining the Bandwidth

1 = tg 1

3

1

2

=

x

x

0 >

H

x

2

13 3 +

=

H

x

3

3

= = =

o

dB

o

L

o

H

L H

f

B

f

f

f

f

x x

o dB

f B 3

3

=

Determining the Quality Factor (Q):

It is defined as the ratio of the center frequency to

bandwidth: Q=fo/B3dB

3

1

= Q

Notch or Band-reject Filter (Wien-Robinson

bridge)

A filter with effectively the opposite function of the

band-pass is the band-reject or notch filter. Notch

filters are used to remove an unwanted frequency

from a signal, while affecting all other frequencies as

little as possible.

R

0

0

2R1

U4

U1

U3

C

0

0 0 0

C

U2

R R1

2 4 3

U U U =

3

1

4

U

U =

1

2

1

3

3

1

U

U

U

U

=

jx jx

jx

U

U

+ +

=

2

1

2

) 1 (

jx jx

jx

U

U

+ +

=

2

1

3

) 1 ( 3

1

2 2 2

2

1

3

9 ) 1 ( 3

1

x x

x

U

U

+

=

1

3

2

=

x

x

arctg

RC

1

0

= e

RC

f

t 2

1

0

=

For x=1

0

1

3

=

U

U

For x->1, x<1

2

0

t

=

For x->1, x>1

2

0

t

+ =

=> Phase shift with t.

For x<<1

3

1

1

3

=

U

U

0

0

For x>>1

3

1

1

3

=

U

U

0

0

The filters used for the earlier examples were all made

up of passive components: resistors, capacitors, so they

are referred to as passive filters.

A passive filter is simply a filter that uses no amplifying

elements (transistors, operational amplifiers, etc.).

In this respect, it is the simplest (in terms of the number

of necessary components) implementation of a given

transfer function. Passive filters have other advantages

as well.

Because they have no active components, passive

filters require no power supplies.

Since they are not restricted by the bandwidth

limitations of op amps, they can work well at very high

frequencies. They can be used in applications involving

larger current or voltage levels than can be handled by

active devices.

Passive filters also generate little noise when compared

with circuits using active gain elements. The noise that

they produce is simply the thermal noise from the

resistive components, and, with careful design, the

amplitude of this noise can be very low.

Passive filters have some important disadvantages in

certain applications, however. Since they use no active

elements, they cannot provide signal gain. Input

impedances can be lower than desirable, and output

impedances can be higher the optimum for some

applications, so buffer amplifiers may be needed.

Active Filters

Active filters use amplifying elements, especially op

amps, with resistors and capacitors in their feedback

loops, to synthesize the desired filter characteristics.

Active filters can have high input impedance, low

output impedance, and virtually any arbitrary gain.

They are also usually easier to design than passive

filters.

Performance at high frequencies is limited by the gain-

bandwidth product of the amplifying elements, but

within the amplifier's operating frequency range, the op

amp-based active filter can achieve very good

accuracy, provided that low-tolerance resistors and

capacitors are used.

Active filters will generate noise due to the amplifying

circuitry, but this can be minimized by the use of low-

noise amplifiers and careful circuit design.

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