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ELEKTROANALITIK

KIM233
KONTRAK KULIAH
Dr. Deden Saprudin, MSi (Koordinator)
Bidang Keahlian : Kimia Elektroanalitik
Kantor : Bagian Kimia Analitik Departemen Kimia FMIPA IPB
Gedung FPIK Wing 12 Level 4 Kampus IPB Darmaga
Telepon : 0251 8628766
E-mail : dsp@ipb.ac.id
Dr. Eti Rohaeti, MS
Bidang Keahlian : Kimia Analitik dan Lingkungan
Kantor : Bagian Kimia Analitik Departemen Kimia FMIPA IPB
Gedung FPIK Wing 12 Level 4 Kampus IPB Darmaga
Telepon : 0251 628766
E-mail : er_a444@hotmail.com
Staf Pengajar
KONTRAK KULIAH
Materi
1. Dasar-dasar pengukuran
2. Dasar-dasar elektrokimia
3. Potensiometri
4. Konduktometri
5. Voltametri siklik
6. Voltametri pulsa
7. Voltametri gelombang persegi
8. Kronokulometri
9. Voltametri pelucutan
Pertemuan
2 x 50
9 x 50
3 x 50
2 x 50
4 x 50
2 x 50
2 x 50
2 x 50
2 x 50
Dosen
DSP
ERT
ERT
ERT
DSP
DSP
DSP
DSP
DSP
Silabus
KONTRAK KULIAH
Penilaian:
UTS 50 %
UAS 50 %

Huruf Mutu
A 75,0 A/B 70
B 65,0 B/C 60
C 55,0 D 40,0
E < 40,0
KONTRAK KULIAH
Principles of
Instrumental
Analysis
DA Skoog et al.
2007
Harcourt Brace
College
Electroanalytical
Methods: Guide to
Experiments and
Applications
F Scholz (ed) 2010
Springer-Verlag
Vogels Textbook of
Quantitative
Chemical Analysis
J Mendham et al.
2000
John Wiley & Sons
Buku Ajar
KIMIA ELEKTROANALITIK
Kimia Elektroanalitik:
Suatu grup metode analitik baik kualitatif maupun kuantitatif
yang didasarkan pada sifat kelistrikan (arus, tegangan, muatan,
hambatan/resistans) larutan analit saat sebagai bagian sel
elektrokimia yang berhubungan dengan parameter kimia
Teknik ini merupakan salah satu teknik analisis yang utama
karena beberapa alasan seperti:
- Metode elektroanalitik dapat bersifat spesifik untuk beberapa
keadaan oksidasi suatu unsur
- Instrumentasi elektrokimia relatif tidak mahal dan dapat
diminiaturisasi
- Metode elektroanalitik menyediakan informasi tentang
aktivitas (daripada konsentrasi)
SEJARAH KIMIA ELEKTROANALITIK
Michael Faraday
Hukum elektrolisis:
jumlah zat yang terdeposit
dari suatu elektrolit akibat
diberikan arus adalah
proporsional terhadap
ekuivalen kimia zat tersebut
Walter Nernst
persamaan Nernst (Nobel Prize
1920)
Jaroslav Heyrovsky
Invensi polarografi (Nobel Prize
1959)
Walter Nernst
(1864-1941)
Michael Faraday
(1791-1867)
Jaroslav Heyrovsky
(1890-1967)
KLASIFIKASI KIMIA ELEKTROANALITIK
I = arus, E = potensial, R = hambatan/resistans, G = konduktans, Q = jumlah muatan,
t = waktu, vol = volume larutan standar, m = massa spesi yang terdeposit
Metode
antarmuka
Metode
limbak/ruah
Metode statis
(I = 0)
Metode
dinamik
(I > 0)
Potensiometri
(E)
Konduktometri
(G = 1/R)
Potensial
terkontrol
Arus konstan
Voltammetri
(I = f(E))
Titrasi
amperometri
(I = f(E))
Elektrogravimetri
(m)
Titrasi
kulometri
(Q = It)
Komponen elektrik dan sirkuit
Instrumen modern mengkonversi data dari suatu domain ke
domain lainnya yang umumnya
melibatkan domain elektrik
Untuk memahami konversi dan bagaimana instrumen
elektronik modern bekerja diperlukan pengetahuan dasar
arus searah (dc) dan arus bolak balik (ac) komponen sirkuit.

Yang akan dipelajari:
Sirkuit terintegrasi
Mikrokomputer dalam instrumen untuk analisis kimia
Komponen elektrik dan sirkuit
Sirkuit arus searah dan pengukuran
Beberapa dasar sirkuit arus searah dan bagaimana
digunakan dalam menghasilkan arus, tegangan, dan
resistans

Definisi umum untuk sirkuit: lintasan tertutup yang
akan dilintasi oleh arus listrik
Hukum keelektrikan
Hukum Ohm
menggambarkan hubungan antara potensial, resistans,
dan arus dalam rangkaian sirkuit resistif
Dalam rangkain sirkuit, semua elemen sirkuit
terhubungkan dalam urutan lintasan yang unik,
dari kepala ke ekor (Gambar 2-1, Skoog et al.
Principles of Instrumental Analysis)
Hukum Ohm dapat dituliskan :
V = IR
V = beda potensial dalam volt diantara dua titik
yang ada dalam sirkuit
R = resistans diantara dua titik (ohm)
I = arus yang dihasilkan (ampere)
Hukum keelektrikan
Hukum Kirchoff
Hukum arus Kirchhoff menyatakan bahwa jumlah aljabar arus
disekitar titik manapun dalam suatu sirkuit adalah nol
Hukum tegangan Kirchhoff menyatakan bahwa jumlah aljabar
tegangan disekitar simpal (loop) elektrik tertutup adalah nol
Hukum daya
Menyatakan bahwa daya dalam watt yang tidak beratur
dalam elemen resistif diberikan dari produk arus dalam
ampere dan perbedaan potensial di sepanjang resistans
dalam volt:
P = IV
substitusi ke Hukum Ohm akan menjadi:
P = I
2
R = V
2
/R
Sirkuit arus searah
Sirkuit seri
Gambar 2-1
menunjukkan sirkuit
seri yang terdiri atas
baterai, saklar, dan
tiga resistor yang
dirangkai seri
Arus akan sama di
tiap titik pada sirkuit
seri:
I = I
1
= I
2
= I
3
= I
4

Sirkuit arus searah
Application of Kirchhoffs voltage law
to the circuit in Figure 2-1 yields:
V = V
1
+ V
2
+ V
3

The total resistance, R
s
, of a series circuit is
equal to the sum of the resistances of the
individual components.
R
s
= R
1
+ R
2
+ R
3

Dr. S. M. Condren
Simple DC Circuits
Voltage Dividers
Fig. 2-2
"Voltage Dividers: (a)
selector type and (b)
continuously variable
type (potentiometer)"

Dr. S. M. Condren
Simple DC Circuits
Voltage Dividers

R
AC
AC
V
AC
= V
AB
------- = V
AB
------
R
AB
AB
Dr. S. M. Condren
Simple DC Circuits
Parallel Circuits
from Kirchhoff's first law

I = I
1
+ I
2
+ I
3
Dr. S. M. Condren
Simple DC Circuits
Parallel Circuits
and from Kirchhoff's second law, three separate
equations
V = I
1
* R
1

V = I
2
* R
2

V = I
3
* R
3
Dr. S. M. Condren
Simple DC Circuits
Parallel Circuits
and from Ohm's Law

V V V V
I = --- = --- + --- + ---
R R
1
R
2
R
3
Dr. S. M. Condren
Simple DC Circuits
Parallel Circuits
thus, for a parallel circuit, resistances are

1 1 1 1
--- = --- + --- + ---
R R
1
R
2
R
3
Dr. S. M. Condren
Simple DC Circuits
Parallel Circuits
and where conductance, G = 1/R

G = G
1
+ G
2
+ G
3
Dr. S. M. Condren
Series-Parallel Circuit
R
6
=5W
R
1
= 5W
R
2
=10W
R
5
=6W
R
3
=6W
R
4
=12W
EXAMPLE: What is the equivalent resistance
and current for the following circuit?
Dr. S. M. Condren
DC Current, Voltage, and Resistance
Measurements
Digital Voltmeters
Fig. 2-4 "Uses of a digital voltmeter"
Dr. S. M. Condren
Alternating Current Circuits
f = 1/t
p


where t
p
=> period
Dr. S. M. Condren
Alternating Current Circuits
Sinusoidal Currents

2p
w = ---- = 2pf
t
p


where w => angular frequency
Dr. S. M. Condren
Alternating Current Circuits
for single sine wave

i = I
p
sin (wt) = I
p
sin(2pft)

where i = instantaneous current
I
p
=> peak current
Dr. S. M. Condren
Alternating Current Circuits
for single sine wave

v = V
p
sin (wt) = V
p
sin(2pft)

where v = instantaneous voltage
V
p
=> peak voltage
Dr. S. M. Condren
Alternating Current Circuits
for two sine waves

i = I
p
sin (wt + f) = I
p
sin(2pft + f)

where i = instantaneous current
I
p
=> peak current
Dr. S. M. Condren
Alternating Current Circuits
for two sine waves

v = V
p
sin (wt + f) = V
p
sin(2pft + f)

where v = instantaneous voltage
V
p
=> peak voltage
Dr. S. M. Condren
Capacitors and Capacitance: Series
RC Circuits
Fig. 2-8 "Behavior of a series RC circuit
Dr. S. M. Condren
Capacitors and Capacitance: Series
RC Circuits
V
i
= v
C
+ v
R


i = I
init
e
-t/RC
Dr. S. M. Condren
Capacitors and Capacitance: Series
RC Circuits
Rate of voltage change in an RC circuit

v
R
= V
i
e
-t/RC
thus v
C
= V
i
(1 - e
-t/RC
)

where RC => time constant, units of seconds
Dr. S. M. Condren
EXAMPLE
The values for the components are
V
i
= 20 v R = 15 X 10
3
W C = 8.0 X 10
-3
F
Calculate (a) the time constant for the circuit,
and (b) i, v
C
, and v
R
after four time
constants (t = 4RC) have elapsed.
Dr. S. M. Condren
EXAMPLE
(a) time constant = RC
= (15 X 10
3
W

) * (8.0 X 10
-3
F)
= 1.2 X 10
2
seconds
The values for the components are
V
i
= 20 v R = 15 X 10
3
W C = 8.0 X 10
-3
F
Calculate (a) the time constant for the circuit,
and (b) i, v
C
, and v
R
after four time constants
(t = 4RC) have elapsed.
Dr. S. M. Condren
EXAMPLE
(b) if t = 4RC, then t/RC = (4RC)/RC = 4
i = I
init
e
-t/RC
= (V/R) e
-t/RC
= (20 v/ 15 X 10
3
W)
= 2.4 X 10
-5
amp
The values for the components are
V
i
= 20 v R = 15 X 10
3
W C = 8.0 X 10
-3
F
Calculate (a) the time constant for the circuit,
and (b) i, v
C
, and v
R
after four time constants
(t = 4RC) have elapsed.
Dr. S. M. Condren
EXAMPLE
v
C
= V
i
(1 - e
-t/RC
) = 20 v (1 - e
-4
)
= 20 v (1.000 - 0.01)
= 20 v (0.982) = 19.6 v
The values for the components are
V
i
= 20 v R = 15 X 10
3
W C = 8.0 X 10
-3
F
Calculate (a) the time constant for the circuit,
and (b) i, v
C
, and v
R
after four time constants
(t = 4RC) have elapsed.
Dr. S. M. Condren
EXAMPLE
v
R
= V
i
e
-t/RC
= 20 v e
-4
= 20 v (0.01) = 0.36 v
The values for the components are
V
i
= 20 v R = 15 X 10
3
W C = 8.0 X 10
-3
F
Calculate (a) the time constant for the circuit,
and (b) i, v
C
, and v
R
after four time constants
(t = 4RC) have elapsed.
Dr. S. M. Condren
Response of Series RC Circuits to
Sinusoidal Inputs
v
S
= V
P
sin(2pft)

i = I
P
sin(2pft)

where v
S
=> input signal voltage
V
P
=> peak voltage
I
P
=> peak current
Dr. S. M. Condren
Reactance of a Capacitor => X
C
X
C
= 1 / (2pfC)

Impedance in a Series RC Circuit

Z = (R
2
+ X
C
2
)
1/2


f = - tan
-1
(1 / (2pfRC))
Dr. S. M. Condren
Filters Based on RC Circuits
Fig. 2-11 High-Pass Filter and Low-Pass Filter
Dr. S. M. Condren
Semiconductors and Semiconductor
Devices
Semiconductors
Semiconductor Devices
Diodes
Transitors
Field-Effect Transitor
Dr. S. M. Condren
Semiconductors
Any of various solid crystalline substances,
such as germanium or silicon, having electrical
conductivity greater than insulators but less
than good conductors.
Conductivity can be increased by doping with
select materials.
Dr. S. M. Condren
Semiconductors
If dopant is an element to the right of the base
material, an n-type semiconductor is
produced.
If dopant is an element to the left of the base
material, a p-type semiconductor is produced.
Dr. S. M. Condren
Diodes
A diode is an electronic component that allows
current to flow in only one direction.
Dr. S. M. Condren
Diodes
Fig. 2-15 A pn junction
diode. (a) Physical
appearance of one type
formed by diffusion of a
p-type impurity into an
n-type semiconductor,
(b) symbol for a diode,
(c.) current under
forward bias, (d)
resistance to current
under reverse bias.
Dr. S. M. Condren
Diodes
Fig. 2-16 Current-voltage
characteristics of a silicon
semiconductor diode.
Dr. S. M. Condren
Transistors
A transistor is an active electronic component
with three leads. One lead is connected to a
power source, one is the output, and the
other is a gate that controls how much power
is applied to the output. Transistors are
typically used as amplifiers because a small
signal at the gate controls a large output.
Dr. S. M. Condren
Transistors
There are several types of
transistors and two of the
more common categories,
bipolar and field-effect
transistor (FET).
Dr. S. M. Condren
Power Supplies and Regulators
Transformers
Rectifiers and Filters
Voltage Regulators
Dr. S. M. Condren
Transformers
A transformer is a passive electronics
component and consists of a pair of wire
coils coupled together with an iron core.
The input coil is called the primary coil and
the output coil is called the secondary coil.
Dr. S. M. Condren
Transformers
Transformer Voltages
-150
-100
-50
0
50
100
150
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
V
o
l
t
s
Primary
Seconday
Dr. S. M. Condren
Rectifiers and Filters
Rectifiers
used to convert alternating current to direct
current
diode or diodes
Filters
capacitors
reduce ripple in direct current
Dr. S. M. Condren
Half Wave Rectifier
Rectified
0
20
0 5 10
V
o
l
t
s
Unrectified
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
V
o
l
t
s
Dr. S. M. Condren
Full Wave Rectifier
Rectified
0
10
20
0 2 4 6 8
V
o
l
t
s
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 V
o
l
t
s
Unrectified
Dr. S. M. Condren
Filters
Effect of Filter
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
V
o
l
t
s
Unfiltered
Fillered
Pure DC
Dr. S. M. Condren
Power Supply
Transformer
Unrectified
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
V
o
l t s
Unrectified
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
V
o
l t
s
Rectifier
Rectified
0
10
20
0 2 4 6 8
V
o
l
t
s
Filter
Effect of Filter
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
V o l t s
Dr. S. M. Condren
Half-Wave Rectified
Rectified
0
20
0 5 10
V
o
l
t
s
Dr. S. M. Condren
Full-Wave Rectified
bridge
Rectified
0
10
20
0 2 4 6 8
V
o
l
t
s
Dr. S. M. Condren
Full-Wave Rectified
Rectified
0
10
20
0 2 4 6 8
V
o
l
t
s
Dr. S. M. Condren
Full-Wave Rectified
bridge
Rectified
0
10
20
0 2 4 6 8
V
o
l
t
s
Dr. S. M. Condren
Voltage Regulators
integrated circuit which regulate the voltage to
some specific value
Dr. S. M. Condren
Readout Devices
Oscilloscopes/Cathode Ray Tubes
Recorders
Analog Meters
Alphanumeric Displays
nixie tubes
LEDs
LCDs
Computers
Dr. S. M. Condren
Digital Display