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ALTERNATING CURRENT

(AC) CIRCUITS
Time-variant Voltage
Time-varying voltage that is commercially
available in large quantities and is commonly
called the ac voltage. (The letters ac are an
abbreviation for alternating current.)


Alternating waveform available from
commercial supplies.
The term alternating indicates only that the
waveform alternates between two prescribed
levels in a set time sequence

A sinusoid is a signal that has the form of the
sine or cosine function.
A sinusoidal current is usually referred to as
alternating current (ac).
Such a current reverses at regular time
intervals and has alternately positive and
negative values. Circuits driven by sinusoidal
current or voltage sources are called ac
circuits.

Sinusoidal ac voltages are available from a
variety of sources.
The most common source is the typical home
outlet, which provides an ac voltage that
originates at a power plant; such a power
plant is most commonly fueled by water
power, oil, gas, or nuclear fusion in each case
an ac generator (also called an alternator).



Sinusoidal Voltage
A sketch of V
m
sin t as a function of t.

A sketch of V
m
sin t as a function of t.
It is evident that the sinusoid repeats itself
every T seconds; thus, T is called the period of
the sinusoid. Observe that T = 2.




While is in radians per second (rad/s), f is in
Hertz


Periodic Function
A periodic function is one that satisfies
f (t) = f (t + nT), for all t and for all integers n.

The period T of the periodic function is the
time of one complete cycle or the number of
seconds per cycle.
The reciprocal of this quantity is the number
of cycles per second, known as the cyclic
frequency f of the sinusoid. Thus,


Instantaneous value: The magnitude of a
waveform at any instant of time; denoted by
lowercase letters

Peak amplitude: The maximum value of a
waveform as measured denoted by uppercase
letters (such as E
m
for sources of voltage and V
m
for
the voltage drop across a load).

Peak-to-peak value: Denoted by Ep-p or Vp-p, the
full voltage between positive and negative peaks of
the waveform, that is, the sum of the magnitude of
the positive and negative peaks.

Period (T ): The time interval between successive
repetitions of a periodic waveform (the period T1,
T2, and T3), as long as successive similar points of
the periodic waveform are used in determining T.

Frequency ( f ): The number of cycles that occur
in 1 s.


General expression for the sinusoid
Where (t + ) is the argument and is the
phase. Both argument and phase can be in
radians or degrees.


Check Your Understanding
Determine the amplitude, phase, period, and
frequency of the sinusoid:

Check Your Understanding
Given the sinusoid 5 sin(4t 60
0
), calculate its
amplitude, phase, angular frequency, period,
and frequency.

Check Your Understanding
Determine the angular velocity of a sine wave
having a frequency of 60 Hz.

Effective (rms) value of a sinusoid
The equivalent dc value is called the effective
value of the sinusoidal quantity.
Root-mean-square (rms) value is the root-
mean-square or effective value of a waveform.


Check Your Understanding
Determine the effective or rms values of the
sinusoidal waveform.

Check Your Understanding
Determine the effective or rms values of the
sinusoidal waveform.

PHASORS
Sinusoids are easily expressed in terms of
phasors, which are more convenient to work
with than sine and cosine functions.

A phasor is a complex number that represents
the amplitude and phase of a sinusoid.

Phasors provide a simple means of analyzing
linear circuits excited by sinusoidal sources;
solutions of such circuits would be intractable
otherwise.
The notion of solving ac circuits using phasors
was first introduced by Charles Steinmetz in
1893.
Before we completely define phasors and apply
them to circuit analysis, we need to be
thoroughly familiar with complex numbers.

Complex Numbers
A complex number z can be written in
rectangular form as


where j = 1; x is the real part of z; y is the
imaginary part of z.


Complex Number Representation
BASIC OPERATIONS OF
COMPLEX NUMBERS
Check Your Understanding
Evaluate
Check Your Understanding
Evaluate
Check Your Understanding
Evaluate





ANSWER:
The idea of phasor representation is based on
Eulers identity. In general,

Given a sinusoid v(t) = V
m
cos(t + )

V is the phasor representation of the sinusoid
v(t). In other words, a phasor is a complex
representation of the magnitude and phase of a
sinusoid.


Time-domain and Phasor-domain
Sinusoid-Phasor Transformation
Check Your Understanding
Transform the sinusoid to phasor:

i = 6 cos(50t 40
0
) A



Check Your Understanding
Transform the sinusoid to phasor:

v = 4 sin(30t + 50
0
) V


Check Your Understanding
Express the sinusoid represented by this phasor.

V = j8e
-j/6
V






Check Your Understanding
Express the sinusoid represented by this phasor.

I = 3 j4 A






Check Your Understanding
Given i
1
(t) = 4 cos(t + 30
0
) A and
i
2

(t) = 5 sin(t 20
0
) A, determine their sum.




ANSWER:

PHASOR RELATIONSHIPS FOR
CIRCUIT ELEMENTS
Voltage-Current Relations for a Resistor
Voltage-Current Relations for an Inductor
Voltage-Current Relations for a Capacitor
Voltage-Current Relationships

Check Your Understanding
Determine the current that flows through an 8
resistor connected to a voltage source
v
s
= 110 cos 377t V.

Check Your Understanding
The voltage v = 12 cos(60t + 45
o
) V is applied to
a 0.1-H inductor. Determine the steady-state
current through the inductor.

The voltage v = 12 cos(60t + 45
0
) V is applied to
a 0.1-H inductor. Determine the steady-state
current through the inductor.

Check Your Understanding
If voltage v = 6 cos(100t30
o
) V is applied to a
50 F capacitor, calculate the current through
the capacitor.

IMPEDANCE AND ADMITTANCE
IMPEDANCE
The impedance Z of a circuit is the ratio of the
phasor voltage V to the phasor current I,
measured in ohms ().

The impedance represents the opposition which
the circuit exhibits to the flow of sinusoidal
current. Although the impedance is the ratio of
two phasors, it is not a phasor, because it does
not correspond to a sinusoidally varying
quantity.

Impedances and
Admittances of Passive Elements

As a complex quantity, the impedance may be
expressed in rectangular form as


where R = Re Z is the resistance and X = Im Z is
the reactance.


The reactance X may be positive or negative.
We say that the impedance is inductive when
X is positive or capacitive when X is negative.
Thus, impedance Z = R + jX is said to be
inductive or lagging since current lags voltage,
while impedance Z = R jX is capacitive or
leading because current leads voltage.
The impedance, resistance, and reactance are
all measured in ohms.

The impedance may also be expressed in polar
form as

Check Your Understanding
Determine the impedance of the circuit.
Check Your Understanding
Determine the impedance of the circuit.
Check Your Understanding
Determine the impedance of the circuit. Assume
that the circuit operates at = 50 rad/s.


Admittance
The admittance Y is the reciprocal of
impedance, measured in siemens (S).
The admittance Y of an element (or a circuit)
is the ratio of the phasor current through it to
the phasor voltage across it, or


As a complex quantity, we may write Y as


Where G =Re Y is called the conductance and B
=Im Y is called the susceptance.

Admittance, conductance, and susceptance are
all expressed in the unit of siemens (or mhos).

Admittance
Check Your Understanding
Determine the admittance of the circuit.
Check Your Understanding
Determine the admittance of the circuit.
Check Your Understanding
Determine the admittance of the circuit. Assume
that the circuit operates at = 50 rad/s.


REVIEW
#1
In a linear circuit, the voltage source is


(a) What is the angular frequency of the voltage?
(b) What is the frequency of the source?
(c) Determine the period of the voltage.



#2
In a linear circuit, the current source is


Determine i
s
at t = 2 ms.
#3
Express the function in cosine form:

#4
Express the function in cosine form:

#5
Express v = 8 cos(7t + 15
o
) in sine form.

#6
Evaluate:




Express your results in rectangular form.
#7
Evaluate:




Express your results in rectangular form.
#8
Evaluate the determinant




Express your results in polar form.
#9
Transform the sinusoid to phasor:

#10
Transform the sinusoid to phasor:

#11
Express the sum of the following sinusoidal
signals in the form of Acos(t + ) with A > 0
and 0 < < 360.

#11
Express the sum of the following sinusoidal
signals in the form of Acos(t + ) with A > 0
and 0 < < 360.

#12
Determine a single sinusoid corresponding to:

#13
A series RCL circuit has R = 30 ,X
C
= j50 ,
and X
L
= j90 . Determine the impedance of
the circuit.

#14
Determine the impedance of the circuit.
#15
Two elements are connected in series as shown.
If i = 12 cos(2t 30
o
) A, determine the element
values.

IMPEDANCE COMBINATIONS
SERIES IMPEDANCES
TWO IMPEDANCES IN SERIES
Check Your Understanding
The impedances Z
1
= 10 + j12 and Z
2
= 6 j9
are connected in series. Determine the total
impedance.

Check Your Understanding
Determine the total impedance.
PARALLEL IMPEDANCES
TWO IMPEDANCES IN PARALLEL
Check Your Understanding
Determine the total impedance of the circuit.
Check Your Understanding
Determine the total impedance of the circuit at
2 kHz.
Check Your Understanding
Determine the total impedance of the circuit.

Check Your Understanding
At = 50 rad/s, determine Z
in
of the circuit.
VOLTAGE DIVISION PRINCIPLE
Check Your Understanding
Determine v.
Check Your Understanding
If v
s
= 5 cos 2t V in the circuit, determine V
o
.

CURRENT DIVISION PRINCIPLE
Check Your Understanding
Determine i.
Check Your Understanding
Determine i.
AC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS
The techniques of voltage/current division,
series/parallel combination of
impedance/admittance, circuit reduction, and
Y - transformation all apply to ac circuit
analysis.

Basic circuit laws (Ohms and Kirchhoffs)
apply to ac circuits in the same manner as
they do for dc circuits; that is,

Check Your Understanding
Determine v(t) and i(t) in the circuit.

Check Your Understanding
What is the instantaneous voltage across a 2-F
capacitor when the current through it is
i = 4 cos(106t + 25
o
) A?

Check Your Understanding
The voltage across a 4-mH inductor is
v = 60 cos(500t 65
o
) V. Determine the
instantaneous current through it.