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form 4- chapter 8

salt
Pn Khoo Sioh Gee
SOLUBILITY OF SALT IN WATER
Type of Salt Solubility in Water
Sodium Salt
Potassium Salt
Ammonium Salt

All Soluble

Nitrate Salt All Soluble
Chloride Salt All soluble except Lead(II) chloride, Silver Chloride, and
Mercury(I) chloride.
(Lead(II) Chloride soluble in hot water but in cold water.)
Sulphate Salt All soluble except Lead(II) sulphate and Barium sulphate, while
Calcium sulphate is soluble partially.
Carbonate Salt All insoluble except Sodium Carbonate, Potassium carbonate,
and Ammonium Carbonate.
Oxide All insoluble except Potassium oxide and Sodium oxide, while
Calcium oxide soluble a little.
Hydroxide All insoluble except Potassium hydroxide, and Sodium
hydroxide while Calcium hydroxide soluble a little.
Cation Nitrate, NO
3
-
Chloride, Cl
-
Sulphate, SO
4
2-
Carbonate, CO
3
2-
K
+
Na
+
Ca
2+
Mg
2+
Al
3+
Zn
2+
Fe
2+
Sn
2+
Pb
2+
Cu
2+
Ag
+
NH
4
+
Test for Cation : With NaOH solution
Cation
NaOH(aq) solution
Some NaOH(aq)
No precipitate
White Precipitate Coloured Precipitate
Soluble and
Colourless Precipitate
Insoluble Precipitate

Heat
NH
4
+
With precipitate
Concentrated
HCL Drops
Precipitate
Green Brown Blue
Fe
2+
Fe
3+
Cu
2+
Insoluble Precipitate
Mg
2+
Ca
2+
Pb
2+
Al
2+
Zn
2+
Mg
2+
Ca
2+
Pb
2+
Al
2+
Zn
2+
Test for Cation: With Ammonia Solution
Cation
NH
3
(aq) Solution
Some NH
3
(aq)
No Precipitate
White Precipitate Coloured Precipitate
Soluble and
Colourless Precipitate
Insoluble Precipitate
NH
4
+
, Ca
2+
Precipitate
Precipitate
Green Brown Blue
Fe
2+
Fe
3+
Cu
2+
Soluble
Precipitate
Mg
2+
Pb
2+
Al
2+
Zn
2+
Mg
2+
Pb
2+
Al
2+
Zn
2+
Insoluble
Precipitate
Test for Anion
Anion X
1. Add in dilute
Nitric acid.
2. Add in Argentum
nitrrate.
White precipitate
soluble in excess
Ammonia.
Cl
-
ion present
Test for Anion
1. Add in dilute
HCL until
excess.
2. Add in
BaCl
2
1. Add in FeSO
4

2. A few drops of
concentrated
H
2
SO
4

1. Add in dilute
HCl
2. Produced gas
is being
transferred to
lime water.

White precipitate
Is formed.
Brown ring
Lime
Water turns
Milky/cloudy
/chalky.
SO
4
2-
ion
present
NO
3
-
ion present.
CO
3
2-
ion present.
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