Anda di halaman 1dari 65

TUJUAN PEMBELAJARAN : MENJELASKAN

HUBUNGAN DAN PRAKTIK BAIK ANTARA


KONSERVASI DENGAN PEMBANGUNAN
BERKELANJUTAN
LUARAN PEMBELAJARAN :
MENJELASKAN HUBUNGAN ANTARA
KONSERVASI DAN PEMB
BERKELANJUTAN, MENYEBUTKAN
CONTOH PRAKTIK BAIK KONSERVASI
DLM PEMB BERKEL.
KONSERVASI ADALAH : PENGELOLAAN, PEMANFAATAN DAN
PERLINDUNGAN SUMBER DAYA ALAM UNTUK MENJAGA
PEMANFAATAN BERLEBIHAN ATAU KERUSAKANNYA.
KONSERVASI BIOLOGI ADALAH UNTUK MENJAGA
KEPUNAHAN DAN FUNGSI EKOSISTEM.
PEMBANGUNAN BERKELANJUTAN (SUSTAINABLE
DEVELOPMENT) ADALAH : PEMBANGUNAN EKONOMI
DENGAN TETAP MENJAGA KETERSEDIAAN SUMBER DAYA
UNTUK GENERASI SAAT INI DAN GENERASI YANG AKAN
DATANG MELALUI PEMANFAATAN SUMBER DAYA ALAM
DENGAN CARA MEMINIMALKAN DAMPAKNYA TERHADAP
KERUSAKAN KERAGAMAN HAYATI ( LUBCHENKO ET AL, 1991).
INDONESIA MENGENAL DAN MEMPRAKTEKAN
PEMBANGUNAN BERKELANJUTAN PADA GBHN II 1977, YANG
DICANANGKAN OLEH EMIL SALIM
SELALU TERJADI KONFLIK KEPENTINGAN ANTARA
KONSERVASI BIOLOGI DENGAN KESEJAHTERAAN
EKONOMI MASYARAKAT

SEHINGGA TERUS DIKEMBANGKAN KONSEP
PENDEKATAN UNTUK MEMPERTEMUKAN KEPENTINGAN
KONSERVASI BIOLOGI DENGAN KEPENTINGAN EKONOMI
MASYARAKAT LOKAL
AKSI PEMERINTAH
UNTUK MEMPERTEMUKAN DUA KEPENTINGAN ANTARA
KONSERVASI BIOLOGI DAN KEBUTUHAN EKONOMI
MASYARAKAT DIBUAT PERATURAN PER UNDANG2 AN .
DI INDONESIA ANTARA LAIN:
1. UU NO 5 TAHUN 1990 TENTANG KONSERVASI KERAGAMAN
HAYATI DAN EKOSISTEM (KKHE)
2. UU NO 41 TAHUN 1999 TENTANG KEHUTANAN
3. UU NO 32 TAHUN 2009 TENTANG PENGELOLAAN
LINGKUNGAN HIDUP
4. PERATURAN PEMERINTAH REPUBLIK INDONESIA
NOMOR 21 TAHUN 2005 TENTANG KEAMANAN HAYATI
PRODUK REKAYASA GENETIK
5. Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 7 Tahun 1999 tentang Pengawetan Jenis
Tumbuhan dan Satwa
6. Peraturan Pemerintah Nomor 8 Tahun 1999 tentang Pemanfaatan Jenis
Tumbuhan dan Satwa Liar



PERIODE 1998-2002 KERUSAKAN KEHATI PALING TINGGI
KARENA KEBIJAKAN OTONOMI DAERAH (REFORMASI)
TERJADI PENJARAHAN HUTAN BESAR2AN
MUNCULNYA PERATURAN DAERAH TENTANG
PENGELOLAAN LINGKUNGAN HIDUP ( MULAI TAHUN
2009).
KERAGAMAN HAYATI TERBESAR UMUMNYA BERADA PADA
KAWASAN DIMANA MASYARAKAT LOKAL HIDUP DARI
BEBERAPA GENERASI DENGAN POLA PEMANFAATAN SDH
DILINGKUNGANNYA DALAM SUATU POLA YANG
BERKELANJUTAN.
MASYARAKAT LOKAL MEMPRAKTIKAN CARA HIDUP
TRADISIONAL DENGAN PENGARUH TEKNOLOGI DARI LUAR
YANG SEDIKIT. MASYARAKAT INI BIASA DISEBUT
MASYARAKAT TRADISIONAL.
DI DUNIA TERDAPAT SEKITAR 250 JUTA MASYARAKAT
TRADISIONAL DI LEBIH DARI 70 NEGARA DAN MENEMPATI
LUAS TOTAL 19 % LUAS DARATAN.
MASYARAKAT TRADISIONAL MEMANFAATKAN SUMBER
DAYA HAYATI HUTAN, DAN SUNGAI DENGAN
MEMPERTIMBANGKAN KEBERLANJUTAN KEHIDUPAN
MEREKA SEHINGGA PRAKTIK YANG DILAKUKAN TANPA
MERUSAK HABITAT SUMBER DAYA YANG DIBUTUHKAN.
MEMPUNYAI KONSEP HIDUP DALAM HARMONI ALAM
MEMPUNYAI ETIKA YANG KUAT TERHADAP KONSERVASI
SUMBER DAYA HAYATI
CONTOH : MASYARAKAT SUKU BADUI DALAM DI BANTEN
MEMPUNYAI ATURAN KETAT TERHADAP PEMANFAATAN
SUMBER DAYA HUTAN TEMPAT MEREKA HIDUP

CATATAN
KEBERADAAN MASYARAKAT TRADISONAL, ETIKA
KONSERVASI DAN SUMBER DAYA HAYATI YANG
DIMANFAATKAN MENJADI PERTIMBANGAN DAN BAGIAN
YANG PENTING DALAM PENENTUAN HCVF ( HIGH
CONSERVATION VALUE FOREST) YI SALAH SATU BENTUK
PEMANFAATAN HUTAN SECARA BERKELANJUTAN UNTUK
KONSERVASI KERAGAMAN HAYATI
DALAM DUNIA YANG BERKEMBANG, MASYARAKAT
LOKAL MENDAPATKAN KEBUTUHAN UNTUK PANGAN,
BAHAN BAKAR (KAYU DAN ARANG), BAHAN BANGUNAN
DARI LINGKUNGANNYA, TANPA BAHAN TERSEBUT
MEREKA TIDAK DAPAT MELANJUTKAN KEHIDUPANNYA.
MASALAH TIMBUL KETIKA PEMERINTAH MEMBUAT
KAWASAN KONSERVASI ATAU MENENTUKAN BATAS
KONSERVASI YANG MENYEBABKAN MEREKA TIDAK
DAPAT MENGAKSES SUMBER DAYA YANG DIBUTUHKAN
APABILA MASALAH INI TIDAK DIATASI MAKA AKAN
MENIMBULKAN KONFLIK YANG BERKEPANJANGAN
METODE PENDEKATAN YANG DILAKUKAN ADALAH
MEMBERIKAN AKSES KEPADA MASYARAKAT LOKAL
DENGAN MODEL PEMBANGUNAN KAWASAN
KONSERVASI BERBENTUK CAGAR BIOSFER DENGAN
MODEL ZONASI
1.CAGAR BIOSPHERE
(SLIDE LAIN)
2. KONSERVASI PERTANIAN IN SITU
Maksud dasarnya adalah
untuk menyeimbangkan
tujuan yang tampaknya
bertentangan antara
pelestarian keanekara-
gaman hayati, peningkatan
pembangunan sosial dan
ekonomi serta memelihara
nilai-nilai yang terkait
dengan budayanya.
Cagar Biosfer mempunyai tiga tujuan utama:

1. Pelestarian keanekaragaman biologi dan
budaya;

2. Penyediaan model pengelolaan lahan dan
lokasi eksperimen untuk pembangunan
berkelanjutan;

3. Penyediaan tempat untuk riset, pemantauan
lingkungan, pendidikan dan pelatihan.
Untuk mengintegrasikan berbagai fungsi:


Kegiatan diatur menurut sistem
pembagian wilayah (zonation), yang
meliputi area inti (core area) untuk
pelestarian, zona penyangga (buffer
zone), dan kawasan luar yang merupakan
area transisi (transition area) atau
kawasan untuk kerjasama dengan
masyarakat lokal.
Tujuan hakiki area/zona inti:

Untuk melestarikan keanekaragaman hayati
melalui perlindungan penuh & ketat seperti biasa
dilakukan dalam suatu Cagar Alam.

Kegiatan manusia dalam memanfaatkan
sumberdaya alam dikendalikan dengan ketat.
Namun, kegiataan ilmiah seperti pemantauan
jangka panjang atau praktek pengelolaan
berprinsip keseimbangan ekologi masih dapat
dilakukan
Zona penyangga dimaksudkan baik
untuk menjamin perlindungan area inti
maupun pemanfaatan berkelanjutan
dari sumberdaya alamnya.

Di zona penyangga, kegiatan manusia
yang kompatibel dengan pelestarian
keanekaragaman hayati sekaligus
mempunyai nilai-nilai ekonomi dan
sosial serta memiliki dimensi
eksperimental dapat dilakukan.
Kegiatan yang secara ekologi dapat
dipertanggung-jawabkan bisa
dilaksanakan di zona penyangga.

Seperti penelitian, pelatihan dan
pendidikan serta rekreasi tertentu dan
pemanfaatan yang berkelanjutan dari
sumberdaya alam yang dapat
diperbaharui (renewable resources).
Zona transisi berkaitan dengan area pembangunan
dengan pendekatan pembangunan berkelanjutan.


Suatu kawasan kerjasama yang aktif antara para
peneliti, pengelola, penduduk lokal dan para
pemangku kepentingan lainnya melaksanakan
kegiatan-kegiatan pilot tentang pemanfaatan
sumberdaya dan pengelolaan masalah sehari-hari
seperti limbah, penjernihan air, angkutan, dsb.
Secara tradisional struktur ini terdiri atas sebuah Forum
Pengelola, Sekretariat bersama, dan Majelis Ilmiah, tetapi
tipe-tipe lain juga ada dan bahkan Cagar Biosfer di luar negeri
(e.g. Perancis, India, China) mempunyai keanekaragaman
struktur internal yang tinggi.

Pengelolaan Cagar Biosfer lebih tepat kalau dilakukan secara
multi pihak antara pemangku kepentingan (stakeholders) yang
ada di dalam wilayah Cagar Biosfer, termasuk lembaga non-
pemerintah, masyarakat, dan pemuka adat.

Peran pemangku kepentingan di luar wilayah Cagar Biosfer
lebih ditekankan untuk tujuan-tujuan konsultasi, advokasi,
pembinaan sumber daya (capacity building), dukungan
pendanaan, serta inovasi pembangunan yang relevan dengan
konsepcagar biosfer.
Karena itu model lembaga pengelolaan kolaborasi
mungkin lebih tepat untuk mengelola Cagar Biosfer.
Lembaga kolaborasi tentunya bukan berbentuk
lembaga struktural, namun lebih merupakan wadah
koordinasi (forum komunikasi) multi pihak.

Dalam wadah koordinasi tentunya diperlukan leading
sektor (pemerintah) yang memiliki fungsi sebagai
koordinator perencanaan pembangunan wilayah di
kawasan Cagar Biosfer. Dalam konteks Cagar
Biosfer, koordinator tidak memiliki hak untuk
pengambilan keputusan, karena keputusan dibangun
melalui kesepakatan multi pihak.
Peran atau fungsi lembaga kolaborasi :

Membangun kesepakatan terhadap cakupan kawasan CB
(termasuk zonasi), yang tentunya didasarkan pada kebijakan
tata ruang wilayah (kabupaten/kota, propinsi, atau nasional).
Membangun kesepahaman terhadap visi, misi, dan tujuan global
pengelolaan CB.
Integrasi kebijakan (perencanaan) pembangunan para pihak
dalam wilayah CB.
Monitoring pelaksanaan (implementasi) peraturan perundangan
oleh para pihak yang relevan dengan konsep CB.
Merumuskan rencana dan prioritas kegiatan-kegiatan
pengelolaan CB secara sinergis.
Merumuskan solusi atas kemungkinan terjadinya perbedaan
kepentingan di antara para pihak.
Menyusun proposal untuk kemungkinan penggalangan pendanaan
kepada potensial donor.
Forum Pengelola:

Terlepas dari namanya, forum ini biasanya hanya
memberi nasihat tentang pengelolaan.

Forum terdiri atas pengelola yang mewakili otoritas
pemerintah lokal, administrasi pemerintah,
perhimpunan/perserikatan, dan ilmuwan.

Kelompok ini bertemu umumnya satu kali setiap
tahun untuk meninjau kemajuan yang dicapai dan
menentukan program kerja di masa mendatang.
Forum Pengelola:

Pada kenyataaannya, pertemuan-pertemuan Forum Pengelola
lebih sering berupa sidang-sidang untuk bertukar informasi di
antara mitra-mitra institutional Cagar Biosfer daripada untuk
diskusi dan pengambilan keputusan.

Supaya Cagar Biosfer menjadi benar-benar laboratorium
untuk berbagai gagasan, akan bermanfaat bila sebuah
kelompok kerja ad hoc dibentuk untuk menyelesaikan tugas-
tugas umum Forum Pengelola dan untuk menelaah topik-topik
tertentu secara mendalam.
Majelis Ilmiah
Salah satu tugas adalah memobilisasi para ilmuwan untuk
mengerjakan program penelitian tentang pemanfaatan
sumberdaya dengan topik yang relevan dengan pembangunan
berkelanjutan atau topik yang terkait dengan perubahan global.
Penelitian interdisipliner jangka menengah dan jangka panjang
adalah salah satu tujuan dari Cagar Biosfer.

Sekretariat Bersama dan Unit Informasi
Karena Cagar Biosfer berfungsi sebagai contoh untuk ditiru di
tempat lain, selain dari kegiatan pelatihan, disarankan untuk
menjamin bahwa media (suratkabar, televisi, dsb.) diberitahu
tentang dan dilibatkan dalam pekerjaan di Cagar Biosfer.
Penyiapan siaran pers khusus dan bahan informasi lain untuk
maksud ini harus digalakkan.
Struktur lain:

Karena Cagar Biosfer berfungsi untuk mengintegrasikan
berbagai tujuan yang berbeda, maka pengelola harus menjadi
penghubung antara badan-badan administrasi dan teknis dan
pengambil keputusan politis.

Untuk mendorong semua kegiatan yang dapat memfasilitasi
suatu dialog antara pemangku kepentingan dan para pelaku,
memobilisasi energi dan sumberdaya manusia, serta
memberikan kepada para pengambil keputusan saran yang dari
segi lingkungan handal asalkan kegiatan-kegiatan tersebut
sesuai dengan daerah yang bersangkutan.

Cagar Biosfer harus mempertahankan fleksibilitasnya yang
merupakan ciri mendasar yang selalu dapat disesuaikan dengan
bermacam-macam situasi sosial dan politik.
Rencana Detail Tata Ruang (RDTR) Kawasan Obyek dan
Daya Tarik Wisata Bedugul Pancasari Bali dapat
diarahkan dan diimplementasikannya pembangunan
berkelanjutan sehingga layak untuk diusulkan menjadi
kawasan Cagar Biosfer Bedugul.


Kawasan Bedugul Pancasari, minimal dapat menggunakan
konsep Cagar Biosfer dalam pembangunannya sehingga
tujuan meningkatkan kesejahteraan masyarakat secara
ekonomi tidak menghilangkan fungsi kelestarian sumber
daya keanekaragaman hayati maupun keunikkan
budayanya.

Sebuah Cagar Biosfer harus berfungsi
sebagai :

Agen untuk mengintegrasikan dan
mengkoordinasikan upaya semua pemangku
kepentingan, tanpa melupakan hak secara
historis kepemilikan suatu lahan atau
sumberdaya.
PADA BERBAGAI BELAHAN DUNIA, PETANI LOKAL
MEMBUDIDAYAKAN VARIETAS TANAMAN LOKAL
YANG TELAH TERADAPTASI DAN MAMPU
MEMPERTAHANKAN KERAGAMAN GENETIK
TANAMAN PERTANIAN.
CONTOH PADA MASYARAKAT APO KAYAN DI
KALIMANTAN YANG MAMPU MENYIMPAN 50
VARIETAS PADA ASLI
VARIETAS LOKAL SERINGKALI MEMPUNYAI GEN
YANG UNIK YANG MAMPU MENHAN SERANGAN
PENYAKIT, HAMA, KONDISI KURANG NUTRISI,
KEMARAU, DAN VARIASI KONDISI LINGKUNGAN
YANG TIDAK MENGUNTUNGKAN LAINNYA
VARIETAS LOKAL BANYAK DIGUNAKAN SEBAGAI
SUMBER GENETIK UNTUK VARIETAS BARU
PERILAKU PETANI TRADISIOANAL DI BANYAK NEGARA
SEMAKIN TERDESAK OLEH INTENSIFIKASI PERTANIAN
SEPERTI DI NEGARA INDONESIA, SRI LANKA, FILIPINA
DIMANA 80% LAHAN PERTANIAN UNTUK PERTANIAN
MODERN

PETANI TRADISIOANL MEMPUNYAI 2 MODEL PENDEKATAN
UTAMA YAITU : ETHNO ECOLOGI DAN AGROECOLOGI
ETHNOEKOLOGI MELIPUTI : TAKSONOMI TRADISONAL,
PENGETAHUAN PERTANIAN, PENGETAHUAN TENTANG
ALAM DAN SIKLUS IKLIM, PENGETAHUAN TENTANG
ADAPTASI TANAMAN, TANAMAN YANG POTENSIAL UTK
DIBUDIDAYAKAN
AGROEKOLOGI MELIPUTI : STRATEGI PEMANFAATAN
BERULANG, TEKNIK PENGELOLAAN SD TRADISIONAL,
DESIGN DAN PENGELOLAAN SYSTEM PERTANAMAN LOKAL,
PEMANFAATAN VEGETASI PERTANIAN DAN NON
PERTANIAN, SELEKSI PENGELOLAAN DAN PERLINDUNGAN
VARIETAS LOKAL.
KOMBINASI KEDUA PENDEKATAN TERSEBUT AKAN
MENGHASILKAN TERPELIHARANYA BUDAYA DAN ILMU
PENGETAHUAN ETNIS SERTA EKOSISTEM PERTANIAN
TRADISIONAL, SECARA ILMIAH AKAN MENYEBABKAN
LESTARINYA SUMBER DAYA GENETIK TANAMAN
KONSEP TERSEBUT AKAN MEMBERIKAN KEUNTUNGAN BAGI
KEBERLANJUTAN PERTANIAN MELALUI MEKANISME SBB:
1. RESIKO TERHADAP PETANI SANGAT RENDAH ( RESIKO
GAGAL PANEN, SERANGAN HAMA DAN PENYAKIT)
2. MENINGKATKAN KETAHANAN DAN KEBERLANJUTAN
KETERSEDIAAN PANGAN
3. RENDAHNYA KETERGANTUNGAN TERHADAP INPUT
EKSTERNAL ( PESTISIDA DAN PUPUK)
4. MEMPUNYAI DAYA ADAPTASI YANG TINGGI TERHADAP
PERUBAHAN LINGKUNGAN ( SAAT INI BERKAITAN
DENGAN GLOBAL CLIMATE CHANGE)
5. MAMPU BERTAHAN KETIKA TERJADI KRISIS EKONOMI
(BANDINGKAN KRISIS EKONOMI INDONESIA 1965/66
DENGAN 1998/2000)


Biological diversity is important for life on Earth and is
one of the pillars of sustainable development.
Our continued deriving of benefits from biodiversity,
both now and for future generations will depend upon
how we
use it and how our activities impact upon ecosystem
functioning and goods and services.

.
In recent decades,
degradation of habitats, pollution and
unsustainable use of biological diversity
have led to loss of species, thus
jeopardizing present and future
livelihoods.

Overexploitation of resources such as
timber in tropical forests and ocean
fisheries is a major cause of loss of
biodiversity in many ecosystems.

Inappropriate methods of fishing, for instance,
are a major factor in coral reef degradation.
Hunting is a threat to some species, with a
negative impact on traditional food sources.
Catches of non target endangered species are
also cause for concern. Some plant species are
also in serious decline due to harvesting at an
unsustainable level.
The use of destructive practices and intensive
technologies increase environmental
degradation, and lead to declines in the local
economies and societies that they support
Sustainable use of the components of
biological diversity is one of the three
objectives of the Convention and is
addressed in Article 10, which requires
Parties to adopt measures relating to the
use of biodiversity to avoid or minimize
impacts on biological diversity.
In addition, the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de
Janeiro agreed on a comprehensive strategy for
sustainable development, which highlighted
the crucial role of sustainable use in
maintaining the variability and variety of life,
the biodiversity that "feeds and clothes us and
provides housing, medicines and spiritual
nourishment".

the Plan of Implementation of the World
Summit on Sustainable Development,
reiterated how sustainable use is an effective
tool to combat poverty and to achieve
sustainable development.

Given that sustainable use entails the
utilization of biodiversity in a manner that
maintains its potential to meet current and
future human needs and aspirations and to
prevent its long term decline, it is also an
effective tool for achieving the
Millennium Development Goals, eradicating
extreme poverty and hunger and ensuring
environmental sustainability.

It can also generate incentives for the
conservation and restoration of biodiversity
because of the social, cultural and economic
benefits that people derive from it.

Sustainable Use of Biodiversity provide a framework for
assisting Governments, indigenous and local communities,
resource managers, the private sector and other
stakeholders, about how to ensure that their uses of
biological diversity will not lead to its long-term decline.

The principles highlight how ecosystems contribute to and
maintain cultures, societies and communities. Thus, any
adverse impacts on ecosystems can also have an adverse
impact on those cultures, societies and communities.

Governments should therefore consider the promotion of
sustainable use principles and guidelines as additional
instruments for the protection and maintenance of
traditional cultures and societies.
The practical principles in most instances
apply to both consumptive and non-
consumptive uses of biodiversity
components.

They take into account requirements related to
policies, laws and regulations; management
of biological diversity; socio-economic
conditions; and information, research and
education.

The principles and guidelines are a valuable
tool to promote conservation and contribute
to poverty alleviation.


However, the application of the principles and
guidelines will be most effective when appropriate
measures are taken for the protection of biological
resources and remediation of the harmful effects of
pollution, civil and armed conflicts, displacement of
people and other externally derived impacts are being
undertaken.


The sustainable use of biodiversity will also be
enhanced if provisions are made for mitigation,
remediation, compensation and /or rehabilitation
when biodiversity loss results from overuse.
1. The Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for
the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity consist of
fourteen interdependent practical principles,
operational guidelines and a few instruments for
their implementation that govern the uses of
components of biodiversity to ensure the
sustainability of such uses.

The principles provide a framework for advising
Governments, resource managers, indigenous and
local communities, the private sector and other
stakeholders about how they can ensure that their use
of the components of biodiversity will not lead to the
long-term decline of biological diversity.

The principles are intended to be of general relevance,
although not all principles will apply equally to all
situations, nor will they apply with equal rigour. Their
application will vary according to the biodiversity
being used, the conditions under which they are being
used, and the institutional and cultural context in
which the use is taking place.

2. Sustainable use is a valuable tool to promote
conservation of biological diversity,
since in many instances it provides incentives for
conservation and restoration because of the social,
cultural and economic benefits that people derive
from that use. In turn, sustainable use cannot be
achieved without effective conservation measures.
In this context, and as recognized in the Plan of
Implementation of the World Summit on
Sustainable Development, sustainable use is an
effective tool to combat poverty, and,
consequently, to achieve sustainable development.

Agricultural biodiversity was not fully addressed
in the process leading up to the development of
the Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for
the Sustainable Use of Biodiversity and there is a
need for their further elaboration specifically
with respect to domesticated species, breeds and
varieties in the context of the programme of work
on agricultural biodiversity.

The practical principles in most instances
apply to both consumptive and non-
consumptive uses of biodiversity
components. They take into account
requirements related to:
(i) policies, laws, and regulations;
(ii) management of biological diversity;
(iii) socio-economic conditions; and
(iv) information, research and education.

It is a fundamental assumption that the
application of the practical principles and
operational guidelines is set within the context
of the ecosystem approach
For the practical principles, footnotes provide
cross references to the relevant principle(s) of
the ecosystem approach.

Progress towards sustainability will require the
political will to bringabout changes to create the
necessary enabling environment at all levels of
government and society. The operational guidelines
are intended to provide functional advice on the
implementation of the principles.
These guidelines have been developed taking
into account regional and thematic differences
and best practices and lessons learned that
have been documented in case-studies on the
sustainable use of biological diversity in
different biomes as well as existing codes of
conduct.

The operationalization of the principles will require an
enabling institutional, legal and administrative
structure at all levels of government and society within
each Party.
Further, to be effective, policies and regulations that are
adopted should ensure that the application of the
principles is flexible and adaptable to different local
realities and adjustable to specific ecosystems.
In this context, seven underlying conditions should be
taken into account as a framework for the correct
implementation of the principles and guidelines, as
listed in section A below.

8. In structuring a sustainable use
programme and the attendant policies,
laws and regulations to implement such a
programme, there are a few underlying
conditions that should be taken into
account in government and natural
resource management planning:

(a) It is possible to use biodiversity components in a
manner in which ecological processes, species and
genetic variability remain above thresholds needed for
long-term viability, and thus all resource managers and
users have the responsibility to ensure that use does
not exceed these capacities.

It is crucial that the biodiversity in ecosystems is
maintained, or in some cases recovered, to ensure that
those ecosystems are capable to sustain the ecological
services on which both biodiversity and people
depend;

B. Ecosystems, ecological processes within them,
species variabilityand genetic variation change over
time whether or not they are used.Therefore,
governments, resource managers and users should
take into account the need to accommodate change,
including stochastic events that may adversely affect
biodiversity and influence the sustainability of a use;
(c) In circumstances where the risk of converting
natural landscapesto other purposes is high,
encouraging sustainable use can provide incentives to
maintain habitats and ecosystems, the species within
them, and the genetic variability of the species.
Also, for particular species, such as crocodiles,
sustainable use has provided substantial incentives for
conserving a dangerous animal that represents a threat
to humans;
(d) The basic necessities of life, such as food,
shelter, freshwater and clean air are produced
either directly or indirectly from using
biological diversity.

In addition, biodiversity provides many direct
benefits and ecosystem services necessary for
life. In many countries, there is complete or
substantial dependence on harvested plants
and animals by millions of people, often among
the poorest, for their livelihoods.

Increasingly other uses such as pharmaceuticals
for disease prevention and cure are becoming
evident and are also met from using biological
diversity.
Finally, indigenous and local communities and
their cultures often depend directly on the uses
of biological diversity for their livelihoods.
In all of these instances, governments should
have adequate policies and capacities in place
to ensure that such uses are sustainable;

(e) The supply of biological products and ecological
services available for use is limited by intrinsic
biological characteristics of both species and
ecosystems, including productivity, resilience,
andstability.
Biological systems, which are dependent on cycling of
finite resources, have limits on the goods they can
provide and services they can render.
Although certain limits can be extended to some degree
through technological breakthroughs, there are still
limits, and constraints, imposed by the availability and
accessibility of endogenous and exogenous resources;

(f) To ameliorate any potential negative long-term effects of uses it
is incumbent on all resource users, to apply precaution in their
management decisions and to opt for sustainable use management
strategies and policies that favour uses that provide increased
It is recognized that, throughout the principles, rationale and
operational guidelines, the term 8 "national" may mean either
national or, as appropriate in some countries, subnational.
sustainable benefits while not adversely affecting biodiversity.
Likewise, Governments should be certain that licensed or
authorized
sustainable uses of biological diversity are taking such precaution
in their management;
(g) In considering individual guidelines provided below, it is
necessary to refer to and apply the provisions of Article 8(j),
Article 10(c) and other related provisions and their development
in relevant decisions of the Conference of the Parties in all matters
that relate to indigenous and local communities.


9. Sustainability of use of biodiversity
components will be enhanced if the following
practical principles and related operational
guidelines are applied:
Rationale: There is need to have congruence in policies and laws at
all levels of governance associated with a particular use.
For example, when an international agreement adopts a
policy regarding use of biodiversity, national1 laws must
be compatible if sustainability is to be enhanced.
There must be clear and effective linkages between
different jurisdictional levels to enable a "pathway" to be
developed which allows timely and effective response to
unsustainable use and allows sustainable use of a
resource to proceed from collection or harvest through to
final use without unnecessary impediment. In most
cases the primary means for achieving congruence
between local and international levels of governance
should be through national Governments.

Consider local customs and traditions (and customary law where
recognized) when drafting new legislation and regulations; policies,
laws and institutions, as required, within the jurisdiction in
which a use will take place, also taking into account Articles 8(j) and
10(c), as appropriate;
Identify any overlaps, omissions and contradictions in existing laws
and policies and initiate concrete actions to resolve them;
Strengthen and/or create cooperative and supportive linkages
between
all levels of governance in order to avoid duplication of efforts
or inconsistencies.
Recognizing the need for a governing framework
consistent with international national laws, local
users of biodiversity components should be
sufficiently empowered and supported by rights to
be responsible and accountable for use of the
resources concerned.
Uncontrolled access to biodiversity components often leads to over-utilization
as people try to maximize their personal benefits from the resource while
it is available.
Resources for which individuals or communities have use, non-use, or
transfer rights are usually used more responsibly because they no longer
need to maximise benefits before someone else removes the resources.

Therefore sustainability is generally enhanced if Governments recognize and
respect the "rights" or "stewardship" authority, responsibility and
accountability to the people who use and manage the resource, which
may include indigenous and local communities, private landowners,
conservation organizations and the business sector.
Moreover, to reinforce local rights or stewardship of biological diversity and
responsibility for its conservation, resource users should participate in
making decisions about the resource use and have the authority to carry
out any actions arising from those decisions.

Where possible adopt means that aim toward delegating rights,
responsibility, and accountability to those who use and/or manage
biological resources;

Review existing regulations to see if they can be used for delegating
rights; amend regulations where needed and possible; and/or draft new
regulations where needed. Throughout local custom and traditions
(including customary law where recognized) should be considered;
Refer to the programme of work related to the implementation of Article
8(j) with regard to indigenous and local community issues (decision
V/16), implement and integrate tasks relevant for the sustainable use of
biodiversity components, in particular element 3, tasks 6, 13 and 14;

Provide training and extension services to enhance the capacity of people
to enter into effective decision-making arrangements as well as in
implementation of sustainable use methods; Protect and encourage
customary use of biological resources that is sustainable, in accordance
with traditional and cultural practices