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TERM- I

2013-14
By,
Akshatha Nayak
XI-B
Roll no. 23
KV AFS, Bareilly
KINEMATICS
It is the branch of mechanics that is
concerned with the motion of objects.
Motion of objects can be described in 3
different ways:-
MOTION
1-DIMENSIONAL
2-DIMENSIONAL
3-DIMENSIONAL
Only 1 coordinate is required to specify the position of the object i.e. x coordinate.
Two coordinates are required to specify its position i.e. x and y coordinate.
Three coordinates are required for specifying its position i.e. x, y and z coordinate.
Scalars VS Vectors
A scalar is a quantity
that has only
magnitude and no
direction.
It is always positive.

Examples of scalar
quantities are-
distance, speed, mass
and temperature



A vector is a quantity
that has both
magnitude as well as
direction.
It can be positive ,
negative or zero.
Examples of vector
quantities are -
displacement, velocity
and acceleration.

Distance VS Displacement
Distance is the total path
length covered by an
object.
It is a Scalar Quantity.
In the given fig. the
curved path AOCDB
shows the distance
traveled by the object.

Displacement is the
shortest distance between
the initial and the final
position.
It is a Vector Quantity.
In the given fig. the
straight line AB shows
displacement.

start
stop
Speed VS Velocity
Speed is a scalar quantity
i.e. how fast something is
moving regardless of its
direction.

Ex: v = 20 mph

SI Unit is m/s.

The symbol for speed is
v.



Velocity is a combination
of speed and direction. It
is a vector quantity.

Ex: v = 20 mph at 15
south of west
SI Unit is m/s.

The symbol for velocity is
type written in bold: v or
hand written with an
arrow: v.


AVERAGE SPEED AND AVERAGE
VELOCITY
Average speed is defined
as the total path length
covered by an object
divided by the total time
interval.
Average speed =
Total Path length
Total time taken
Average velocity is defined
as the rate of change of
displacement of an object
with respect to time.

Average velocity =
Displacement
Time interval


Instantaneous Velocity
Instantaneous Velocity- Instantaneous
Velocity or the velocity of an object at an
instant of time is defined as the limit of the
average velocity as time interval t 0
approaches to zero. If velocity is constant,
then
Vinst = Vav
If velocity is not constant then
Vinst = lim x/ t = dx/dt
t 0
ACCELARATION
AVERAGE ACCELARATION- The average
acceleration a over a period of time is defined as the
rate of change of the velocity of an object with respect
to the time interval.
a = V
f
V
i
/ t
f
t
i

= V/t
INSTANTANEOUS ACCELARATION- Instantaneous
acceleration or the acceleration of an object at an
instant of time is defined as the average acceleration
as time interval approaches to zero.
a
inst
= lim V/ t
t 0
= dv/dt
Velocity & Acceleration Sign Chart
V E L O C I T Y

A
C
C
E
L
E
R
A
T
I
O
N
+
-
+
Moving forward;
Speeding up
Moving backward;
Slowing down

-
Moving forward;
Slowing down
Moving backward;
Speeding up
Acceleration due to Gravity
9.8 m/s
2

FREE FALL- In the
absence of the air resistance
all bodies fall with the same
acceleration towards earth
from a small height. This is
called free fall. The
acceleration with which a
body falls is called
gravitational acceleration (g).
a = -g = -9.8 m/s
2

Velocity decreases by 9.8 m/s each second, meaning
velocity is becoming less positive or more negative. Less
positive means slowing down while going up. More
negative means speeding up while going down.
DERIVATION OF
KINEMATIC
EQUATIONS OF
MOTION BY
GRAPHICAL METHOD
FIRST EQUATION OF MOTION

Consider an object moving with a
uniform velocity u in a straight line.
Let it be given a uniform
acceleration a at time t = 0 when its
initial velocity is u. As a result of the
acceleration, its velocity increases to
v (final velocity) in time t and S is
the distance covered by the object
in time t.
The figure shows the velocity-time
graph of the motion of the object.
Slope of the v - t graph gives the
acceleration of the moving object.
Thus, acceleration = slope
= AB
= BC/AC
= (v-u)/t
v - u = at

v = u + at
SECOND EQUATION OF MOTION
Let u be the initial velocity of an
object and 'a ' the acceleration
produced in the body. The distance
travelled S in time t is given by the
area enclosed by the velocity-time
graph for the time interval 0 to t.

Distance travelled S = area of the
trapezium ABDO
= area of rectangle ACDO + area
of DABC
= OD X OA + (AC X BC)
= t(u) + t(v-u)
From 1
st
eqn of motion, v-u =at . So,
s = ut + t (at)
s = ut+ at
2

S = ut + at
2











THIRD EQUATION OF MOTION
Let 'u ' be the initial velocity of an
object and a be the acceleration
produced in the body. The
distance travelled 'S ' in time 't '
is given by the area enclosed by
the v - t graph.
S = area of the trapezium OABD.
= (OA + BD) OD
= (u+v) t
from 1
st
eqn of motion, t= (v-u)/a
S = (u+v) (v-u)/a
S = (v
2
-u
2
)/a

v
2
-u
2
= 2aS



DERIVATION OF
KINEMATIC
EQUATIONS OF
MOTION BY
CALCULUS METHOD


FIRST EQUATION OF MOTION

VelocityTime Relation

Acceleration, a = dv/dt
or dv = adt
Integrating the above,



v u = at

or v = u + at
u Initial velocity
v Final velocity
a Acceleration
t Time
x0 Initial position
x Position after time t


SECOND EQUATION OF MOTION

DisplacementTime Relation

Instantaneous velocity,
v= dx/dt
or vdt = dx
From 1
st
eqn of motion
(u+at) dt = dx
Integrating both sides, we get





x-x
0
= u(t-0) +at
2
S= ut + at
2









u Initial velocity
v Final velocity
a Acceleration
t Time
x0 Initial position
x Position after time t


THIRD EQUATION OF MOTION

VelocityDisplacement Relation

Acceleration, a = dv/dt
a = (dv/dx) (dx/dt)
a = v dv/dx
adx = v dv
Integrating both sides, we get,

a(x-x
0
) = v
2
/2 u
2
/2
aS = (v
2
u
2
)/2

v
2
u
2
= 2aS
u Initial velocity
v Final velocity
a Acceleration
t Time
x0 Initial position
x Position after time t
RELATIVE VELOCITY
The relative velocity
or the velocity of of
a body A with respect
to another body B is
the time rate at
which A changes its
position with respect
to B.
Case 1: Both bodies move with
the same velocity in same
direction.
If A and B have equal
velocity ,moving in
the same direction,
then ,
V
AB
=V
A
-V
B

= V
A
-V
A

V
AB
= 0

Also, V
AB
=- V
BA
Case 2: Both bodies move in the
same direction with different
velocities.
If A and B are moving
in the same direction,
with different
velocities, then the
relative velocity of A
with respect to B is
V
AB
=V
A
-V
B.


Case 3: The bodies move in
opposite directions.
If A and B are moving
in the opposite
directions, then the
relative velocity of A
with respect to B is
V
AB
=V
A
-(-V
B
)
=V
A
+V
B


POSITION - TIME
GRAPHS DEPICTING
DIFFERENT TYPES
OF MOTION
OBJECT MOVING WITH
UNIFORM VELOCITY
OBJECT MOVING WITH
ACCELARATED MOTION
STATIONARY OBJECT
OBJECT MOVING WITH
RETARDED MOTION
VELOCITY - TIME
GRAPHS DEPICTING
DIFFERENT TYPES
OF MOTION
OBJECT MOVING WITH POSITIVE
VELOCITY
OBJECT MOVING WITH NEGATIVE
VELOCITY
ACCELERATION -
TIME GRAPHS
DEPICTING
DIFFERENT TYPES
OF MOTION
STATIONARY OBJECT
OBJECT MOVING WITH
UNIFORM VELOCITY
ZERO ACCELERATION
NON-ZERO ACCELERATION
UNIFORMLY
ACCELERATED MOTION
NON-UNIFORM
ACCELERATION
BY,
AKSHATHA NAYAK
ROLL NO: 23
CLASS XI-B
KV AFS BAREILLY