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Fluid Mechanics

Chapter 6

Incompressible

Inviscid Flow

Fluid Mechanics Chapter 6 Incompressible Inviscid Flow © Pritchard

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Main Topics

  • Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation

  • Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates

  • Bernoulli Equation – Integration of Euler’s Equation Along a Streamline for Steady Flow

  • The Bernoulli Equation Interpreted as an Energy Equation

  • Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line

Main Topics  Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation  Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates

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Applications

Airfoil

Applications Airfoil www.aerospaceweb.org A section through an airplane wing gives an airfoil profile as shown. How

www.aerospaceweb.org

Applications Airfoil www.aerospaceweb.org A section through an airplane wing gives an airfoil profile as shown. How

A section through an airplane wing gives an airfoil profile as shown. How do you determine the direction of the lift when air flows over it?

Applications Airfoil www.aerospaceweb.org A section through an airplane wing gives an airfoil profile as shown. How

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Applications

Venturi meter

Applications Venturi meter A venturi meter is used to determine flow rate based on the pressure

A venturi meter is used to determine flow rate based on the pressure drop at the constriction. How do you determine this pressure drop?

Applications Venturi meter A venturi meter is used to determine flow rate based on the pressure

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Momentum Equation

  • NavierStokes Equations for Incompressible Flows

X-axis

Y-axis

Z-axis

Momentum Equation  Navier – Stokes Equations for Incompressible Flows X -axis Y -axis Z -axis
  • A famous equation

  • No analytical solutions

Momentum Equation  Navier – Stokes Equations for Incompressible Flows X -axis Y -axis Z -axis
Momentum Equation  Navier – Stokes Equations for Incompressible Flows X -axis Y -axis Z -axis

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Momentum Equation for Frictionless

Flow: Euler’s Equation

  • Euler’s Equation

    • For inviscid flow, the rate of change of momentum of a fluid particle is due to gravity and net pressure

Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation  Euler’s Equation  For inviscid flow, the rate
Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation  Euler’s Equation  For inviscid flow, the rate
Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation  Euler’s Equation  For inviscid flow, the rate

Change in velocity over time

Change in velocity over position

[6.1]

Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation  Euler’s Equation  For inviscid flow, the rate

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Momentum Equation for Frictionless

Flow: Euler’s Equation

  • Rectangular Coordinates

X-axis

Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation  Rectangular Coordinates X -axis Y -axis Z -axis

Y-axis

Z-axis

Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation  Rectangular Coordinates X -axis Y -axis Z -axis
Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation  Rectangular Coordinates X -axis Y -axis Z -axis
Momentum Equation for Frictionless Flow: Euler’s Equation  Rectangular Coordinates X -axis Y -axis Z -axis

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Euler’s Equation in

Streamline Coordinates

  • Example 1

Question: An incompressible frictionless flow field is given by V = (Ax + By)i + (Bx - Ay)j m/s, where A = 2 s -1 and B = 5 s -1 . Find the acceleration and pressure of a fluid particle at point (3, 4).

Solution:

Governing equations: = 0 (2) Assumptions: (1) Incompressible (2) Steady flow
Governing equations:
= 0 (2)
Assumptions: (1) Incompressible
(2)
Steady flow

(3) Frictionless or inviscid

Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates  Example 1 Question: An incompressible frictionless flow field is given

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Euler’s Equation in

Streamline Coordinates

  • Example 1

u(x,y) = Ax + By;

v(x,y) = Bx - Ay

a x = uu + vu

x

y

= (Ax + By) ∂(Ax + By) + (Bx - Ay)∂(Ax + By)

x

y

=>

a x = (Ax + By)A + (Bx - Ay)B = (A 2 + B 2 )x

= (2 2 + 5 2 )(3) = 87 m/s 2

a y = uv + vv

x

y

= (Ax + By) ∂(Bx - Ay) + (Bx - Ay)∂(Bx - Ay)

x

y

=>

a y = (Ax + By)B + (Bx - Ay)(-A) = (A 2 + B 2 )y

= (2 2 + 5 2 )(4) = 116 m/s 2

a = {(a x ) 2 + (a y ) 2 } 0.5 = 145 m/s 2

∂p x = ρg x - ρa x = 0 999(87) = -86.9 kPa/m;

∂x

∂p y = ρg y - ρa y = 999(-9.81) 999(116) = -125.7 kPa/m; ∂x

Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates  Example 1 u ( x , y ) = Ax

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Euler’s Equation in

Streamline Coordinates

  • Euler’s equation along the streamline

Apply Newton’s 2 nd law in the direction s (streamline coordinates) of the streamline to a fluid element with

no viscous forces

Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates  Euler’s equation along the streamline Apply Newton’s 2 law in

-

Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates  Euler’s equation along the streamline Apply Newton’s 2 law in

- ρg sin β ds dn dx = ρa s ds dn dx

=> =>
=>
=>

since sin β = ∂z/∂s

Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates  Euler’s equation along the streamline Apply Newton’s 2 law in
Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates  Euler’s equation along the streamline Apply Newton’s 2 law in

Since

Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates  Euler’s equation along the streamline Apply Newton’s 2 law in

[6.4a]

  • For a steady flow with no body forces

Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates  Euler’s equation along the streamline Apply Newton’s 2 law in

[6.4b]

Fig. 6.1

Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates  Euler’s equation along the streamline Apply Newton’s 2 law in

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Euler’s Equation in

Streamline Coordinates

Students should go through Example 6.1 in text book

Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates Students should go through Example 6.1 in text book © Pritchard

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Bernoulli Equation Derivation

  • Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates

Bernoulli Equation – Derivation  Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates  Assuming steady flow  Multiplying
  • Assuming steady flow

Bernoulli Equation – Derivation  Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates  Assuming steady flow  Multiplying
  • Multiplying through by ds and rearranging

d s = dp

ds = dp

d s = dz

ds = dz

d s = dV

ds = dV

(the change in pressure along s)

(the change in elevation along s)

=>

(the change in speed along s)

NB: ds is small distance along streamline

Bernoulli Equation – Derivation  Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates  Assuming steady flow  Multiplying
Bernoulli Equation – Derivation  Euler’s Equation in Streamline Coordinates  Assuming steady flow  Multiplying

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Bernoulli Equation Derivation

  • Integration Along s Coordinate

Bernoulli Equation – Derivation  Integration Along s Coordinate For incompressible flow, ρ = constant ©

For incompressible flow, ρ = constant

Bernoulli Equation – Derivation  Integration Along s Coordinate For incompressible flow, ρ = constant ©
Bernoulli Equation – Derivation  Integration Along s Coordinate For incompressible flow, ρ = constant ©

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Bernoulli Equation Derivation

  • Bernoulli Equation

Bernoulli Equation – Derivation  Bernoulli Equation Assumptions: 1. Steady Flow 2. No Friction 3. Flow

Assumptions:

  • 1. Steady Flow

  • 2. No Friction

  • 3. Flow Along a Streamline

  • 4. Incompressible Flow

Bernoulli Equation – Derivation  Bernoulli Equation Assumptions: 1. Steady Flow 2. No Friction 3. Flow

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Bernoulli Equation Derivation

  • General comments

    • Most famous equation in fluid mechanics

    • Ease of application but the most abused

    • Can be modified for compressible, rotational, unsteady flows

Bernoulli Equation – Derivation  General comments  Most famous equation in fluid mechanics  Ease
Bernoulli Equation – Derivation  General comments  Most famous equation in fluid mechanics  Ease

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Bernoulli Equation

  • Stagnation pressure (p 0 )

Occurs if flow velocity is reduced to zero

= 0
= 0
Bernoulli Equation  Stagnation pressure ( p ) Occurs if flow velocity is reduced to zero

for z 0 = z

Bernoulli Equation  Stagnation pressure ( p ) Occurs if flow velocity is reduced to zero
Bernoulli Equation  Stagnation pressure ( p ) Occurs if flow velocity is reduced to zero

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Bernoulli Equation

  • Static, Stagnation & Dynamic Pressures

    • Pressure mentioned earlier refers to static or thermodynamic pressure

    • Remember, no pressure variation across streamlines.

This idea is used to measure pressure in flow fluid by pressure tap in (a)

  • Far from the wall, static pressure probe is used to measure static pressure

Bernoulli Equation  Static, Stagnation & Dynamic Pressures  Pressure mentioned earlier refers to static or
Bernoulli Equation  Static, Stagnation & Dynamic Pressures  Pressure mentioned earlier refers to static or

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Bernoulli Equation

  • Static, Stagnation & Dynamic Pressures

(Ignore gravity)

Stagnation

(total)

pressure

Bernoulli Equation  Static, Stagnation & Dynamic Pressures (Ignore gravity) Stagnation (total) pressure Static (thermodynamic) Pitot

Static

(thermodynamic)

Pitot (total head) tube

pressure

Static pressure tab

Bernoulli Equation  Static, Stagnation & Dynamic Pressures (Ignore gravity) Stagnation (total) pressure Static (thermodynamic) Pitot

Dynamic

(velocity)

pressure

Instrument??

Bernoulli Equation  Static, Stagnation & Dynamic Pressures (Ignore gravity) Stagnation (total) pressure Static (thermodynamic) Pitot

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Bernoulli Equation - Energy

Equation

Bernoulli Equation - Energy Equation Assumptions: . 1. No Shaft Work, W = 0 . 2.

Assumptions:

Bernoulli Equation - Energy Equation Assumptions: . 1. No Shaft Work, W = 0 . 2.

.

  • 1. No Shaft Work, W s = 0

.

  • 2. No Shear Force Work, W shear = 0

.

  • 3. No Other Work, W other = 0

  • 4. Steady Flow

  • 5. Uniform Flow and Properties

Bernoulli Equation - Energy Equation Assumptions: . 1. No Shaft Work, W = 0 . 2.

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Bernoulli Equation - Energy

Equation

( u + ) (-ρ 1 V 1 A 1 ) 1
(
u
+
)
(-ρ 1 V 1 A 1 )
1

+ (u

2 +

) (ρ 2 V 2 A 2 )
)
(ρ 2 V 2 A 2 )

.

- Q = 0

Hence ʋ = 1/ρ
Hence
ʋ = 1/ρ
Bernoulli Equation - Energy Equation ( u + ) (-ρ 1 V 1 A 1 )

Assumption:

Bernoulli Equation - Energy Equation ( u + ) (-ρ 1 V 1 A 1 )
Bernoulli Equation - Energy Equation ( u + ) (-ρ 1 V 1 A 1 )

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Bernoulli Equation - Energy

Equation

  • Energy Equation

Bernoulli Equation - Energy Equation  Energy Equation Assumptions: . 1. No Shaft Work, W =

Assumptions:

.

  • 1. No Shaft Work, W s = 0

.

  • 2. No Shear Force Work, W shear = 0

.

  • 3. No Other Work, W other = 0

  • 4. Steady Flow

  • 5. Uniform Flow and Properties

  • 6. Incompressible Flow

    • 7. u 2 u 1 dQ/dm = 0

Bernoulli Equation - Energy Equation  Energy Equation Assumptions: . 1. No Shaft Work, W =

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Bernoulli Equation - Energy

Equation

  • Energy Equation

“pressure” kinetic potential energy energy energy
“pressure”
kinetic
potential
energy
energy
energy
Bernoulli Equation - Energy Equation  Energy Equation “pressure” kinetic potential energy energy energy © Pritchard

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Bernoulli Equation - Energy

Equation

  • Energy Equation

Bernoulli Equation - Energy Equation  Energy Equation total head of the flow  H also

total head of the flow

  • H also measures total mechanical energy in units of length (i.e., in meters or feet)

  • For real flow (with friction), H is not constant (Chapter 8)

Bernoulli Equation - Energy Equation  Energy Equation total head of the flow  H also

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Bernoulli Equation

  • Applications of Bernoulli Equations

    • Flight

    • Flow measurements (venturi meter)

    • Flow variable area pipe

    • Flow from a tank

    • Sluice gate

    • Siphon and cavitation

Bernoulli Equation  Applications of Bernoulli Equations  Flight  Flow measurements (venturi meter)  Flow

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Bernoulli Equation

  • Example 2

Question: A steady air flows through a horizontal nozzle and discharges to atmosphere. The nozzle inlet cross sectional area is 0.1 m 2 while the outlet area is 0.02 m 2 . What gage pressure is required at the nozzle inlet to produce an outlet speed of 50 m/s?

Solution:

Governing equations:

Bernoulli Equation  Example 2 Question: A steady air flows through a horizontal nozzle and discharges

Assumptions:

(1) Incompressible

(2)

Steady flow

(3) Frictionless or inviscid (4) Standard conditions (5) Uniform flow at sections

Bernoulli Equation  Example 2 Question: A steady air flows through a horizontal nozzle and discharges

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Bernoulli Equation

  • Example 2

p 1 + V 1 2 + gz 1 = p 2 + V 2 2 + gz 2

ρ 1

2

ρ 2

2

p 1 - p 2 = ρ(V 2 2 - V 1 2 );

2

ρ 1 = ρ 2 = ρ; z 1 = z 2

p 1gage = p 1 - p atm = p 1 - p 2

p 2 = p atm

p 1gage = ρ(V 2 2 - V 1 2 );

2

ρ = 1.23 kg/m 3 (Table A.10); V 2 = 50 m/s; V 1 = ??

Q 1 = Q 2

=> V 1 A 1 = V 2 A 2

=> V 1 = V 2 A 2 /A 1 = (50)(0.02)/(0.1) = 10 m/s

p 1gage = 1.23(50 2 - 10 2 ) = 1.48 kPa

2

Bernoulli Equation  Example 2 p + V + gz = p + V + gz

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Bernoulli Equation

  • Example 3

Question: A light plane flies at 150 km/h in standard air at an altitude of 1 km. What is the stagnation pressure at the leading edge of the wing? What is the static pressure at the top of the wing if the air speed relative to the top of the wing is 60 m/s?

Solution:

Governing equations:

Bernoulli Equation  Example 3 Question: A light plane flies at 150 km/h in standard air

Assumptions:

(1) Incompressible

(2)

Steady flow

(3) Frictionless or inviscid (4) Standard conditions

Bernoulli Equation  Example 3 Question: A light plane flies at 150 km/h in standard air

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Bernoulli Equation

  • Example 3

Bernoulli Equation  Example 3 p + V + gz = p + V + gz

p air + V air 2 + gz air = p A + V A 2 + gz A =

ρ air

2

ρ A

2

p B + V B 2 + gz B

ρ B

ρ air = ρ A = ρ B = ρ;
2

z air = z A = z B

From Table A.3; at 1000 m, p/p SL = 0.8870 and ρ/ρ SL = 0.9075

=> p = 0.8870 p SL = (0.8870)(1.01×10 5 Pa) = 8.96×10 4 Pa

=> ρ = 0.9075 ρ SL = (0.9075)(1.23 kg/m 3 ) = 1.12 kg/m 3

NB: 150 km/h = 41.67 m/s

At the stagnation point, V A =?

=> p A = p air + 0.5ρV air

2

=> p A = 8.96(10 4 Pa) + 0.5(1.12 kg/m 3 )(41.67 m/s) 2 = 90.57 kPa

Also: p B = p air + 0.5ρ(V air 2 - V B 2 )

=> p B = 8.96(10 4 Pa) + 0.5(1.12 kg/m 3 ){(41.67 m/s) 2 - (60 m/s) 2 }= 88.56 kPa

Bernoulli Equation  Example 3 p + V + gz = p + V + gz

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Bernoulli Equation

Students should go through Examples 6.2 & 6.4 to 6.8 in text book

Bernoulli Equation Students should go through Examples 6.2 & 6.4 to 6.8 in text book ©

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Energy Grade Line and

Hydraulic Grade Line

  • Graphical presentation of the Bernoulli Equation

    • Energy equation

Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line  Graphical presentation of the Bernoulli Equation  Energy

total head of the flow

Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line  Graphical presentation of the Bernoulli Equation  Energy

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Energy Grade Line and

Hydraulic Grade Line

  • Energy Grade Line (EGL)

EGL =

Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line  Energy Grade Line ( EGL ) EGL =

The total head available to the fluid (Pitot tube)

  • Hydraulic Grade Line (HGL)

HGL =

Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line  Energy Grade Line ( EGL ) EGL =
  • EGL - HGL =

Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line  Energy Grade Line ( EGL ) EGL =

The piezometric head (Static pressure tab + piezometer)

Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line  Energy Grade Line ( EGL ) EGL =

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Energy Grade Line and

Hydraulic Grade Line

Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line © Pritchard
Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line © Pritchard

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Energy Grade Line and

Hydraulic Grade Line

  • Example 4: Sketch the EGL and HGL for the flow system below

Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line Sketch the EGL and HGL for the flow system
Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line Sketch the EGL and HGL for the flow system

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Energy Grade Line and

Hydraulic Grade Line

  • Example 4:

Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line  Example 4: © Pritchard
Energy Grade Line and Hydraulic Grade Line  Example 4: © Pritchard

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