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Level Measurement

and
Tank Gauging Systems
Level Measurement
and
Tank Gauging Systems
Level Measurement
Techniques
Manual (Visual):
Visual reading thru
sight-glass
Dip-tape or dip-rod
based manual gauging
Float and counter
weight on Calibrated
Scale
Simple Automated
measurements:
Float with limit-switches
Float with potentiometer
Float & counter weight type
with potentiometer/encoder
(counting rotation of disk / pulley)
Level Measurement
Techniques
Float & Counter weight
Simple Automated techniques:
Capacitance type probes
Vibrating fork
Displacer method
Hydrostatic Pressure sensing
Level Measurement
Techniques
Capacitance probes
Vibrating fork technique
Hydrostatic Pressure
Transmitters
Hydrostatic tank gauging
Oldest tank Gauging method.
Uses 1-3 pressure transmitters
Calculates the mass, density and
volume
Advantages:
Can be used for corrosive & viscous
product
Non-Intrusive with no moving parts
Pressure P
3
Pressure P
1
Pressure P
2
H
B
H
BM
Mass = (P
1
- P
3
) x Area
Density = (P
1
- P
2
)
H
BM
Volume = Mass
Density
Level = (P
1
- P
3
) . H
B

Density
Limitations:
Mounting on the existing tanks,
nozzles, fittings
Not accurate level measurement
Generally Not suitable for Custody
Transfer
Density measurement to a limited range
Hydrostatic tank gauging
Advanced automated systems:
Ultrasonic transducers,
Radar,
Guided-wave radar/Impulse,
Servo-gauge,
Gamma-radiation attenuation,
etc
Level Measurement
Techniques
Ultrasonic probes
Radar
Radar gauge
Developed in the 70s for gauging in
crude-carriers
Non-intrusive, no moving parts
Uses micro-waves (RF) to measure
level
Accuracy 1, 3, 10, 25 mm, etc
depending on type
Limitations:
Less suitable for products with Low
Dielectric (LPG, LNG, Aromatics, etc.)
Affected by tank-roof, stilling-pipe,
stirrers, etc.
Affected by vapour density changes
Effect of foam?
Radar gauge
Impulse probes
Reference
pulse
Reference
pulse
Servo Gauge
Measuring ranges: 27m, 37m, etc. upto
150 m total wire lengths
Wire material: SS-316, Hasteloy C22,
Tantalum, Invar, etc
Mains AC supply: 110/130/220/240 V,
(optional) 65 V
Built-in Density measurement (optional)
Sensing
head
Sprocket
wheel
(houses
drive
magnets)
Guide
wheels
Tape
drum
Tape
connection
Servo gauge
Limitations:
moving parts
Viscous products stick to wire (wire mass-length
compensation will be Erroneous)
some high viscous products contaminate
wire drum (length measurement Errors, repeatability errors)
Foam (displacer drifting/floating unstabilities)
Wire can break if product solidifies
Affected by tank geometrics
Gamma-radiation technique
Tank Gauging System
A generic name for the static quantity
assessment of liquid products in bulk
storage tanks
Data from Gauging Instrumentation
transmitted to Inventory Management
System to compute overall state (level,
mass, density, volume) of Product
inside the tanks.
Tank Gauging
Purpose of Tank Gauging
Inventory Management
Accuracy - How much of which product, in
which tanks at a given instant.
Custody transfer
Standardized measurement between traders
for sale/purchase transfers.
Safety
Safe fill and emptying of product
Loss accounting/control
Audit, planning, restructuring operations
Activity Unit Accuracy
Oil Movement & Operations Level & Vol Low
Stock Accounting Mass or Vol Modest
Custody Transfer Mass or Vol High
Loss Control Mass or Vol High
Purpose of Tank Gauging
Tank Farm Management
Petroleum Products Measured
Crude oil
Lube oil base stock
Fuel oil
Diesel fuel
Kerosene
Jet fuel
Gasoline
LPG
LNG
Asphalt and bitumen
Tank Farm Management
Accurate level measurement used in
conjunction with:
Water measurement device
Temperature & Density
measurement
TFM computes mass, vol, density.
TFM Measurement Parameters
level
Average or spot temperature
Pressure
Average density
Gross observed volume (G.O.V.)
Volume of water & sediments (S&W)
Mass and net standard volume (N.S.V.)
Standards
API -Manual of Petroleum Measurements
Standards (MPMS)
Chapter 3 Tank Gauging
Section 1B Standard practice for Level
Measurement of liquid hydrocarbons in
stationary tanks by Automatic Tank Gauging
Section 3 - Pressurized storage tanks
OIML R85
Automatic level gauges for measuring level of
liquids in fixed storage tanks
API MPMS Chapter 3
Section 1A: Standard practices for manual gauging
of Petroleum and petroleum products
Section 1B: Standard practice for level
measurement of liquid Hydrocarbons in Stationary
tanks by Automatic tank gauging
Section 3: Standard practices for level measurement
of liquid hydrocarbons in stationary pressurized
storage tanks by ATG
Section 4: Standard practices for level measurement
of liquid hydrocarbons on marine vessels by ATG
Section 5: Standard practices for level measurement
of light hydrocarbon liquids onboard marine vessels
by ATG
Multiple-Temperature Probe
Spot RTD Probes
Interface Level Measurements
Common Technologies Used for Interface
Measurements:
Capacitance
Displacers
Pressure
Guided Wave Radar technology
Capacitance probes
Density Measurement
Manual sampling and lab analysis
Hydrostatic pressure in conjunction
with level info
On-line density measurement devices
Servo-gauge with built-in density
measurement
oscillations sustained at
natural frequency against
damping effects.
The resonant frequency is
inversely proportional to
the square root of the
mass.
by calibration, the
frequency of vibration is
directly related the density
of the fluid
Servo Gauge
with built-in
density
measurement
Density vs Resonance period (1/f)
0
100
200
300
400
500
600
0
6
0
1
2
0
1
8
0
2
4
0
3
0
0
3
6
0
4
2
0
4
8
0
5
4
0
6
0
0
6
6
0
7
2
0
Points to be noted
Changes in process fluid dielectric?
changes in vapor space composition?
probe coating?
changes in density?
applications with disturbing objects,
turbulence?
low dielectric constant for media?
dirty, thick, sticky or viscous media?
Solidifying media (with temperature drops)?
mounting too close to tank walls?
Length, small or longer depth of mounting
chamber, nozzles?
Tank Farm management: Software
Different Screens / Frames / Windows
For operators
For Engineering
for monitoring various Tanks in a gist
for each Tank, showing all parameters
for groups, eg. different products, zones
Screens for gauging, inventory,
calibration, trending, etc.
Tank Farm management: Software
Batch transfers
Alarms
Event logs
Reporting
Operations: Commands for gauging (SG),
valve OPEN/CLOSE, pump ON/OFF, etc.
Facilitates troubleshooting of Tank
Gauging, interface hardware, etc.
Tank database:
Tags and Tank Identities, Tank strapping
details, Tank-type, Max. safe fill height, Shell
capacity, Roof weight, Product names,
API/ASTM table code, ref. densities, etc.
COM-Port definitions, CIU tags & addr., gauge
addr., gauge type, details on installed
instrumentation for temperature, density,
pressure, Engineering Units, scheduling of
water/density dipping, logs, etc.
Tank Farm management: Software
Storage tank Deformations
Tank Bottom Movements (Hydrostatic
pressure)
Tank Shell Thermal Expansion
Tank Shell Deformation (Hydrostatic press.)
Roof deformations
Tank deformations due to High winds
Floor-seismic deformations
Hydraulic pressure effects, dynamics from
other tanks, structures in the vicinity
Storage tank Deformations
Sl. No. Parameter Description:
For Automatic Tank Gauging Method
Uncertainty
1 Level 2 mm
2 Stability of reference points
3 Temperature element (RTD PT100 Class B) 0.5 %
4 Temperature transmitter (SDAU) 0.05 %
5 The uncertainty of the water level probe. 0.3 %
6 Tank Capacity Tables (TCT) 0.2 %
7 Tank hydrostatic deformations
8 Shell expansion
9 ASTM, table 54, Volume Correction Factor
tables
0.05 %
10 Density @ 15 deg C is a manual input value
obtained from the site Laboratory
0.1 %
11 Field data to computer A/D signal converter 0.025%
Sl. No. Parameter Description for
Flowmeter
Uncertainty
1 Flow computer D/A conversion 0.025 %
2 Temperature transmitter 0.5 %
3 Densitometer 0.1 %
4 Pressure transmitter 0.1 %
5 Flowmeter/transmitter acc 0.15 %
6 viscosity dependency 0.1 %
7 temperature dependency 0.05 %
8 pressure dependency 0.02 %
9 turbine meter repeatability 0.03 %
10 flow rate variations during calibration 0.02 %
11 prover sphere switching 0.02 %
12 Clock frequency 0.02 %
13 factory set factor for Prover 0.02 %


Cumulative Accuracies
Tank Gauging Vs Flow-metering
Tank Gauge (Radar)
For parcel size (transfer volume) greater than 5 metre.
Gross Volume +/- 0.30
Gross Std Volume +/- 0.35
Mass +/- 0.40

Flowmeter (Turbinemeter)
Gross Volume +/- 0.25
Gross Std Volume +/- 0.28
mass +/- 0.28
Cryogenic Media? Tank Gauging wins
over flowmeters
Due to difficulties experienced in
metering of LNG at -160, custody
transfer of LNG will still be done by
volume measurement by tank
gauging for time to come till rugged,
reliable, maintenance free and
accurate flow measurement
techniques for cryogenic liquid like
LNG are developed.
LNG Tanks
Capacity LNG tank : 160,000 m3
Diameter: 81 meter
Max height: 55 meter
Level in Silos
Level in Silos