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Hall Effect Sensors

Hariprasad
(4NM10EC037)
Hall effect






When a magnet is placed so that its field is perpendicular to one face of
a thin rectangle conductor or semiconductor through which current is
flowing, a potential difference will induce in the opposite edges.

Induced voltage is proportional to the current flowing through the
conductor, flux density or magnetic induction perpendicular to the
conductor.



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Theory of the Hall Effect
When a perpendicular magnetic field is present, a Lorentz force is
exerted on the current.

This force disturbs the current distribution, resulting in a potential
difference across the output. This voltage is called Hall Voltage

The induced voltage is proportional to the vector cross product of
current and magnetic field applied.

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Hall Effect Sensors







Hall Effect sensor provides output voltage based on the applied magnetic
field.

If the Hall voltage is measured when no magnetic field is present, the
output is zero.

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Hall Effect sensors
Hall voltage is the function of the input current

The Regulator used to provide constant input current to the Hall effect
sensor

The Hall voltage is a low-level signal on the order of 30 microvolts in the
presence of a one gauss magnetic field.

Differential amplifier used to amplify the low voltage generated by the
Hall Effect sensor.


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Types of Hall Effect Sensors


Analog output Hall Effect Sensor


Digital output Hall Effect Sensor
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Analog output Hall Effect sensor







Analog sensors provide an output voltage that is proportional to the
applied magnetic field
The sensed magnetic field can be either positive or negative.
Depending on the sensed magnetic field output of the sensor driven
either positive or negative.
To avoid the requirement for two power supplies, a fixed offset or bias is
introduced into the differential amplifier.



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Analog output Hall Effect Sensor








The bias value appears on the output when no magnetic field is present and
is referred to as a null voltage.
When a positive magnetic field is sensed, the output increases above the
null voltage.
When a negative magnetic field is sensed, the output decreases below the
null voltage, but remains positive.

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Digital Output Hall Effect Sensors







This sensor has an output that is just one of two states ON and OFF.
By introducing Schmitt trigger circuit to the output of the analog sensor
we can build Hall Effect based digital sensor.
The Schmitt trigger compares the output of the differential amplifier
with a pre-set reference.

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Digital Output Hall Effect Sensors







When the amplifier output exceeds the reference, the Schmitt trigger
turns on.

When the output of the amplifier falls below the reference point, the
output of the Schmitt trigger turns off.

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Hall Effect based current sensors

Digital current sensors.

Linear current sensors.

Close loop Current sensors.

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Digital Current sensors









A fast-acting, automatically-resetting current sensor.

The current sensor is constructed using an electromagnet.


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Magnetic Field
Current
Digital Current sensors







The current passing through the electromagnet coils generates a
magnetic field which is sensed by the Hall sensor.

An overload signal could change state, from low to high or vice versa,
when the current exceeded the design trip point.

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Digital Current sensors

This signal could be used to trigger a warning alarm or to control the
current directly by electronic means.

the magnetic field from a coil is directly proportional to the product of
the number of turns in the coil and the current flowing through the coil.

digital output Hall effect sensor with operate and release points, the
current sensor will turn ON when current I2 is reached and OFF when the
current drops to I1.
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Linear current sensors







A current sensor with an analog output can be made using a linear Hall
effect sensor.
The current sensor is constructed using a ferrite or silicon steel core and
a Hall effect IC.
The current passing through the conductor being measured generates a
magnetic field.




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Linear current sensors
The core captures and concentrates the flux on the Hall effect IC.

The linear response and isolation from the sensed current makes linear
current sensors ideal for motor control feedback circuits.

The voltage output of the Hall effect IC is proportional to the current in
the conductor.

The linear signal accurately duplicates the waveform of the current being
sensed.

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Close loop Current sensors
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Design approach of linear Hall Effect Sensors







It consists of a soft magnetic core with an air gap and a coil wrapped
around the toroid core, forming an electromagnet.
A linear output Hall effect sensor is positioned in the air gap to measure
the flux density at that point.
Eddy currents are an error source in AC current sensor design .


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Design approach to the digital current sensors






During the positive half cycle of AC sensor output is high
During the negative half cycle of AC sensor output is low
The retriggerable one shot (monostable multivibrator) is a digital device
which responds with an output pulse when triggered by an input pulse.
The output pulse width (time) is independent of the input pulse,
depending only on the values of R2 and C.


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Applications of Hall Effect Sensors


RPM/speed detectors
Timing measurement
Position sensors
Brushless DC motors
Vending machines
Current sensing
Disk drives
Position sensing
Brushless DC motors
Voltage regulators
Vibration sensors
Power supply protection/sensing




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Advantages of Hall Effect Sensors
Hall Effect sensors are not affected by ambient conditions, such as dust,
humidity, and vibrations

Hall Effect sensors do not have contact with neighbouring mechanical
parts

A high speed operation is possible.

Hall Effect Sensors capable of measuring large current

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Disadvantages of Hall Effect sensors
The Hall Effect sensor is not capable of measuring a current flow at a
distance greater than 10 cm

Hall Effect sensors work on the principle of a magnetic field, making it
possible for external magnetic fields to interfere with this and bias the
measurement of a current flow.

Temperature affects the electrical resistance of the element and the
mobility of majority carriers and also the sensitivity of Hall Effect
sensors.

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Conclusion


The Hall effect is an ideal sensing technology. Although the Hall effect
sensor is a magnetic field sensor, it can be used as the principle component
in many other types of sensing devices like temperature, current, position,
pressure etc. The advantage of using this technology over other technology
is the Long life, stationary parts, high speed and logic compatible input and
output. It is the better sensing technology for the future.

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References
[1] G. Gokmen, K. Tuncalp,The Design of a Hall Effect Current
Transformer and Examination of The Linearity with Real Time
Parameter Estimation, ELEKTRONIKA IR ELEKTROTECHNIK, ISSN 1392 121,
2010. No. 5(101).
[2] Paul Leroy, Christophe Coillot, Alain F. Roux, and Grard M.
Chanteur, High Magnetic Field Amplification for Improving the
Sensitivity of Hall Sensors, IEEE SENSORS JOURNAL, VOL. 6, NO. 3, JUNE
2006
[3] Honeywell, Hall Effect sensing and applications, Application note
[4] Edward Ramsden, Hall Effect sensors-Theory and practice, Newnes, 2
Editition, 2006.
[5] Infineon Technologies AG, Current sensing using linear Hall Sensors,
Application note, Rev 1.1, February 2009


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