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DIRECT
RETAINERS
DIRECT
RETAINERS
By
Dr Shebin Abraham
Dept. of Prosthodontics
By
Dr Shebin Abraham
Dept. of Prosthodontics
Contents Contents

Introduction

Defnitions.

Classifcation.

Basic part of clasp assembly.

Analysis of tooth contour.

Basic Principles of clasp design.

Cast circumferential clasp.

Bar clasp.

ther types of clasp.

Intracoronal retainers.

Conclusion.

Introduction

Defnitions.

Classifcation.

Basic part of clasp assembly.

Analysis of tooth contour.

Basic Principles of clasp design.

Cast circumferential clasp.

Bar clasp.

ther types of clasp.

Intracoronal retainers.

Conclusion.
Introduction Introduction
Types of retention Types of retention

Primary retention.
!. By clasps

Secondary retention.
". Acting through
polished surface of
the denture.
#. $issue coverage.

Primary retention.
!. By clasps

Secondary retention.
". Acting through
polished surface of
the denture.
#. $issue coverage.
Defnition:- Defnition:-

Direct retainer:-

That component of a partial removable


dental prosthesis used to retain and prevent
dislodgment, consisting of a clasp assembly
or precision attachment GPT-8

Direct retention :

etention obtained in a partial removable


dental prosthesis by the use of clasps or
attachments that resist removal from the
abutment teeth !GPT-8

Direct retainer:-

That component of a partial removable


dental prosthesis used to retain and prevent
dislodgment, consisting of a clasp assembly
or precision attachment GPT-8

Direct retention :

etention obtained in a partial removable


dental prosthesis by the use of clasps or
attachments that resist removal from the
abutment teeth !GPT-8
Classifcation Of Direct
Retainers.
Classifcation Of Direct
Retainers.
Intra coronal
Intra coronal
%&tra coronal
%&tra coronal
Precision
attachme
nt
Precision
attachme
nt
Semi
precision
attachme
nt
Semi
precision
attachme
nt
'etentiv
e clasp
assembli
es
'etentiv
e clasp
assembli
es
Attachme
nts
Attachme
nts
Supra
bulge
clasp
Supra
bulge
clasp
Infra
bulge
clasp
Infra
bulge
clasp
Clinical removable prosthodontics() S$%*A'$+S #
rd
edition
Intracoronal Intracoronal

Proposed by Dr ,erman % S Chayes in !-./.

Cast or attached 0ithin the contours of natural


teeth1abutment2.

3ey0ay and 4ey5..pposing vertical 0alls provides


retention.

'etention is achieved by frictional resistance.


!. Precision attachment manufactured by high precision
techni6ue and instruments
". Semi precision attachment less intimate contact bet0een
matri& and matri& component. 7nli4e precision attachment
they consist of tapering 0alls and are casted from 0a& or
plastic pattern.

Proposed by Dr ,erman % S Chayes in !-./.

Cast or attached 0ithin the contours of natural


teeth1abutment2.

3ey0ay and 4ey5..pposing vertical 0alls provides


retention.

'etention is achieved by frictional resistance.


!. Precision attachment manufactured by high precision
techni6ue and instruments
". Semi precision attachment less intimate contact bet0een
matri& and matri& component. 7nli4e precision attachment
they consist of tapering 0alls and are casted from 0a& or
plastic pattern.
Extracoronal
attac!ent.
Extracoronal
attac!ent.

8irst proposed by ,enry , Boos !-.. later


modifed by %0ing 8 'oach in !-.9.

:ocated outside the teeth.

'etention from mechanical resistance.

Permit vertical movement during vertical loading.

;inimi<e potentially damaging forces to abutment


Stress brea4ing or stress directing e=ects.

8irst proposed by ,enry , Boos !-.. later


modifed by %0ing 8 'oach in !-.9.

:ocated outside the teeth.

'etention from mechanical resistance.

Permit vertical movement during vertical loading.

;inimi<e potentially damaging forces to abutment


Stress brea4ing or stress directing e=ects.
Occlusally approaching /
Suprabulge / Ney Type I
clasp / Circumferential:
Approaches the tooth
undercut from an occlusal
direction
It is attached to metal
frame0or4 above the
height of contour.
Occlusally approaching /
Suprabulge / Ney Type I
clasp / Circumferential:
Approaches the tooth
undercut from an occlusal
direction
It is attached to metal
frame0or4 above the
height of contour.
Gingivally approaching /
Infrabulge/ Bar/ Roach / Ney
Type II Clasp:
$he retentive arm
originates from the metal
base or denture frame0or4
traverses soft tissue and
Approaches the tooth
undercut area from a
gingival direction.
Gingivally approaching /
Infrabulge/ Bar/ Roach / Ney
Type II Clasp:
$he retentive arm
originates from the metal
base or denture frame0or4
traverses soft tissue and
Approaches the tooth
undercut area from a
gingival direction.
%>$'AC'?A:
DI'%C$ '%$AI?%'S
Te "asic parts of a
clasp asse!"ly include
te follo#in$:
Te "asic parts of a
clasp asse!"ly include
te follo#in$:

It is the part of the clasp that lies on the occlusal@ lingual or


incisal surface of a tooth and resist 1tissue 0ard2 movement
of the clasp by ensuring that the retentive terminals of the
clasp remain f&ed in the desired or planned depth of
undercut.

It is the part of the clasp that lies on the occlusal@ lingual or


incisal surface of a tooth and resist 1tissue 0ard2 movement
of the clasp by ensuring that the retentive terminals of the
clasp remain f&ed in the desired or planned depth of
undercut.
RES
T
%ody of te clasp %ody of te clasp

It is the part of the clasp that connects the rest and shoulder
of the clasp to the minor connector.

It must be rigid.

Above the height of contour.

It is the part of the clasp that connects the rest and shoulder
of the clasp to the minor connector.

It must be rigid.

Above the height of contour.


Soulder Soulder

It is the part of the clasp that connects the body to the


clasp terminals.

$he shoulder must lie above the height of contour


and provide some stabili<ation against hori<ontal
displacement of the prosthesis.

It is the part of the clasp that connects the body to the


clasp terminals.

$he shoulder must lie above the height of contour


and provide some stabili<ation against hori<ontal
displacement of the prosthesis.
Reciprocal ar! Reciprocal ar!

A rigid clasp arm placed above the height of


contour on the side of the tooth@ opposing the
retentive clasp arm.

A rigid clasp arm placed above the height of


contour on the side of the tooth@ opposing the
retentive clasp arm.
Retenti&e ar! Retenti&e ar!

It is te part of te clasp co!prisin$ te soulder #ic is


not 'exi"le and is located a"o&e te ei$t of te contour

It is the terminal end of the retentive clasp arm. It is the only


component of the removable partial denture that lies on the tooth
surface cervical to the height of the contour. It possesses a certain
degree of Ae&ibility and o=ers the property of direct retention.

It is te part of te clasp co!prisin$ te soulder #ic is


not 'exi"le and is located a"o&e te ei$t of te contour

It is the terminal end of the retentive clasp arm. It is the only


component of the removable partial denture that lies on the tooth
surface cervical to the height of the contour. It possesses a certain
degree of Ae&ibility and o=ers the property of direct retention.
Approach arm Approach arm

It is a component of the bar clasp.

It is a minor connector that proBects from the


frame0or4@ runs along the mucosa and turns
to cross the gingival margin of the abutment
toothC to approach the undercut from a
gingival direction.

It is a component of the bar clasp.

It is a minor connector that proBects from the


frame0or4@ runs along the mucosa and turns
to cross the gingival margin of the abutment
toothC to approach the undercut from a
gingival direction.
Analysis of toot
contour:-
Analysis of toot
contour:-

Before moving on to principles of clasp design its


vitally important to consider ho0 tooth contour D
'PD components must be related to allo0 a stable
prosthetic function.

*hat is path of insertionEEE path of removal EEand


height of contourEEE

Point of ma&imum conve&ity or the term height of


contour Dr %d0ard 3ennedy in !-9F.

$his critical area of an abutment that provide for


retention D stabili<ation can only be identifed 0ith
the use of dental cast surveyor.

Before moving on to principles of clasp design its


vitally important to consider ho0 tooth contour D
'PD components must be related to allo0 a stable
prosthetic function.

*hat is path of insertionEEE path of removal EEand


height of contourEEE

Point of ma&imum conve&ity or the term height of


contour Dr %d0ard 3ennedy in !-9F.

$his critical area of an abutment that provide for


retention D stabili<ation can only be identifed 0ith
the use of dental cast surveyor.
(rotero)s concept (rotero)s concept

Proposed *cone teory+ of


clinical cro0n in !-!/.

Provided conceptual basis of


mechanical retention.

Contours of clinical cro0n


resembles t0o cones sharing a
common base.

$he line formed at the Bunction of


this base represents the greatest
diameter of the tooth.

$his greatest diameter is called


height of contour or point of
ma&imum conve&ity.

Proposed *cone teory+ of


clinical cro0n in !-!/.

Provided conceptual basis of


mechanical retention.

Contours of clinical cro0n


resembles t0o cones sharing a
common base.

$he line formed at the Bunction of


this base represents the greatest
diameter of the tooth.

$his greatest diameter is called


height of contour or point of
ma&imum conve&ity.

Devan G!-FFH referred to the


surface occlusal to the
height of contour as
suprabulge@ D the surface
inclining cervically as
infrabulge.

Devan G!-FFH referred to the


surface occlusal to the
height of contour as
suprabulge@ D the surface
inclining cervically as
infrabulge.
suprabulge
infrabulge
An$le of
con&er$ence
An$le of
con&er$ence
o
*hen the surveyor blade contacts a tooth on the
cast at its greatest conve&ity@ a triangle is formed.
o
$he ape& of this triangle is at the point of contact of
surveyor blade 0ith the tooth and base is to0ards
the gingival tissues.
o
$his apical angle is called angle of cervical
convergence. $he importance of this angle lies in
its relationship to the amount of retention.
%asic (rinciples of
clasp desi$n
%asic (rinciples of
clasp desi$n

According to Ste0art basic principles are()


!. 'etention.
". Stability.
#. Support.
I. 'eciprocation.
F. %ncirclement.
/. Passivity.

According to Ste0art basic principles are()


!. 'etention.
". Stability.
#. Support.
I. 'eciprocation.
F. %ncirclement.
/. Passivity.
Retention Retention

etention is the inherent "uality of the clasp


assembly that resists forces acting to
dislodge components a#ay from the tooth
structure$

?o single component of a clasp assembly is solely


responsible for prosthesis retention.

'ather@ it is e=ective design and accurate


construction that ma4e the removable partial
denture retentive.

etention is the inherent "uality of the clasp


assembly that resists forces acting to
dislodge components a#ay from the tooth
structure$

?o single component of a clasp assembly is solely


responsible for prosthesis retention.

'ather@ it is e=ective design and accurate


construction that ma4e the removable partial
denture retentive.

$he amount of retention designed into a removable


partial denture should al0ays be the minimum
necessary to resist reasonable dislodging forces.

A rigid clasp Ae&ing over the height of contour may


transfer harmful stresses to an abutment during
insertion@ removal@ and functional movement of the
prosthesis.

An only a minimum area of contact should be seen.

$he amount of retention designed into a removable


partial denture should al0ays be the minimum
necessary to resist reasonable dislodging forces.

A rigid clasp Ae&ing over the height of contour may


transfer harmful stresses to an abutment during
insertion@ removal@ and functional movement of the
prosthesis.

An only a minimum area of contact should be seen.


A!ount of retention A!ount of retention

%actors that e&ect retention can be divided


into -
!. $ooth factors

Si<e of angle of cervical convergence

,o0 far clasp is placed in angle of cervical convergence.


". Prosthesis factors

Clasp length

Clasp diameter

Clasp cross)sectional formG shapeH

;aterial used for ma4ing claspG alloyH

%actors that e&ect retention can be divided


into -
!. $ooth factors

Si<e of angle of cervical convergence

,o0 far clasp is placed in angle of cervical convergence.


". Prosthesis factors

Clasp length

Clasp diameter

Clasp cross)sectional formG shapeH

;aterial used for ma4ing claspG alloyH


(rostesis factors:- (rostesis factors:-

:ength of clasp arm)

:onger the clasp arm the more Ae&ible it 0ill be.

Circumferential clasps more retentive than bar clasp for a given


clasp length.

$he clasp arm should taper from the point of origin to provide its
Ae&ibility.

:ength of clasp arm)

:onger the clasp arm the more Ae&ible it 0ill be.

Circumferential clasps more retentive than bar clasp for a given


clasp length.

$he clasp arm should taper from the point of origin to provide its
Ae&ibility.

Diameter of the clasp(

$he greater the diameter of a clasp arm the less


Ae&ible it 0ill be.1only in uniform taper2

If its taper is absolutely uniform @the avg diameter


0ill be at a point mid0ay bet0een its origin D its
terminal end.

But if taper is not uniform a point of Ae&ure J


therefore a point of 0ea4ness 0ill e&ist.

Diameter of the clasp(

$he greater the diameter of a clasp arm the less


Ae&ible it 0ill be.1only in uniform taper2

If its taper is absolutely uniform @the avg diameter


0ill be at a point mid0ay bet0een its origin D its
terminal end.

But if taper is not uniform a point of Ae&ure J


therefore a point of 0ea4ness 0ill e&ist.

Cross)sectional form(

8le&ibility may e&ist in any form@ but is limited to only one direction in the case
of the half)round form

$he only universally Ae&ible form is the round form.

Clasp arm should only Ae& a0ay from tooth so half round is used.

'ound shaped clasp arm used only in distal e&tension denture bases so that it
can Ae& in all directions during functional movement and minimi<e stresses.

Cross)sectional form(

8le&ibility may e&ist in any form@ but is limited to only one direction in the case
of the half)round form

$he only universally Ae&ible form is the round form.

Clasp arm should only Ae& a0ay from tooth so half round is used.

'ound shaped clasp arm used only in distal e&tension denture bases so that it
can Ae& in all directions during functional movement and minimi<e stresses.

;aterial used for construction(

Gold alloy greater Ae&ibility than chrome alloys @

Disadvantage of cast gold alloys bul4 of the


prosthesis costly.

Chrome alloys have a higher modulus of elasticity D


therefore less Ae&ibility.

So in less undercut areas CoCr alloy can be used


but in cases of deep undercut 0rought metal can be
used.

;aterial used for construction(

Gold alloy greater Ae&ibility than chrome alloys @

Disadvantage of cast gold alloys bul4 of the


prosthesis costly.

Chrome alloys have a higher modulus of elasticity D


therefore less Ae&ibility.

So in less undercut areas CoCr alloy can be used


but in cases of deep undercut 0rought metal can be
used.
Relati&e unifor!ity of
retention:
Relati&e unifor!ity of
retention:
,.Retention on all principal a"ut!ents sould
"e as e-ual as possi"le.
..Retenti&e clasp ar!s sould "e located so
tat tey lie in te sa!e approx.. De$ree of
undercut on eac a"ut!ent toot.
/.Retenti&e clasp positionin$ sould also "e
sa!e on te contralateral side of arc.
0atleast for one teet1.
,.Retention on all principal a"ut!ents sould
"e as e-ual as possi"le.
..Retenti&e clasp ar!s sould "e located so
tat tey lie in te sa!e approx.. De$ree of
undercut on eac a"ut!ent toot.
/.Retenti&e clasp positionin$ sould also "e
sa!e on te contralateral side of arc.
0atleast for one teet1.
Support Support

'upport is the "uality of a clasp assembly


that resists displacement of a prosthesis in an
apical direction$

Provided by occlusal rest.


!. A properly prepared rest seat and corresponding rest serve
to resist displacement of the prosthesis to0ard the
supporting teeth and soft tissues@ thereby ensuring that the
clasp assembly maintains its intended relation to the
abutment@ and
". $ransmit functional forces parallel to the long a&es of the
abutments.

'upport is the "uality of a clasp assembly


that resists displacement of a prosthesis in an
apical direction$

Provided by occlusal rest.


!. A properly prepared rest seat and corresponding rest serve
to resist displacement of the prosthesis to0ard the
supporting teeth and soft tissues@ thereby ensuring that the
clasp assembly maintains its intended relation to the
abutment@ and
". $ransmit functional forces parallel to the long a&es of the
abutments.
Sta"ili2ation. Sta"ili2ation.

'tability is the "uality of a clasp assembly that


resists displacement of a prosthesis in a
hori(ontal direction$

)t helps the denture be steady constant *rm and


resist displacement due to function stresses and
also prevent change in position of the denture$

)t is provided by :-
!. 'eciprocal element.
". $he shoulder1s2 of a cast circumferential retentive
clasp.
#. Kertically oriented minor connectors.

'tability is the "uality of a clasp assembly that


resists displacement of a prosthesis in a
hori(ontal direction$

)t helps the denture be steady constant *rm and


resist displacement due to function stresses and
also prevent change in position of the denture$

)t is provided by :-
!. 'eciprocal element.
". $he shoulder1s2 of a cast circumferential retentive
clasp.
#. Kertically oriented minor connectors.
Reciprocation Reciprocation

eciprocation is the "uality of a clasp assembly that


counteracts lateral displacement of an abutment #hen the
retentive clasp terminus passes over the height of contour$

As the retentive arm passes over the height of contour it Ae&es


creating lateral forces damage to the tooth.

$he reciprocal element may be a


!. 'etentive arm of clasp
". :ingual plating@
#. Combination of mesial and distal minor connectors.

eciprocation is the "uality of a clasp assembly that


counteracts lateral displacement of an abutment #hen the
retentive clasp terminus passes over the height of contour$

As the retentive arm passes over the height of contour it Ae&es


creating lateral forces damage to the tooth.

$he reciprocal element may be a


!. 'etentive arm of clasp
". :ingual plating@
#. Combination of mesial and distal minor connectors.
(oints to "e re!e!"ered #ile
pro&idin$ reciprocation
(oints to "e re!e!"ered #ile
pro&idin$ reciprocation
!. $o optimi<e reciprocation@ the a&ial surface of an
abutment should be prepared parallel to the path of
insertion and removal.
". It should be placed above the height of contour.
#. $o provide true reciprocation@ the reciprocal clasp
arm must be in contact during the entire period of
retentive clasp deformation.
!. $o optimi<e reciprocation@ the a&ial surface of an
abutment should be prepared parallel to the path of
insertion and removal.
". It should be placed above the height of contour.
#. $o provide true reciprocation@ the reciprocal clasp
arm must be in contact during the entire period of
retentive clasp deformation.
Encircle!ent. Encircle!ent.

+ncirclement is the characteristic of a clasp assembly that


prevents movement of an abutment a#ay from the associated
clasp assembly$

Clasp assembly !9. degrees contact.

+ncirclement is the characteristic of a clasp assembly that


prevents movement of an abutment a#ay from the associated
clasp assembly$

Clasp assembly !9. degrees contact.

$he engagement can be in the form of continuous


contact@ such as circumferential clasp@ or
discontinuous contact@ such as Bar clasp.

Both provide tooth contact in at least # areas


encircling the tooth)

$he engagement can be in the form of continuous


contact@ such as circumferential clasp@ or
discontinuous contact@ such as Bar clasp.

Both provide tooth contact in at least # areas


encircling the tooth)
(assi&ity. (assi&ity.

Passivity is the "uality of a clasp assembly


that prevents the transmission of adverse
forces to the associated abutment #hen the
prosthesis is completely seated$

*hen fully seated it should be passive.

Should be activated only 0hen dislodging forces are


applied.

Passivity is the "uality of a clasp assembly


that prevents the transmission of adverse
forces to the associated abutment #hen the
prosthesis is completely seated$

*hen fully seated it should be passive.

Should be activated only 0hen dislodging forces are


applied.
Oter principles Oter principles
!. 'etentive clasp element should al0ays be placed on facial
surface of tooth.1mainly in premolars2
". nly one retentive element should be used per tooth
opposed by a reciprocal element.
#. Clasp retainers on the abutment adBacent to distal
e&tension bases should be designed so they 0ill avoid
direct transmission of tipping D rotational forces to the
abutment.
I. $he path of escapement for each retentive clasp terminal
must be other than parallel to the path of removal for the
prosthesis to re6uire clasp engagement 0ith resistance to
deformation.
!. 'etentive clasp element should al0ays be placed on facial
surface of tooth.1mainly in premolars2
". nly one retentive element should be used per tooth
opposed by a reciprocal element.
#. Clasp retainers on the abutment adBacent to distal
e&tension bases should be designed so they 0ill avoid
direct transmission of tipping D rotational forces to the
abutment.
I. $he path of escapement for each retentive clasp terminal
must be other than parallel to the path of removal for the
prosthesis to re6uire clasp engagement 0ith resistance to
deformation.
CRITERIA 3OR C4AS(
SE4ECTION
CRITERIA 3OR C4AS(
SE4ECTION

Survey line

'e6uirements of retention and stability


depending on the number@ confguration of
edentulous areas.

?ature of support

'oot si<e and form

%sthetics

Presence of e&cessive tissue undercut

ral hygiene and patient a0areness

Survey line

'e6uirements of retention and stability


depending on the number@ confguration of
edentulous areas.

?ature of support

'oot si<e and form

%sthetics

Presence of e&cessive tissue undercut

ral hygiene and patient a0areness


Cast
circu!ferential
clasp.
Cast
circu!ferential
clasp.

8irst proposed by Dr ? B ?ebbit.


:ater modifed by Dr Pol4 % A4er.

Simple and easy to construct

:arge amount of tooth surface that


is covered by the clasp assembly
leads to enamel decalcifcation.

8irst proposed by Dr ? B ?ebbit.


:ater modifed by Dr Pol4 % A4er.

Simple and easy to construct

:arge amount of tooth surface that


is covered by the clasp assembly
leads to enamel decalcifcation.
Design rules.. Design rules..
!. $he clasp should arise from the main body of the
clasp assembly above the height of contour. $he
retentive arm should e&tend cervically and
circumferentially in a gently arcing manner.
". All the components of the C clasp should be present
above the height of contour e&cept the retentive tip.
#. $he retentive terminus should al0ays be directed
to0ards the occlusal surface never to0ards the
gingiva.
I. It should al0ays terminate at the mesial or distal line
angle never at midfacial or midlingual surface.
!. $he clasp should arise from the main body of the
clasp assembly above the height of contour. $he
retentive arm should e&tend cervically and
circumferentially in a gently arcing manner.
". All the components of the C clasp should be present
above the height of contour e&cept the retentive tip.
#. $he retentive terminus should al0ays be directed
to0ards the occlusal surface never to0ards the
gingiva.
I. It should al0ays terminate at the mesial or distal line
angle never at midfacial or midlingual surface.
F. $he retentive arm should be positioned as far
apically on the abutment as is practical.1not
impinging the gingiva2
/. Special considerations in case of distal e&tension
case()

A cast circumferential clasp should not be used to engage ,a-


the mesiofacial surface of an abutment adBacent to a
posterior edentulous space or

the distofacial surface of an abutment adBacent to an


e&tensive anterior edentulous space.
F. $he retentive arm should be positioned as far
apically on the abutment as is practical.1not
impinging the gingiva2
/. Special considerations in case of distal e&tension
case()

A cast circumferential clasp should not be used to engage ,a-


the mesiofacial surface of an abutment adBacent to a
posterior edentulous space or

the distofacial surface of an abutment adBacent to an


e&tensive anterior edentulous space.
Si!ple circlet clasp. Si!ple circlet clasp.

It is one of the most commonly


used clasps retentive and
stabili<ing ability.

$he basic design consist of


!. buccal retentive arm and
". a lingual reciprocal arm
originating from a common body.
#. cclusal rest.

*ith retentive arm proBecting


a0ay from the edentulous space.

It is one of the most commonly


used clasps retentive and
stabili<ing ability.

$he basic design consist of


!. buccal retentive arm and
". a lingual reciprocal arm
originating from a common body.
#. cclusal rest.

*ith retentive arm proBecting


a0ay from the edentulous space.

Advantages()
!. 8ulfls the design re6uirements of support@ stability@
reciprocation@ encirclement@ and passivity.
". Its uncomplicated design features ma4e it easy to
construct and relatively simple to repair.

Disadvantages()
!. If used in distal e&tension base due to fulcrum rotation
of the clasp it can cause damage to teeth.
". Can increase the circumference of teeth and lead to
food accumulation and decalcifcation.

Advantages()
!. 8ulfls the design re6uirements of support@ stability@
reciprocation@ encirclement@ and passivity.
". Its uncomplicated design features ma4e it easy to
construct and relatively simple to repair.

Disadvantages()
!. If used in distal e&tension base due to fulcrum rotation
of the clasp it can cause damage to teeth.
". Can increase the circumference of teeth and lead to
food accumulation and decalcifcation.
Re&erse circlet clasp Re&erse circlet clasp

7sed 0hen undercut is located at the facial distoangle


adBacent to an edentulous space.

Desi$n

It consists of a mesial occlusal rest@ a hori<ontal reciprocal


arm@ and a retentive arm engaging the distobuccal undercut
adBacent to the edentulous area.

Ad&anta$es:-

Decreases the harmful stresses to teeth.

Disad&anta$es:-

*ee4 clasp if suLcient preparation is not done.

Poor aestheticsM if used in premolars and cuspids.

7sed 0hen undercut is located at the facial distoangle


adBacent to an edentulous space.

Desi$n

It consists of a mesial occlusal rest@ a hori<ontal reciprocal


arm@ and a retentive arm engaging the distobuccal undercut
adBacent to the edentulous area.

Ad&anta$es:-

Decreases the harmful stresses to teeth.

Disad&anta$es:-

*ee4 clasp if suLcient preparation is not done.

Poor aestheticsM if used in premolars and cuspids.


5ultiple circlet clasp: 5ultiple circlet clasp:

A multiple circlet clasp design involves t0o simple


circlet clasps Boined at the terminal aspects of their
reciprocal elements.

7sed in periodontally 0ee4end teeth to splint them

Disadvantages are same as circlet clasp.

A multiple circlet clasp design involves t0o simple


circlet clasps Boined at the terminal aspects of their
reciprocal elements.

7sed in periodontally 0ee4end teeth to splint them

Disadvantages are same as circlet clasp.


E!"rasure clasp E!"rasure clasp

Also 4no0n as the Bon0ill


clasp.

fabrication of unmodifed
Class II or Class III partial
denture situationC

0hen there are no


edentulous spaces available
on the opposite side of the
arch to aid in clasping.

Also 4no0n as the Bon0ill


clasp.

fabrication of unmodifed
Class II or Class III partial
denture situationC

0hen there are no


edentulous spaces available
on the opposite side of the
arch to aid in clasping.

Design()

Double occlusal rests@ t0o retentive clasp arms and


the t0o reciprocal clasp arms either bilaterally or
diagonally opposed.

Prevent interpro&imal 0edging by the prosthesis@


0hich could cause separation of the abutment tooth
and result in food impaction and clasp
displacement.

In addition to providing support@ occlusal rests also


serve to shunt food a0ay from the contact area.

Disadvantages()

Improper clearance can give rise thin section of


clasp leading to brea4age.

Design()

Double occlusal rests@ t0o retentive clasp arms and


the t0o reciprocal clasp arms either bilaterally or
diagonally opposed.

Prevent interpro&imal 0edging by the prosthesis@


0hich could cause separation of the abutment tooth
and result in food impaction and clasp
displacement.

In addition to providing support@ occlusal rests also


serve to shunt food a0ay from the contact area.

Disadvantages()

Improper clearance can give rise thin section of


clasp leading to brea4age.
Rin$ clasp Rin$ clasp

Circumferential clasp encircles


nearly all of the tooth from its
point of origin.

It is usually used 0hen a


pro&imal undercut cannot be
approached by any other means.

In case of tilted molars

A support strut is provided on


the non retentive arm.

Circumferential clasp encircles


nearly all of the tooth from its
point of origin.

It is usually used 0hen a


pro&imal undercut cannot be
approached by any other means.

In case of tilted molars

A support strut is provided on


the non retentive arm.

Advantages()

Provides ade6uate
encirclement.

e&cellent retention 0ith


ade6uate Ae&ibility due to
increased length of clasp
arm

Disadvantages()

Decalcifcation of teeth

Increased occlusal table.

Poor structure of clasp.

Advantages()

Provides ade6uate
encirclement.

e&cellent retention 0ith


ade6uate Ae&ibility due to
increased length of clasp
arm

Disadvantages()

Decalcifcation of teeth

Increased occlusal table.

Poor structure of clasp.


6airpin clasp or re&erse action
or fs oo7 clasp
6airpin clasp or re&erse action
or fs oo7 clasp

A simple circlet clasp in 0hich the


retentive arm loops bac4 to engage an
undercut apical to the point of origin.

7sed 0hen a distofacial undercut is


present adBacent to the edentulous
space.

'etentive arm has t0o hori<ontal


components.
!. $he occlusal portion minor connector and
must be rigid.
". $he apical portion pass over the height of
contour to engage the desired undercut.

A simple circlet clasp in 0hich the


retentive arm loops bac4 to engage an
undercut apical to the point of origin.

7sed 0hen a distofacial undercut is


present adBacent to the edentulous
space.

'etentive arm has t0o hori<ontal


components.
!. $he occlusal portion minor connector and
must be rigid.
". $he apical portion pass over the height of
contour to engage the desired undercut.

Consideration()

SuLcient clinical cro0n height.

Space bet0een occlusal and apical arm.

cclusal arm shouldn+t interfere 0ithin the occlusion

$his clasp is indicated 0hen the


!. soft tissue contour precludes use of a bar)type
clasp and
". 0hen the reverse circlet cannot be considered
because of a lac4 of occlusal clearance.

Consideration()

SuLcient clinical cro0n height.

Space bet0een occlusal and apical arm.

cclusal arm shouldn+t interfere 0ithin the occlusion

$his clasp is indicated 0hen the


!. soft tissue contour precludes use of a bar)type
clasp and
". 0hen the reverse circlet cannot be considered
because of a lac4 of occlusal clearance.

6alf and alf clasp

It consists of a circumferential retentive arm arising from


one direction and a reciprocal arm arising from another.

used only for unilateral partial denture design.

Co!"ination clasp

Given by C Applegate.

$his type of clasp consists of a 0rought 0ire retentive clasp


arm and a cast reciprocal clasp arm.

*rought retentive arm is circular in cross section.

7sed in deep undercut case.

6alf and alf clasp

It consists of a circumferential retentive arm arising from


one direction and a reciprocal arm arising from another.

used only for unilateral partial denture design.

Co!"ination clasp

Given by C Applegate.

$his type of clasp consists of a 0rought 0ire retentive clasp


arm and a cast reciprocal clasp arm.

*rought retentive arm is circular in cross section.

7sed in deep undercut case.


Onlay clasp:- Onlay clasp:-

Indicated 0hen the occlusal surface of the


abutment lies noticeably apical to the occlusal
plane.

occlusal surfaces of the abutments are covered


0ith cro0ns clasp arms arises

It establishes the occlusal plane.

Indicated in caries free individual.

cclusal surface should be restored 0ith gold


acrylic inserts.

Indicated 0hen the occlusal surface of the


abutment lies noticeably apical to the occlusal
plane.

occlusal surfaces of the abutments are covered


0ith cro0ns clasp arms arises

It establishes the occlusal plane.

Indicated in caries free individual.

cclusal surface should be restored 0ith gold


acrylic inserts.
Infra"ul$e clasp8"ar
clasp8roac clasp.
Infra"ul$e clasp8"ar
clasp8roac clasp.

Populari<ed by %0ing 'oach in !-#.


called it the Bar Clasp.

An infrabulge clasp approaches the


undercut region of an abutment from
an apical direction.

Push type retention.

8le&ibility of clasp from length and


taper.

;ore aesthetic than c clasp.

%& () y clasp@ t clasp@ I clasp.

Populari<ed by %0ing 'oach in !-#.


called it the Bar Clasp.

An infrabulge clasp approaches the


undercut region of an abutment from
an apical direction.

Push type retention.

8le&ibility of clasp from length and


taper.

;ore aesthetic than c clasp.

%& () y clasp@ t clasp@ I clasp.


Desi$n rules9 Desi$n rules9
!. $he approach arm of an infrabulge clasp must not
impinge on the soft tissues adBacent to the abutment.
". $he approach arm should cross perpendicular to the
free gingival margin. It shouldn+t impinge the
underlying gingiva.
#. Shouldn+t be used in area of tissue undercut.
I. 7niform length and ade6uate taper should be given
for suLcient Ae&ibility.
F. $he clasp terminus tip should be placed as apical as
possible on the abutment teeth.
!. $he approach arm of an infrabulge clasp must not
impinge on the soft tissues adBacent to the abutment.
". $he approach arm should cross perpendicular to the
free gingival margin. It shouldn+t impinge the
underlying gingiva.
#. Shouldn+t be used in area of tissue undercut.
I. 7niform length and ade6uate taper should be given
for suLcient Ae&ibility.
F. $he clasp terminus tip should be placed as apical as
possible on the abutment teeth.
T clasp T clasp

?ame is from the shape of the


retentive terminal.

7sed in class ! and class " situation.

distofacial undercut is seen.

$he retentive terminal consist of


hori<ontal t0o proBection the one on
the distal side engages the undercut
and the one on the mesial side is
above the height of contour.

$ clasp is contraindicated 0hen the


height of contour is at the occlusal
one thirds.

?ame is from the shape of the


retentive terminal.

7sed in class ! and class " situation.

distofacial undercut is seen.

$he retentive terminal consist of


hori<ontal t0o proBection the one on
the distal side engages the undercut
and the one on the mesial side is
above the height of contour.

$ clasp is contraindicated 0hen the


height of contour is at the occlusal
one thirds.

In modifed t clasp the non retentive


arm is absent.

N clasp is similar to t clasp 0ith the


approach arm ending cervical to the
retentive arm.

I clasp lac4 the hori<ontal retentive


arms but only a hori<ontal retentive tip.

nly the retentive tip contacts the


abutment surface only at the undercut
region.

$he amount of contact is about " to


#mm in height and !.F mm in 0idth.

In modifed t clasp the non retentive


arm is absent.

N clasp is similar to t clasp 0ith the


approach arm ending cervical to the
retentive arm.

I clasp lac4 the hori<ontal retentive


arms but only a hori<ontal retentive tip.

nly the retentive tip contacts the


abutment surface only at the undercut
region.

$he amount of contact is about " to


#mm in height and !.F mm in 0idth.
Oter types of clasp
pilosopies.
Oter types of clasp
pilosopies.

'PI@

'PA

DeKan+s Clasp

K',' clasp or Grasso clasp

%uipose clasp

'PI@

'PA

DeKan+s Clasp

K',' clasp or Grasso clasp

%uipose clasp
R(I concept. R(I concept.

'PI stands for 'est Pro&imal plate I bar.

Introduced by :ratoc&il in !-/# it consisted of


three di=erent parts connected to the metal
frame0or4.

;esial occlusal rest@ a distal guide plan@ and an I


bar retainer.

$he guide plan contacts the full length of the of


the pro&imal surface of the tooth.

'PI stands for 'est Pro&imal plate I bar.

Introduced by :ratoc&il in !-/# it consisted of


three di=erent parts connected to the metal
frame0or4.

;esial occlusal rest@ a distal guide plan@ and an I


bar retainer.

$he guide plan contacts the full length of the of


the pro&imal surface of the tooth.

$his design had certain basic disadvantages(

Physiologic relief 0as re6uired to prevent


impingement of gingival tissues during function.

Since the pro&imal plate covers a greater


surface area of the tooth@ the functional forces
are directed in the hori<ontal direction@ thus the
tooth is located more than the edentulous ridge.

$his design had certain basic disadvantages(

Physiologic relief 0as re6uired to prevent


impingement of gingival tissues during function.

Since the pro&imal plate covers a greater


surface area of the tooth@ the functional forces
are directed in the hori<ontal direction@ thus the
tooth is located more than the edentulous ridge.

:rol in !-O# made certain modifcations in the


design under the Pminimal coverage criteriaQ

'est preparations are less e&tensive in the 'PI


system.

'ests e&tend only into the triangular fossa@ even


in molar preparations@ and canine rest

")#mm guide plane in 0hich only !mm contact


0as seen from the guide plate.

:rol in !-O# made certain modifcations in the


design under the Pminimal coverage criteriaQ

'est preparations are less e&tensive in the 'PI


system.

'ests e&tend only into the triangular fossa@ even


in molar preparations@ and canine rest

")#mm guide plane in 0hich only !mm contact


0as seen from the guide plate.
Arthur 3rol RPD !-O#C"#CI.9)I!F
%ASIC (RINCI(4ES O3 R(I
CONCE(T
%ASIC (RINCI(4ES O3 R(I
CONCE(T

$he mesiobuccal rest 0ith the minor connector is


placed into the mesiolingual embrasure@ but not
contacting the adBacent tooth.

A distal guiding plane@ e&tending from the marginal


ridge to the Bunction of the middle and gingival thirds
of the abutment tooth@ is prepared to receive a
pro&imal plate

$he mesiobuccal rest 0ith the minor connector is


placed into the mesiolingual embrasure@ but not
contacting the adBacent tooth.

A distal guiding plane@ e&tending from the marginal


ridge to the Bunction of the middle and gingival thirds
of the abutment tooth@ is prepared to receive a
pro&imal plate

$he pro&imal plate in conBunction 0ith the mesial


occlusal rest and minor connector provides the
stabili<ing and reciprocal aspects of the clasp
assembly.

$he I)bar contributes to the retentive aspect and


should be located in the gingival third of the buccal or
labial surface of the abutment in ...! inch undercut.

$he pro&imal plate in conBunction 0ith the mesial


occlusal rest and minor connector provides the
stabili<ing and reciprocal aspects of the clasp
assembly.

$he I)bar contributes to the retentive aspect and


should be located in the gingival third of the buccal or
labial surface of the abutment in ...! inch undercut.
Tree di;erent
approaces to R(I clasp
Tree di;erent
approaces to R(I clasp

$hese approaches are based on the location


of pro&imal plate @location of the I bar

$hese approaches are based on the location


of pro&imal plate @location of the I bar
R(A clasps R(A clasps

$he rest)pro&imal plate)A4er+s clasp 0as


developed and described by %liason in !-9#.

It consists of a mesial occlusal rest@ pro&imal


plate and a circumferential clasp arm@ 0hich
arises from the superior portion of the pro&imal
plate and e&tends around the tooth to engage
the mesial undercut.

$he rest)pro&imal plate)A4er+s clasp 0as


developed and described by %liason in !-9#.

It consists of a mesial occlusal rest@ pro&imal


plate and a circumferential clasp arm@ 0hich
arises from the superior portion of the pro&imal
plate and e&tends around the tooth to engage
the mesial undercut.
De <AN C4AS( De <AN C4AS(

Also called as the mirror vie0 clasp

$0o occlusal rest on the lingual side of the


teeth.

Also called as the mirror vie0 clasp

$0o occlusal rest on the lingual side of the


teeth.
;.;.DeKan RPD !-FFCF@".9)!I
<R6R Clasp <R6R Clasp

$he vertical reciprocal hori<ontal retentive arm


concept 0as developed by Grasso in !-9. and is
characteri<ed by(

A distal occlusal rest supported by a minor connector.

A lingual vertical reciprocal component originating from


the maBor connector.

A hori<ontal retentive arm attached to either the maBor


connector or the retention lattice0or4 for the denture
base.

$he vertical reciprocal hori<ontal retentive arm


concept 0as developed by Grasso in !-9. and is
characteri<ed by(

A distal occlusal rest supported by a minor connector.

A lingual vertical reciprocal component originating from


the maBor connector.

A hori<ontal retentive arm attached to either the maBor


connector or the retention lattice0or4 for the denture
base.
Roseph Grasso RPD !-9.@I#C/!9)"!
E-uipoise clasp E-uipoise clasp

Proposed by R. R. Goodman in !--.@ it is an esthetic retentive


concept for distal e&tension situations.

'ests are placed a0ay from edentulous span. Kertical inter)


pro&imal reduction of ! mm bet0een abutment and adBacent
tooth is done.

ptional bucco)lingual retentive groove at mid and gingival


third Bunction on distal surface of abutment tooth is provided.

Proposed by R. R. Goodman in !--.@ it is an esthetic retentive


concept for distal e&tension situations.

'ests are placed a0ay from edentulous span. Kertical inter)


pro&imal reduction of ! mm bet0een abutment and adBacent
tooth is done.

ptional bucco)lingual retentive groove at mid and gingival


third Bunction on distal surface of abutment tooth is provided.
Suintessence Int. !--/
;ayC"O1F2(###)I..

;etal free)
!. ?atural)Ae&
". ptiAe&
#. ProAe& clear 0ire
I. Kalplast
F. Cu)sil

;etal free)
!. ?atural)Ae&
". ptiAe&
#. ProAe& clear 0ire
I. Kalplast
F. Cu)sil
Occlusally and $in$i&ally
approacin$ clasps:
Relati&e !erits and de!erits
Occlusally and $in$i&ally
approacin$ clasps:
Relati&e !erits and de!erits
%ar clasp
$he bar clasp approaches
the undercut from belo0 the
height of contour pushes
to0ards the occlusal surface
abutment tooth
%asier to seat and more
diLcult to remove
%ar clasp
$he bar clasp approaches
the undercut from belo0 the
height of contour pushes
to0ards the occlusal surface
abutment tooth
%asier to seat and more
diLcult to remove
Circu!ferential clasp
Above the height of
contour
Pulls to0ards the occlusal
surface from the undercut
to resist dislodgement.
Circu!ferential clasp
Above the height of
contour
Pulls to0ards the occlusal
surface from the undercut
to resist dislodgement.
retention
retention
%ar clasp
It is more Ae&ible because
of 0hich it provides less
bracing or stability against
lateral stresses.
%ar clasp
It is more Ae&ible because
of 0hich it provides less
bracing or stability against
lateral stresses.
Circu!ferential clasp
Because of its rigidity it
provides very good
stability or bracing
Circu!ferential clasp
Because of its rigidity it
provides very good
stability or bracing
bracing
bracing
%ar clasp
It allo0s a certain degree of
functional movement of the
distal e&tension base
dissipate the stresses and
lessen the load on the
abutment
%ar clasp
It allo0s a certain degree of
functional movement of the
distal e&tension base
dissipate the stresses and
lessen the load on the
abutment
Circu!ferential clasp
Potential to tor6ue abutment
teeth in distal e&tension
based partial denture
situations.
Circu!ferential clasp
Potential to tor6ue abutment
teeth in distal e&tension
based partial denture
situations.
Stress brea4ing
e=ect
Stress brea4ing
e=ect
%ar clasp
;inimal tooth contact
and less damage to
tooth
%ar clasp
;inimal tooth contact
and less damage to
tooth
Circu!ferential clasp
;ore tooth contact
leading to food
accumulation
Circu!ferential clasp
;ore tooth contact
leading to food
accumulation
Contact 0ith tooth
structure
Contact 0ith tooth
structure
%ar clasp
;inimum relief can
lead to tissue damage
to mucosa under the
approach arm
%ar clasp
;inimum relief can
lead to tissue damage
to mucosa under the
approach arm
Circu!ferential clasp
Damage to gingiva can
ta4e place during
improper removal of
clasp
Circu!ferential clasp
Damage to gingiva can
ta4e place during
improper removal of
clasp
Damage to oral
tissues
Damage to oral
tissues
%ar clasp
Kery less metal display
so high aesthetics
%ar clasp
Kery less metal display
so high aesthetics
Circu!ferential clasp
Increased metal display
so poor %sthetics.
Circu!ferential clasp
Increased metal display
so poor %sthetics.
%sthetics
%sthetics
I?$'AC'?A:
'%$AI?%'ST
precision
attachments
I?$'AC'?A:
'%$AI?%'ST
precision
attachments

$he intracoronal retainer is usually regarded as an


internal attachment or precision attachment.

Defnition()
A retainer consisting of a metal receptacle
(matrix) and a closely ftting part (patrix); the
matrix is usually contained within the normal or
expanded contours of the crown on the
abutment tooth and the patrix is attached to a
pontic or the removable partial denture
framework.

$he intracoronal retainer is usually regarded as an


internal attachment or precision attachment.

Defnition()
A retainer consisting of a metal receptacle
(matrix) and a closely ftting part (patrix); the
matrix is usually contained within the normal or
expanded contours of the crown on the
abutment tooth and the patrix is attached to a
pontic or the removable partial denture
framework.

INDICATIONS

INDICATIONS

$o provide movable Boint in 'emovable


Bridge0or4@ f&ed removable bridges.

$o stabili<e unilateral saddles.

Pier abutments.

$itled molars. 8.P.DMs in severely misaligned


abutments.

7se in ver dentures 1di=erent forms of retainer


are bar@ telescopic@ use of au&illary attachments2.

8i&ed removable implant restorations.

$o provide movable Boint in 'emovable


Bridge0or4@ f&ed removable bridges.

$o stabili<e unilateral saddles.

Pier abutments.

$itled molars. 8.P.DMs in severely misaligned


abutments.

7se in ver dentures 1di=erent forms of retainer


are bar@ telescopic@ use of au&illary attachments2.

8i&ed removable implant restorations.

4I5ITATIONS 4I5ITATIONS
!. :arge pulp si<e 0hich is usually related to the
age of patient.
". :ength of the clinical cro0n@ not used in short
or abraded teeth.1/mm cro0n2
#. %&pensive
I. Distal e&tension denture bases.
!. :arge pulp si<e 0hich is usually related to the
age of patient.
". :ength of the clinical cro0n@ not used in short
or abraded teeth.1/mm cro0n2
#. %&pensive
I. Distal e&tension denture bases.
AD<ANTA>ES AD<ANTA>ES
!. %sthetically acceptable@ because not much of metal
display li4e e&tracoronal retainers.
". It is preferred in many of the situation because of its
vertical support through a rest seat located more
favorable to the hori<ontal a&is of the abutment tooth.
!. %sthetically acceptable@ because not much of metal
display li4e e&tracoronal retainers.
". It is preferred in many of the situation because of its
vertical support through a rest seat located more
favorable to the hori<ontal a&is of the abutment tooth.
#. Stimulation to the underlying tissues greater
0hen internal attachment are used because of
the intermittent vertical massage.
I. It permits proper tooth form to be maintained and
allo0s for control of vertical@ mesiodistal and
buccolingual displacement of the prosthesis.
#. Stimulation to the underlying tissues greater
0hen internal attachment are used because of
the intermittent vertical massage.
I. It permits proper tooth form to be maintained and
allo0s for control of vertical@ mesiodistal and
buccolingual displacement of the prosthesis.
F. It provides for e&cellent retention of the
prosthesis on account of frictional resistance
bet0een opposing parallel vertical 0alls that
serve to limit movement and resist removal of
the partial denture.
F. It provides for e&cellent retention of the
prosthesis on account of frictional resistance
bet0een opposing parallel vertical 0alls that
serve to limit movement and resist removal of
the partial denture.
Disad&anta$es of intra
coronal retainers
Disad&anta$es of intra
coronal retainers
!. $hey re6uire preparation of abutment tooth
and casting.
". DiLcult clinical and laboratory procedure.
#. $hey eventually 0ear@ result in loss of
frictional resistance to denture removal.
!. $hey re6uire preparation of abutment tooth
and casting.
". DiLcult clinical and laboratory procedure.
#. $hey eventually 0ear@ result in loss of
frictional resistance to denture removal.
?. DiLcult to repair and replace.
@. $hey are e=ective in longer teeth and least
e=ective in shorter teeth.
A. DiLcult to place completely in the
abutment teeth.
?. DiLcult to repair and replace.
@. $hey are e=ective in longer teeth and least
e=ective in shorter teeth.
A. DiLcult to place completely in the
abutment teeth.
5ATERIA4 O3 C6OICE 5ATERIA4 O3 C6OICE

Pt@ Iridoplatinum@ Gold and Pt@ Gold and Pd.

$ype III and IK type of gold is to be used for


cro0n castings.

Base metal alloys are also used no0 a days


as lo0 cost

" alternate 0ays to construct cro0n and


rest seat.

'est seat may be cast against the full coverage


restoration

'est seat may be soldered into place.

Pt@ Iridoplatinum@ Gold and Pt@ Gold and Pd.

$ype III and IK type of gold is to be used for


cro0n castings.

Base metal alloys are also used no0 a days


as lo0 cost

" alternate 0ays to construct cro0n and


rest seat.

'est seat may be cast against the full coverage


restoration

'est seat may be soldered into place.


Classifcation Classifcation
Classifcation by Good 3ind and Ba4er in !-O/ (
!2Intra coronal
a. resilient
b. non resilient
Classifcation by Good 3ind and Ba4er in !-O/ (
!2Intra coronal
a. resilient
b. non resilient

Intracoronal retainers

8rictional resistance.

$apered and parallel)0alled bo&ed and tubes.

AdBustable metal plates

Springs

Studs(

:oc4s

;agnetic resistance.

Intracoronal retainers

8rictional resistance.

$apered and parallel)0alled bo&ed and tubes.

AdBustable metal plates

Springs

Studs(

:oc4s

;agnetic resistance.
6o# To Coose An
Attac!entB
6o# To Coose An
Attac!entB

It is the length of attachment@ not its 0idth that is main


criteria in choosing attachments.

8or each length there are # di=erent si<es 10idth2 of precision


attachments 1anterior@ bicuspid@ molar.2

*idth is measured from one side of rest to other.

8ull length of a precision attachment is 9 mm for full beneft of


bracing@ support and retention a minimal of Fmm height is must.

$his means that the clinical length of cro0n must be at least O


mm so as to accommodate an attachment of Fmm and in
addition a minimum of "mm bet0een the gingival Aoor of
attachment and gingival margin.

ther0ise a periodontal problem may be created.

It is the length of attachment@ not its 0idth that is main


criteria in choosing attachments.

8or each length there are # di=erent si<es 10idth2 of precision


attachments 1anterior@ bicuspid@ molar.2

*idth is measured from one side of rest to other.

8ull length of a precision attachment is 9 mm for full beneft of


bracing@ support and retention a minimal of Fmm height is must.

$his means that the clinical length of cro0n must be at least O


mm so as to accommodate an attachment of Fmm and in
addition a minimum of "mm bet0een the gingival Aoor of
attachment and gingival margin.

ther0ise a periodontal problem may be created.


(recision attac!ent
selection
(recision attac!ent
selection

3ennedy+s class I and class II partially


edentulous arches

$he most diLcult type of treatment plan.

Some practitioners advocate non rigid and resilient attachments


and some advocate resilient attachment in distal e&tension to
minimi<e rotation and tor6uing of the abutment tooth@ 0hen the
components of an attachment are rigidly connected.

3ennedy+s class I and class II partially


edentulous arches

$he most diLcult type of treatment plan.

Some practitioners advocate non rigid and resilient attachments


and some advocate resilient attachment in distal e&tension to
minimi<e rotation and tor6uing of the abutment tooth@ 0hen the
components of an attachment are rigidly connected.
Int R Prosthodont. !--. ;ar)
AprC#1"2(!/-)OI

Another philosophy @ 4no0n as the stable base precision


attachment 'PD concept or Aoating denture base
concept recommends incorporation of rigid internal
attachments and a cast metal base made from
mucostatic impression of the residual ridge.

$he male portion of the attachment is connected to the


denture base @ allo0ing the complete seating 0ithin the
abutment.

Another philosophy @ 4no0n as the stable base precision


attachment 'PD concept or Aoating denture base
concept recommends incorporation of rigid internal
attachments and a cast metal base made from
mucostatic impression of the residual ridge.

$he male portion of the attachment is connected to the


denture base @ allo0ing the complete seating 0ithin the
abutment.

:ennedy)s class III partially edentulous


arc.

'igid internal attachments are recommended .

Provides good retention@ support and bra<ing because of its


rigid interloc4ing components.

If the posterior abutment prognosis is 6uestionable then a


resilient type of attachments are recommended 0ith anterior
abutment.

:ennedy)s class III partially edentulous


arc.

'igid internal attachments are recommended .

Provides good retention@ support and bra<ing because of its


rigid interloc4ing components.

If the posterior abutment prognosis is 6uestionable then a


resilient type of attachments are recommended 0ith anterior
abutment.
:ennedy)s class I<
partially edentulous arc
:ennedy)s class I<
partially edentulous arc

$he ideal 'PD design for such situation


involves the use of a tissue bar placed
close to the edentulous ridge and
connected as a f&ed unit to the
abutment teeth on either side of the
space using cro0ns.

$he ideal 'PD design for such situation


involves the use of a tissue bar placed
close to the edentulous ridge and
connected as a f&ed unit to the
abutment teeth on either side of the
space using cro0ns.
Conclusion Conclusion

!eep the prosthesis design as simple as


possible"

#ake $%& more comfortable' more


e(cient and a)ordable to the patient.

!eep the prosthesis design as simple as


possible"

#ake $%& more comfortable' more


e(cient and a)ordable to the patient.
References References
!. Clinical removable prosthodontics() S$%*A'$+S #
rd
edition
". ;c crac4en removable partial denture prosthodontics J !"
th

edition.
/. Da&enport C.C.D %as7ar R.5.D 6eat C.R.D Ralp C.(. PA
color atlas of 'PDQ@ *olfe ;edical Publications :td.@ !-99.
?. :rol A.C. PClasp design for e&tension base 'PDQ. .$ Prosthet$
Dent$@ !-O#C "- ( I.9)I!F.
F. ;.;.DeKan RPD !-FFCF@".9)!I
/. Roseph Grasso RPD !-9.@I#C/!9)"!
O. Suintessence Int. !--/ ;ayC"O1F2(###)I..
9. Burns D'@ *ard R%. Int R Prosthodont. !--. ;ar)AprC#1"2(!/-)
OI
!. Clinical removable prosthodontics() S$%*A'$+S #
rd
edition
". ;c crac4en removable partial denture prosthodontics J !"
th

edition.
/. Da&enport C.C.D %as7ar R.5.D 6eat C.R.D Ralp C.(. PA
color atlas of 'PDQ@ *olfe ;edical Publications :td.@ !-99.
?. :rol A.C. PClasp design for e&tension base 'PDQ. .$ Prosthet$
Dent$@ !-O#C "- ( I.9)I!F.
F. ;.;.DeKan RPD !-FFCF@".9)!I
/. Roseph Grasso RPD !-9.@I#C/!9)"!
O. Suintessence Int. !--/ ;ayC"O1F2(###)I..
9. Burns D'@ *ard R%. Int R Prosthodont. !--. ;ar)AprC#1"2(!/-)
OI

$han4 you

$han4 you