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FOLDED PLATES

BY ATIA KHURSHEED
FOLDED PLATES
Folded plates are assemblies of flat plates rigidly connected together along their edges
in such a way so as to make the structural system capable of carrying loads without the
need for additional supporting beams along mutual edges.
They consist of flat components,
or plates, that are interconnected
at some dihedral angle, forming a
cross section which is capable of
carrying a load over a long span.
Concrete, steel, timber, etc.

Understanding
the basic
functioning of
folded plates.
The effect of folding plates
can be visualized with a sheet
of paper. A paper deforms
even under its own weight.
Folding the paper adds
strength and stiffness; yet
under heavy loads the folds
may buckle. Securing the
folds at both ends, increases
stability against buckling.
1.Flat paper deforms
under its own weight.

2. Folding paper
increases strength and
stiffness.
3. Paper buckling under heavy
weight.
4. Secured ends help resist
buckling.
FOLDED PLATE BEHAVIOUR
Folded plates combine
slab action with beam
action. In length
direction they act like
thin inclined beams of
great depth, stabilized
against buckling at top
and bottom by adjoining
plates. In width direction
they are one-way slabs
that span between
adjacent plates.

Slab action in width direction.
Slab and beam equivalent.
Beam action in length direction.
A Bending deformation
causes top and bottom
tension.
B Horizontal shear caused
compression and tension
C- Vertical shear is maximum
at supports and zero at mid
span.
FOLDED PLATE BEHAVIOUR
Bending in folded plates
causes top compression
and bottom tension.
Folded plates also tend
to flatten out under
gravity load, which may
be prevented by walls
or frames at end
supports. Tendency of
end buckling can be
resisted by edge
beams.
Bending visualized as external
compression and tension
forces.
Flattened folded
plate under
gravity load.
Folded plate
with walls and
frames to resist
flattening.
Buckled end
panels.
C- Edge beam to stabilize end
panel against buckling.
A- Stabilizing wall at support and,
for long systems, at mid span.
B- Stabilizing frame at support
and, for long systems, at mid
span
Edge panels
stabilized by edge
beams.
A
ADVANTAGES
The distinguishing feature of the folded plate is the ease in forming
plane surfaces. Therefore, they are more adaptable to smaller
areas than curved surfaces which require multiple use of forms for
maximum economy.
A folded plate may be formed for about the same cost as a
horizontal slab and has much less steel and concrete for the same
spans.
Provide strength, stiffness, and stability with minimum weight.
TYPES OF FOLDED PLATES : FOLDING TECHNIQUE
Longitudinal /Prismatic folding:
Longitudinal folding is characterized
through uninterrupted and linked folding
edges where parallel and skew up folds
and down folds alternate
Single-layered longitudinal folding
corresponds in their load bearing structure
to a linear load bearing system.
Double-layered folding with different
directions of their folds can create the
structural condition of the plate.
Spot / facet folding:
Spot or facet folding requires that several folds
intersect like a bunch in one single spot. This
results in pyramidal folds with crystalline or
facet-like planes. Facet folding can either be
based on a triangular shape or on a
quadrangular shape.
A single or double-layered facet folding
resembles the load bearing structure of a
plate and can be compared to space
frameworks.
TYPES OF FOLDED PLATES : PLANE SHAPE
Prismatic
They consist of
rectangular plates.
Pyramidal
When non-rectangular
plates are used.
Others
Prismoidal, triangular or
trapezoidal.
TYPES OF FOLDED PLATES
Single
Multiple.
Symmetrical.
Unsymmetrical.
Simple.
Continuous.


Folded plates with simple joints.
Folded plates with multiple joints.
Folded plates with opened cross
sectional.
Folded plates with closed cross
sectional.


One Edge Fold Two Edge Fold
Twin Fold Folded Roof and Wall
GUNMA MUSIC
CENTER, JAPAN
LOCATION : TAKASAKI, JAPAN
ARCHITECT : ANTOIN RAYMOND
ENGINEER : TSUYASHI OKAMOTO
GUNMA MUSIC CENTER
This Gunma music center for the Gunma Philharmonic Orchestra,
consist of a folded plate concrete roof of 60 m span and folded
plate walls, that form frames to resist gravity and lateral loads.
The architect, a former student of Frank Lloyd Wright at Taliesin
took the challenge to design the center for the following
requirements :
The center had to be fire and earthquake proof
Good acoustics for music center.
Provide for Kabuki performances that required a revolving stage.
The folded plate roof is 3.3 m deep for a span/depth ratio of
1:18. Two wings flanking the stage for meeting and green rooms,
also have folded plate roofs.
TAGORE MEMORIAL
HALL, AHMEDABAD
TAGORE MEMORIAL HALL
A series of rigid frames in reinforced concrete folded plates provide the outer shell to this hall.
Vertical folds are 17m high, increasing in depth from 1.15m at the base to 2.4m at the top with a
constant plate thickness of 15cm.

TAGORE MEMORIAL HALL
Horizontal folds are 2.4m deep and span 33.5m with a plate
thickness of 10cm increasing to 15cm near the supports.
Inside the hall, a 'seating bowl' with a capacity of 700 is
supported on an independent structure.
Sculptural columns and cantilevers of this bowl dominate the
lobby area.
TAGORE MEMORIAL HALL
The hall, located on the banks of
Sabarmati River, is supported on
individual and strip footings resting
on a sandy strata.