Anda di halaman 1dari 14


-Urban Planning


The architecture of Mesopotamia is the ancient architecture of the region of
the TigrisEuphrates river system (also known as Mesopotamia),
encompassing several distinct cultures when the first permanent structures
were built, to the 6th century BC.

Among the Mesopotamian architectural accomplishments are the
development of urban planning, the courtyard house, and ziggurats.

Building materials

Clay Masonry and omplex forms of Stacked Mud Brick.

Adobe-brick was preferred over Vitreous-brick because of its
superior thermal properties and lower manufacturing costs.

Red brick was used in small applications involving water,
decoration, and monumental construction. A late innovation was
glazed vitreous brick.
Sumerian masonry was usually mortarless although bitumen was
sometimes used.
Brick styles, which varied greatly over time, are categorized by
Patzen 804015 cm: Late Uruk period (36003200 BCE)
Riemchen 1616 cm: Late Uruk period (36003200 BCE)
Plano-convex 10x19x34 cm: Early Dynastic Period (31002300 BCE)

Adobe brick
Adobe bricks (mud bricks) are made of earth with a fairly high clay content and
If produced manually the earth mix is cast in open moulds onto the ground and
then left to dry out.
Adobe bricks are only sun-dried, not kiln-fired. When used for construction they
are laid up into a wall using an earth mortar.
Before drying out, the finished walls are smoothed down. Often a clay render is
applied as a surface coating.
The growth of the city was partly planned and partly organic.
Planning is evident in the walls, high temple district, main canal
with harbor, and main street.
The finer structure of residential and commercial spaces is the
reaction of economic forces to the spatial limits imposed by the
planned areas.
The typical city divided space into residential, mixed use,
commercial, and civic spaces.
The residential areas were grouped by profession.

At the core of the city was a high temple complex.
This high temple usually predated the founding of the city and was
the nucleus around which the urban form grew.
The districts adjacent to gates had a special religious and economic

The materials used to build a Mesopotamian house were the same as those used
today: Mud Brick, Mud Plaster and Wooden Doors, which were all naturally
available around the city,

although wood could not be naturally made very well
during the particular time period.
Most houses had a square center room with other rooms attached to it, but a
great variation in the size and materials used to build the houses suggest they
were built by the inhabitants themselves.
Residential design was a direct development from Ubaid houses.

These houses faced inward towards an open courtyard which provided a cooling
effect by creating convection currents.

This courtyard was the primary organizing feature of the house, all the rooms
opened into it.

The external walls were featureless with only a single opening connecting the
house to the street.

Movement between the house and street required a 90 turn through a small

From the street only the rear wall of the antechamber would be visible through an
open door, likewise there was no view of the street from the courtyard.

The Sumerians had a strict division of public and private spaces. The typical size for
a Sumerian house was 90 m
and 5-6m tall.