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# Relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass

## The mole and the number of particles

The mole and the mass of substances
The mole and the volume of gas
Chemical formulae
Chemical equations
Chapter 3
Chemical formulae and
Equations
Relative atomic mass, A
r

Relative atomic mass is the average
mass of one atom of the element
when compared with 1/12 of the mass
of an atom of carbon-12.

Calculation of
Relative atomic Mass
Example 1
Calculate how many times greater is the mass of a
carbon atom compared to that of an helium atom ?
[A
r
: He, 4 ; C, 12]
Example 2
Mass of a sulphur atom is 2 times greater than that of the
mass of an oxygen atom. What is the relative atomic
mass for sulphur? [ A
R
: O,16]

Solution:
Mass of a sulphur atom = 2 x mass of an oxygen atom
A
R
sulphur = 2 x A
R
oxygen
= 2 x 16
= 32

Calculation of
Relative atomic Mass
Example 3
How many magnesium atoms will have the same mass
as two silver atom?
[A
R
: Mg,24 ; Ag,108 ]

Solution:
Let the number of magnesium atom = n
Mass of n magnesium atom = mass of 2 silver atoms
n x 24 = 2 x 108
n = 2 x 108
24
= 9
Calculation of
Relative atomic Mass
Relative Molecular Mass (M
r
)
The relative molecular mass of a substance is the
average mass of a molecule of the substance
when compared with 1/12 of the mass of an atom
of carbon-12

12 carbon of atom an of mass the
12
1
substance of molecule one
of mass average
Mr

Calculation of M
r
and F
r
The term relative molecular mass, M
r
can only
be used for substances that are made up of
molecules.

For ionic compound, the term relative formula
mass, F
r
is used

M
r
or F
r
can be calculated by adding up the
relative atomic masses of all the atoms present in
a molecule of the substance.

Calculation of M
r
or F
r

Example 1:
Calculate the molecular mass of water.
[ A
R
: H,1 ; O, 16]

Solution:
The formula of water is H
2
O
M
r
H
2
O = 2H + O
= 2(1) + 16
= 18
Example 2:
Calculate the relative molecular mass of ammonia.
[ A
R
: N,14 ; H,1 ]
Solution:
Formula of ammonia is NH
3

M
r
of NH
3
= N + 3H
= 14 + 3(1)
= 17
Calculation of M
r
or F
r
Example 3:
Calculate the relative molecular mass of carbon
dioxide.
[A
R
: C, 12 ; O,16 ]

Solution:
The formula of carbon dioxide is CO
2

M
r
CO
2
= C + 2O
= 12 + 2(16)
= 44

Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 4:
Calculate the relative molecular mass of ethanol,
C
2
H
5
OH.
[ A
R
: C, 12; H, 1; O,16 ]

Solution:
M
r
of C
2
H
5
OH = 2C + 5H + O + H
= 2(12) + 5(1) + 16 + 1
= 46

Calculation of Mr or Fr
Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 5:
Calculate the relative molecular mass of sodium
chloride

[ A
R
: Na,23 ; Cl,35.5 ]

Solution:
The formula of sodium chloride is NaCl
A
R
of NaCl = Na + Cl
= 23 + 35.5
= 58.5

Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 6
Calculate the relative molecular mass of aluminium
sulphate.
[ A
R
: Al,27 ; S, 32 ; O,16 ]

Solution:
The formula of aluminium sulphate ialah
Al
2
(SO
4
)
3

M
r
of Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
= 2 Al + 3 SO
4
= 2(27) + 3[ 32 + 4(16) ]
= 342
Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 7:
Calculate the relative molecular mass of hydrated
copper(II)sulphate.
[ A
R
: Cu,64 ; S, 32 ; O,16 ]

Solution:
The formula of hydrated copper (II) sulphate is
CuSO
4
.5H
2
O
F
r
of CuSO
4
. 5H
2
O = Cu + S + 4O + 5H
2
O
= 64 + 32 + 4(16) + 5[2(1) +16]
= 250