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Relative atomic mass and relative molecular mass

The mole and the number of particles


The mole and the mass of substances
The mole and the volume of gas
Chemical formulae
Chemical equations
Chapter 3
Chemical formulae and
Equations
Relative atomic mass, A
r

Relative atomic mass is the average
mass of one atom of the element
when compared with 1/12 of the mass
of an atom of carbon-12.




Calculation of
Relative atomic Mass
Example 1
Calculate how many times greater is the mass of a
carbon atom compared to that of an helium atom ?
[A
r
: He, 4 ; C, 12]
Example 2
Mass of a sulphur atom is 2 times greater than that of the
mass of an oxygen atom. What is the relative atomic
mass for sulphur? [ A
R
: O,16]

Solution:
Mass of a sulphur atom = 2 x mass of an oxygen atom
A
R
sulphur = 2 x A
R
oxygen
= 2 x 16
= 32

Calculation of
Relative atomic Mass
Example 3
How many magnesium atoms will have the same mass
as two silver atom?
[A
R
: Mg,24 ; Ag,108 ]

Solution:
Let the number of magnesium atom = n
Mass of n magnesium atom = mass of 2 silver atoms
n x 24 = 2 x 108
n = 2 x 108
24
= 9
Calculation of
Relative atomic Mass
Relative Molecular Mass (M
r
)
The relative molecular mass of a substance is the
average mass of a molecule of the substance
when compared with 1/12 of the mass of an atom
of carbon-12



12 carbon of atom an of mass the
12
1
substance of molecule one
of mass average
Mr

Calculation of M
r
and F
r
The term relative molecular mass, M
r
can only
be used for substances that are made up of
molecules.

For ionic compound, the term relative formula
mass, F
r
is used

M
r
or F
r
can be calculated by adding up the
relative atomic masses of all the atoms present in
a molecule of the substance.

Calculation of M
r
or F
r

Example 1:
Calculate the molecular mass of water.
[ A
R
: H,1 ; O, 16]

Solution:
The formula of water is H
2
O
M
r
H
2
O = 2H + O
= 2(1) + 16
= 18
Example 2:
Calculate the relative molecular mass of ammonia.
[ A
R
: N,14 ; H,1 ]
Solution:
Formula of ammonia is NH
3

M
r
of NH
3
= N + 3H
= 14 + 3(1)
= 17
Calculation of M
r
or F
r
Example 3:
Calculate the relative molecular mass of carbon
dioxide.
[A
R
: C, 12 ; O,16 ]

Solution:
The formula of carbon dioxide is CO
2

M
r
CO
2
= C + 2O
= 12 + 2(16)
= 44


Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 4:
Calculate the relative molecular mass of ethanol,
C
2
H
5
OH.
[ A
R
: C, 12; H, 1; O,16 ]

Solution:
M
r
of C
2
H
5
OH = 2C + 5H + O + H
= 2(12) + 5(1) + 16 + 1
= 46

Calculation of Mr or Fr
Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 5:
Calculate the relative molecular mass of sodium
chloride

[ A
R
: Na,23 ; Cl,35.5 ]

Solution:
The formula of sodium chloride is NaCl
A
R
of NaCl = Na + Cl
= 23 + 35.5
= 58.5

Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 6
Calculate the relative molecular mass of aluminium
sulphate.
[ A
R
: Al,27 ; S, 32 ; O,16 ]

Solution:
The formula of aluminium sulphate ialah
Al
2
(SO
4
)
3

M
r
of Al
2
(SO
4
)
3
= 2 Al + 3 SO
4
= 2(27) + 3[ 32 + 4(16) ]
= 342
Calculation of Mr or Fr
Example 7:
Calculate the relative molecular mass of hydrated
copper(II)sulphate.
[ A
R
: Cu,64 ; S, 32 ; O,16 ]

Solution:
The formula of hydrated copper (II) sulphate is
CuSO
4
.5H
2
O
F
r
of CuSO
4
. 5H
2
O = Cu + S + 4O + 5H
2
O
= 64 + 32 + 4(16) + 5[2(1) +16]
= 250