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NEMATODES

They are a diverse animal phylum inhabiting a very


broad range of environments. Nematode species
can be difficult to distinguish, and although over
25,000 have been described,

of which more than
half are parasitic, the total number of nematode
species has been estimated to be about 1 million.
Unlike cnidarians and flatworms, nematodes have
tubular digestive systems with openings at both
ends.
roundworms
ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES
-is the largest nematode (roundworm)
parasitizing the human intestine that
can grow up to 35 cm.
It is the most common worm found
in human. It is worldwide in
distribution and most prevalent
through out the tropics, sub-tropics
and more prevalent in the
countryside than in the city.

Males are 24 mm in diameter
and 1531 cm long. The males'
posterior end is curved ventrally
and has a bluntly pointed tail.
Females are 36 mm wide and
2049 cm long.
The lips of Ascaris lumbricoides
The three lips are
seen at the anterior
end. The margin of
each lip is lined with
minute teeth which
are not visible at this
magnification.

Fertilized eggs are oval to round in
shape and are 45-75 micrometers
long and 35-50 micrometers wide
with a thick outer shell. Unfertilized
eggs measure 88-94 micrometers
long and 44 micrometers wide.
Ascaris lumbricoides eggs are
extremely resistant to strong
chemicals, desiccation, and low
temperatures. The eggs can
remain viable in the soil for
several months or even years.
Diagnostic stage: undeveloped eggs
Infective stage: eggs (embryonate in soil)
Method of infection: infective eggs
containing larvae eaten by human. eggs
are passed both fertilized and unfertilized,
remain viable for many months in soil

Epidemiology
World wide distribution, very common in China, especially
in the countryside.
Factors favoring the spread of the transmission:
1. Simple life cycle.
2. Enormous egg production ( 240,000 eggs/ day/ female ).
3. These eggs are highly resistant to ordinary
disinfectants( due to the ascroside). The eggs may
remain viable for several years.
4. Social customs and living habits.
5. Disposal of feces is unsuitable.
ASCARIASIS
Signs and Symptoms:
Most of the time, there are no
symptoms. If there are
symptoms, they may include:
-Bloody sputum
-Cough
-Low-grade fever
-Passing worms in stool
-Shortness of breath
-Skin rash
-Stomach pain
-Vomiting worms
-Wheezing
-Worms exiting through the nose or mouth

Lab. Diagnosis:
Stool tests
Blood tests
Imaging tests
X-ray
Ultrasound
CT Scans
Treatment:
Anti-parasite medications are the first line of
treatment against ascariasis. The most
common are:
-Albendazole (Albenza)
-Ivermectin (Stromectol)
-Mebendazole
In cases of heavy infestation,
surgery may be necessary to repair
damage the worms have caused and
to remove worms. Intestinal
obstruction or perforation, bile
duct obstruction, and appendicitis
are complications that may require
surgery.
Prevention:
The best defense against ascariasis is
good hygiene and common sense.
Practice good hygiene. Ascariasis is
spread by ingesting parasite eggs
from contaminated soil. Before
handling food, always wash your
hands with soap and water, and
wash fresh fruits and vegetables
thoroughly.
Use care when traveling. Ascariasis is
the most common roundworm
infection in the world, with higher
infection rates in developing and
warm-climate countries. When
traveling, use only bottled water and
avoid raw vegetables unless you can
peel and wash them yourself. As a rule,
eat only foods that are hot and
cooked.
1.Sanitary disposal of feces.
2.Hygienic habits such as cleaning
of hands before meals.
3.Health education.
TRICHURIS TIRCHURIA
Adult: the worm looks like a buggy whip,
the anterior 3/5 is slender and the
posterior 2/5 is thick. It is pinkish gray in
color. The female worm is 3-5 cm in
length and has a long slender esophageal
region. The male is smaller than the
female and has a curved tail. The
reproductive organs of male and female
are all double tubule.
Egg: it is barrel or spindle in shape
and 50 x 20m in size. It is
brownish and has a translucent
polar plug at either ends. The
content of the egg is an
undeveloped cell

Adults reside in the large intestine, cecum, and appendix
of the host.
It buries its thin, threadlike anterior half into the intestinal mucosa
and feeds on tissue secretions, not blood.
The cecum and colon are the most commonly infected sites,
in heavily infected individuals, infection can be present in more
distal segments of the GI tract, such as the descending colon and
rectum.

Transmission: fecal-oral via embryonated ova.
Reservoir: mainly human, others possible but
host specificity not well documented.
Epidemiology.
Whipworm infection is more common in less-
developed countries. This parasite is carried by
nearly one quarter of the world population.
Diagnostic stage:
undeveloped eggs
Infective stage: eggs
(embryonate in soil)
Method of infection: infective eggs
containing larvae eaten by human

WHIPWORM INFECTION
Signs and Symptoms:
bloody diarrhea
painful or frequent defecation
abdominal pain
nausea and vomiting
flatulence
headaches
weight loss or malnutrition
iron-deficiency anemia
fecal incontinence (the inability to control
defecation)
rectal prolapse (when the walls of your rectum
protrude from your body)
Lab. Diagnosis:
Stool test
Treatment:
The most common
and effective
treatments for
whipworm infection
are the antiparasitic
medications
albendazole and
mebendazole. You
will need to take the
medication for
between one and
three days. Side
effects are minimal.
The most common and effective
treatments for whipworm infection are
the antiparasitic medications albendazole
and mebendazole. You will need to take
the medication for between one and three
days.
-Avoid contact with soil that may be
contaminated with human feces,
including with human fecal matter
("night soil") used to fertilize crops.
-Wash your hands with soap and warm
water before handling food.
-Teach children the importance of
washing hands to prevent infection.

Prevention: