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Tema Geografi

(Themes in World Geography)










Kuliah Pengantar Geografi Ke : 3-4
Ir. Sawitri subiyanto, Msi.

Apa geografi itu?
Studi tentang variasi spasial (spasial variation)
Bagaimana - dan mengapa ada perbedaan di
satu tempat dan tempat lain di permukaan bumi
(differ from place to place on the surface of the
earth)
Studi tentang bagaimana pola spasial diamati
berkembang melalui waktu (spatial patterns
evolved through time)
What is geography?
Geografi adalah ilmu spasial (Geography is a spatial
science)
Perilaku spasial orang (Spatial behavior of people)
Hubungan spasial antara tempat-tempat (Spatial
relationships between places)
Proses spasial yang menciptakan atau mempertahankan
perilaku tersebut dan hubungannya. (Spatial processes
that create or maintain those behaviors and
relationships)
Spatial variation: predominant religion
(dominasi agama)
Why spatial variation exists: earthquakes
(Mengapa ada variasi spasial : gempa bumi)
Changes over time: deforestation
Perubahan dari waktu ke waktu: deforestasi
Spatial behavior of people: population
HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION
How do humans and the environment affect
each other?
We depend on it.
People depend on the Tennessee River for water and
transportation.
We modify it.
People modify our environment by
heating and cooling buildings for comfort.
We adapt to it.
We adapt to the environment by wearing
clothing suitable for summer (shorts) and
winter (coats), rain and shine.
Spatial relationships between places: trade
Spatial processes: commuting and
urban form
Berpolapikir Geografikal
Menurut definisi yang dikemukakan oleh Morrison (1993):
Geography is the study of space (spacial) in the sence of
position and relationships among positions on the surface of the
planet earth.
Geografi adalah ilmu yang mempelajari ruang (keruangan) yang
mengandung pengertian posisi dan relasinya diantara tempat-
tempat di permukaan planet bumi.
Dari pengertian dan definisi geografi di atas mengemuka
adanya pola pikir spasial (spatial thinking) yang menjadi ciri
khas geografi.
3 Ciri Khas Geografi
Spatial (Keruangan)
Ecological (Kewilayahan)
Regional (Gabungan antara Spatial dan
Ecological)
Prinsip Geografi
Penyebaran/distribusi (semua fenomena tersebar
tidak merata di permukaan bumi)
Interaksi (Hubungan saling kait dalam ruang)
Deskripsi (Geografi senantiasa menjelaskan segala
sesuatu,melalui angka,tabel,grafik,gambar dsb)
Korologi (Gejala yang ditinjau sebarannya dalam
ruang beserta integrasi, interelasi dan interaksinya)
Prasyarat Analisis Spasial
1. Berpola fikir geografikal: understanding
spatial order
2. Memiliki spatial knowledge and spatial
skills
3. Memahami spatial framework
Remote sensing
Peta referensi
Survey dan Pemetaan Basis data SIG
Peta tematis
Pengambilan
Keputusan
Memahami Elemen Spasial
1. Type of spatial objects and features
2. Spatial phenomena
3. Spatial representation
Spatial Knowledge and Skill
Spatial Points
Set of Spatial
Points
Spatial
universe
Spatial Area
Ilustrasi Analisis Spatial
Titik : lokasi / tempat layanan
Garis: jaringan transportasi (jalan,
sungai, garis layanan
transporatsi udara dapat
mempengaruhi alokasi tempat
layanan atau sebaliknya
Area: wilayah layanan jasa/ produk tertentu
untuk segmen pasar pada entitas
wilayah layanan tersebut
Contoh
Garis batas
awal
Kabupaten A
Garis batas
pemekaran Daerah
Tipikal Konflik:
) Konflik antara
pusat dengan
daerah (konflik
vertikal)
Antara Kab A1
dg Kab A2
(konflik
horizontal
Banyak keterkaitan fungsional pembangunan yang terpotong oleh akibat batas admnistrasi baru dan
menimbulkan resiko masalah pengambilan keputusan sampai pelaksanaan di lapangan
sekolah
sekolah
Contoh
Point object Line object Area object 3D object
REAL WORLD PHENOMENA
Point
Line
Polygon
Point object
Point object
Point object
Line object
Line object
Line object
Area object
Area object
Area object
3D object
3D object
3D object
Mengenal Elemen Spasial
Representasi Elemen Spasial
Point object Line object Area object 3D object
Point
Line
Point object
Point object
Line object
Line object
Area object
Area object
3D object
3D object
Representasi Elemen Spasial
Point object Line object Area object 3D object
Point
Line
Polygon
Point object
Point object
Point object
Line object
Line object
Line object
Area object
Area object
Area object
3D object
3D object
3D object
Spatial Pattern
REGULAR
RANDOM
CLUSTERED
Spatial Framework
Hills
Mountains
Rawa
Gambut Tebal
Rawa Gambut
Gambut Tipis
Jalan Propinsi
Jalan Kabupaten
Jalan Lain
Sungai
Pemukiman
Koridor 10 km
Tapak Jalan Tol
# Kota Kecamatan
%U Kota Kabupaten
%[ Kota Propinsi
Batas Kabupaten
20 0 20 Kilometers
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%U
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%[
Aurduri
Setangkaikecil
Lipatkain
Pangkalan Pasir
Belimbing
Pebadaran
Geronggang
Gungsahlan
Kotabangun
Pangakalan Kotabaru
Siabu
Ment ulik
Langgam
Rant aubarangin
Muar amahat
Muar atakus
Danaubingkuang
Teratahbulah
Telukkepih
Pangkalankabung
Parit
Tandun
Batugajah
Petapahan
Pant aicermin
Parawang
Sukadamai
Senamaninik
Sikijang
Tebingt inggi
Minas
Teluklancang
Buat an
Rimbapandan
Kotalama
Pekalar
Muar adilam
Sunagimurai
Sont ang
Kotatengah
Tanjungmedan
Pujut
Sungaislalang
Tanahput ih
Ujungtanjung
Banjarduabelas
Sedinginan
Sint ong
Sikapas
Pematangbarangan
Janes
Dur i
Balaipungut
Baganbesar
Pangkalanpasir
Sungaisahir
Guntung
Bukitbatu
Batupanjang
Pengalir
Teluklencah
Pangkalanyirih
Hut anraju
Dumai
Bangkinang
Pekanbaru
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KOTA DUMAI
BENGKALIS
SIAK
KAMPAR
Proximity and Spatial Relation
Spatial Framework
5 Konsep Tema Dasar di Geografi
Lokasi/Location
Tempat/Place
Hubungan antar Tempat /Interaksi
(Human-Environment Interaction)
Pergerakan/ Movement
Regional/ Regions

5 Konsep Tema Dasar di Geografi
1) Lokasi : posisi relatif dan absolut di
permukaan bumi
Contoh/bentuk : Latitude and longitude,
site and situation, direction, distance, scale
Keahlian (skill): Map reading, identification
Pertanyaan : Where is ____? Where is
____ relative to where I am?
LOCATION
Where are we?
Absolute Location
A latitude and longitude
(global location) or a
street address (local
location).
Paris France is 48
o
North
Latitude and 2
o
East
Longitude.
The White House is
located at 1600
Pennsylvania Ave.
Relative Location
Described by landmarks,
time, direction or
distance. From one place
to another.
Go 1 mile west on main
street and turn left for 1
block.

Relative and absolute location
Where were you born?
Where do you live?
Wheres the most beautiful place youve ever
been?
Spatial Location and Reference
Geographical Grid
Lintang Utara
Lintang Selatan
Equator
Bujur Barat Bujur Timur Meridian
Latitude = Lintang

Longitude = Bujur
Peta Referensi
Memahami Skala
130' 130'
115' 115'
11000'
11000'
11015'
11015'
110
110
5 0 5 10 Kilometers
DP
DP
DP
DP
SP
SP
Peat Mapping
Using Landsat ETM
Landsystem Boundary
DP
SP
Deep Peat
Shallow Peat
Ketapang
West Kalimantan
Legend
Peta Dari Citra Satelit
2) Place: yaitu karakteristik fisik dan kekhasan
manusia pada suatu tempat (characteristics of
locales)
Contoh/bentuk: yaitu tentang fisk dan budaya
suatu tempat (Physical and cultural landscapes,
sense of place)
Keahlian : mendiskripsikan (Description) dan
membandingkan (compare)
Questions: What does ____ look like? Why? How
is it different from ____?
5 Konsep Tema Dasar di Geografi
PLACE
What is it like there, what kind of place is it?
Human
Characteristics
What are the main
languages, customs, and
beliefs.
How many people live,
work, and visit a place.


Physical
Characteristics
Landforms (mountains,
rivers, etc.), climate,
vegitation, wildlife, soil, etc.

3) Hubungan antar tempat (Relationships within places)
:tentang pengembangan dan konsekuensi dari hubungan
manusia-lingkungan (human-environment relationships)
Contoh: Ekosistem (Ecosystems), sumber daya alam
(natural resources), pencemaran lingkungan
(environmental pollution)
Keahlian : Evaluation, analysis
Pertanyaan: Apa hubungan manusia-lingkungan yang
terjadi? Bagaimana mereka mempengaruhi tempat dan
penghuninya?
5 Konsep Tema Dasar di Geografi
4) Movement: pola dan perubahan dalam interaksi
spasial manusia di bumi (patterns and change in
human spatial interaction on the earth)
Sample terms: Migration, diffusion, globalization
Skills: Explanation, prediction
Questions: How has this spatial pattern
developed? Will it continue to change? What
does it mean for the places involved?
5 Konsep Tema Dasar di Geografi
HUMAN-ENVIRONMENT INTERACTION
How do humans and the environment affect
each other?
We depend on it.
People depend on the Tennessee River for water and
transportation.
We modify it.
People modify our environment by
heating and cooling buildings for comfort.
We adapt to it.
We adapt to the environment by wearing
clothing suitable for summer (shorts) and
winter (coats), rain and shine.
MOVEMENT
How are people, goods, ideas moved from
place to place?
Human Movement
Trucks, Trains, Planes
Information Movement
Phones, computer (email), mail
Idea Movement
How do fads move from place to place?
TV, Radio, Magazines
5) Regions: how they form and change
Sample terms: Formal vs. functional regions
Skills: Synthesis, application
Questions: How has this spatial pattern
developed? Will it continue to change?
What does it mean for the places involved?
5 Konsep Tema Dasar di Geografi
REGIONS
How are Regions similar to and different from other
places?
Formal Regions
Regions defined by governmental or administrative boundaries
(States, Countries, Cities)
Regions defined by similar characteristics (Corn Belt, Rocky
Mountain region, Chinatown).
Functional Regions
Regions defined by a function (newspaper service area, cell phone
coverage area).
Vernacular Regions (Not in your book)
Regions defined by peoples perception (middle east, the south, etc.)

5 Konsep Tema Dasar di
Geografi

5 Konsep Tema Dasar di
Geografi
Jika ingin mengingat :
MR. HELP!!!
M Movement
R Regions
HE Human Environment interaction
L Location
P - Place
World-system
CORE - Industrialized, market-oriented countries
Western Europe, North America, Japan, Australia.

PERIPHERY - Poor, ex-colonial nations
Kenya, Bolivia, Pakistan, etc.

SEMI-PERIPHERY - Partially industrialized
ex-colonial nations (both exploited and exploiter)
South Africa, Brazil, Mexico, South Korea, etc.
Not regional geography approach
Country-by-country, or region-by-region

Examines internal geography of each
world region.

Does not adequately show connections
between regions (basis of globalization)
Systematic geography approach
Through human geographic lenses:
Population geography
Cultural geography
Economic geography
Urban geography
Political geography
Some environmental geography
Population geography
Growth in Periphery

Graying in Core

Resulting changes in
migration patterns

Causes and
consequences of
forced migration.
Cultural geography
Relationship between
place & cultural identity.

Cultural homogenization
(Americanization) from
globalization?

Yet cultural differences
across places are
becoming significant?
Economic geography

Rising economic
interdependence among
places.

Local responses in turn
affect globalization.

Glocalization a better
term than globalization?
Political geography
Economics supposedly eroding
significance of borders.

Ethnic minorities feel they
deserve states of their own.

States under attack from above
(global economics) and from
below (ethnic communities).

Yet states are still powerful, and
can respond.


Urban geography
Different types of cities
in core and periphery.

How globalization
affects cities. Are they
still needed in the
information age ?

Strong reasons for cities
to still exist.


Cities, Settlements, Urban hierarchies
System Identification, 0
Geographical
Form
Spatial Model
Analytical
Techniques
Heritage of
Spatial Model
Rank-size analysis, Nearest-neighbor analysis,
Quadrat analysis
Central-place theory, Gravity models, Weberian
models, Economic base models
Point set theory (Mathematics), Organization models
(Management), Packing theory (Mathematics)
Model Geography