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Submitted by

Abhinav Kumar (11011276)


Neeraj Kumar (11005967)
Vijay Shankar Albela (11008134)
Nakul Singh (11009983)
Abhishek Kumar (11007352)



PROJECT GUIDE: Mr. RAM KUMAR
Refrigeration system is the process of removing
heat from an enclosed space or from a
substance for the purpose of lowering the
temperature.

They are basically of two types:
VAPOR COMPRESSION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM(VCRS).
VAPOR ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEM(VARS).
The VCRS system uses a circulating liquid
refrigerant as the medium which absorbs and
removes heat from the space to be cooled and
subsequently rejects heat.

It consists of four components:
A compressor
A condenser
A thermal expansion valve
An evaporator
A simple vapor compression refrigeration
system removes the heat from a system
through external energy input. Moreover heat
energy from the system is directly dumped
into the atmosphere as a waste.
This heat energy which is rejected to the
atmosphere can be utilized if we send the hot
refrigerant after being compressed in the
compressor to a cabin where heat can be
exchanged with the cold object kept in that
cabin.
Heat energy released to atmosphere as a waste
Thermodynamic processes in refrigeration systems release
large amount of heat to the environment.
Heat transfer between the system and the surroundings
environment takes place at a finite temperature difference.
Heat transfer is a major source of irreversibility for the cycle.
Irreversibility causes the system performance to degrade.
The first law is only concerned with the conservation of
energy, and it gives no information on how, where, and how
much the system performance is degraded.
Exergy analysis is powerful tool in design, optimization and
performance evaluation of energy systems.





contd.
An important of Exergy analysis for the systems that consume
work such as refrigeration, liquefaction of gasses and distillation
of water is finding the minimum work required for a certain
desired results.
The Exergy of a system is the maximum useful work that can be
extracted from that system until it reaches equilibrium with its
environment.
Exergy can be destroyed by irreversibility of a process.
Since it is the ability of energy to do work which gives energy its
value to society, we should strive to conserve available work
(exergy), not energy.






contd.
There have been several studies on the exergy analysis
of refrigeration and heat pump systems:
Gibbs introduced the term available energy for the useful part
of the energy.
Everybody possesses energy all the energy is not useful.
The loss of work (Wloss) due to irreversibility of processes is equal
to the product of the temperature of the environment, T, and
the sum of the increases of entropy of all the bodies
participating in the process.



Thus, W(loss)= TS
Typically the heat of the refrigeration fluid, at the discharge from
the compressor (commonly known as the hot gas line), is between
60 and 90C but can be as high as 110C.
The hot gas discharge from the compressor, while passing
through auxiliary condenser, gives us a part of heat content and
gets de-superheated. The auxiliary condenser is called the de-
superheater.
About 20% of the heat rejection is due to de-superheating of the
refrigerant prior to condensation and this heat has the potential
to be recovered as high grade heat for other heating purposes.



I. To manufacture and fabricate refrigeration
cum heating system
II. To create extra new feature, by modifying
the traditional method.
III. Creative and innovative design including
CAD model and analysis.
IV. To design and fabricate the prototype of
refrigeration system saving heat energy
based on theories and practical application in
Mechanical engineering method.

A process plant where demand for hot water
is high, such as in steam boiler water pre-
heating.
Food processing plants where, for example,
large amounts of hot water are needed for
washing down.
Buildings that need air conditioning and hot
water, such as swimming pools and hospitals.
Let T1 = Temperature of refrigerant before entering the compressor
T2 = Temperature of refrigerant at exit of compressor
T3 = Temperature of refrigerant after condenser
T4 = Temperature of refrigerant after expansion valve
P1 = Suction pressure
P2 = Delivery pressure
h1 = Enthalpy of refrigerant before entering the compressor
h2 = Enthalpy of refrigerant at exit of compressor.
h3 = Enthalpy of refrigerant after condenser
h4 = Enthalpy of refrigerant after expansion valve.






Mass of refrigerant = 0.0036kg/sec
Troom (Room temperature) = 20C

contd.
h1 = 380kJ/kg
h2 = 490kJ/kg
h4 = 250kJ/kg

C.O.P = (h1-h4) / (h2-h1)
= (380-250) / (490-380)
= 1.18
Heat utilised = mref.Cp ref. (T2 Troom)
= 0.0036*0.856 (40 20)
= 20.1 kw
Work input = Compression work
= h2 h1
= 490 380 kJ/kg
= 110 kJ/ kg
Using the RAC chart of R-134a
Refrigeration effect = h1 h4
= 380 250 (kJ/kg)
= 130 kJ/ kg
Capacity = (130/3.5) 0.00366 TR
= 0.135 TR

Effect of Parameters on Refrigeration

Effect of sub-cooling


Effect of super heating



Effect of suction pressure

LIST OF PARTS OF PROJECT
Compressor :A compressor is a mechanical device that
increases the pressure of a gas by reducing its volume.
We used a hermetic compressor for the set up because
it is cheap and readily available and most feasible .

Hermetic compressor: A hermetic or sealed compressor
is one in which both compressor and motor are confined
in a single outer welded steel shell. The motor and
compressor are directly coupled on the same shaft, with
the motor inside the refrigeration circuit. Thus the need
for a shaft seal with the consequent refrigerant leakage
problem was eliminated. All the refrigerant pipeline
connections to the outer steel shell are by welding or
brazing. The electrical conductors to the motor are taken
out of the steel shell by sealed terminals made of fused
glass.
A condenser is a device or unit used to condense a
substance from its gaseous to its liquid state, typically by
cooling it.

A coil type condenser was chosen for the project as it is
cheap, easy to handle and it is readily available.
It is largely used as a condenser in the refrigerator and
capacity of cooling was appropriate for the project.




Capillary tube is one of the most commonly used
throttling devices in the refrigeration and the air
conditioning systems. The capillary tube is a copper tube
of very small internal diameter. It is of very long length
and it is coiled to several turns so that it would occupy
less space. The internal diameter of the capillary tube
used for the refrigeration and air conditioning
Applications varies from 0.5 to 2.28 mm (0.020 to 0.09
inches). Capillary tube used as the throttling device in
the domestic refrigerators, deep freezers, water coolers
and air conditioners.
CAD Model of Capillary Nozzle
The tubing cutter is an essential plumbing tool if you are
going to be doing any work with copper pipe. With
copper pipe it is important to have smoothly cut and
squarely cut ends and well fitted joints.
Filter-driers are a key component in any refrigeration or
air conditioning system. A filter-drier in a refrigeration or
air conditioning system has two essential functions: one,
to adsorb system contaminants, such as water, which
can create acids, and two, to provide physical filtration.
RELAY is an electrically operated switch. Many relays
use an electromagnet to mechanically operate a switch,
but other operating principles are also used, such as
solid-state relays. Relays are used where it is necessary
to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete
electrical isolation between control and controlled
circuits), or where several circuits must be controlled by
one signal.


Compressor
Hot
Chamber
Cold
Chamber
Capillary
Tube
Filter
Condenser
Step 1
Plywood was chosen as a base for support and
assembly of all the components.
Hand hacksaw was used for getting the desired
dimension of the plywood needed
Step 2-
Drilling was done on the plywood with 10mm drill
bit.
Holes were drilled on the compressor, condenser
and chambers
Nut and bolt was used to tighten the components.


Step 3-
Condenser is mounted on the plywood by drilling a
hole on a mild steel plate and attaching it to the
plywood by nut and bolt.


Step 4-
Assembly of all the parts were done with connecting
wires with the brazing process.
Capillary tube was connected between condenser
and cooling
chamber.
Set up was rechecked.
Refrigerant was charged into the condenser.

The process goes on via following process:-
1.Refrigerant is charged to the compressor
2.Refrigerant is compressed in compressor increasing its
temperature and pressure.
3.The heated refrigerant if passed through the hot
chamber where heat is extracted.
4.The remaining heat is rejected to the atmosphere
through condenser.
5.The cooled refrigerant is further cooled by decreasing its
pressure by passing through capillary tube.
6.A copper strainer filter is attached in the line of the
capillary tube after it comes out of the condenser to
avoid any blockage of the refrigerant.
7.Now this cooled refrigerant passes through the cold
chamber where it extracts the heat from the hot body
kept inside it.
8. The refrigerant is again send to the compressor.

(I) Cutting
Cutting process is used to make the base by cutting the plywood.
Moreover the cutting of cast iron was also done to support the frame
of the condenser.
A hand hacksaw was used to cutting process. A hacksaw is a fine-
tooth hand saw with a blade held under tension in a frame, used for
cutting materials such as metal or plastics. Hand-held hacksaws
consist of a metal arch with a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins
for attaching a narrow disposable blade. A screw or other
mechanism is used to put the thin blade under tension. The blade
can be mounted with the teeth facing toward or away from the
handle, resulting in cutting action on either the push or pull stroke.
On the push stroke, the arch will flex slightly, decreasing the tension
on the blade, often resulting in an increased tendency of the blade
to buckle and crack. Cutting on the pull stroke increases the blade
tension and will result in greater control of the cut and longer blade
life.

(II) Drilling
Drilling is used in this to drill number of holes in the
components for the assembling of components with each
other with the help of nuts and bolts. There are number of
holes drilled of different sizes according to the feasibility of the
project.

(III) Brazing
Brazing is a metal-joining process whereby a filler metal is
heated above melting point and distributed between two or
more close-fitting parts by capillary action. The filler metal
is brought slightly above its melting (liquidus) temperature
while protected by a suitable atmosphere, usually a flux. It
then flows over the base metal (known as wetting) and is
then cooled to join the work pieces together. It is similar to
soldering, except the temperatures used to melt the filler
metal are higher for brazing.
Components Quantity Cost(in Rs.)
Compressor 1 2500
Condenser 1 300
Chambers 2 900
Filter 1 70
Capillary tube 2.44 meters 250
Connecting Wire N/A 200
Nut and Bolt 4 Taken from lab
Plywood 1 100
Refrigerant N/A 120
Brazing N/A 450
Mild steel plate 2

Taken from lab
COST REPORT
Total cost- Rs. 4850(approx)

Various cycles in refrigeration
Energy losses from the compressor
Vapour compression refrigeration system
Various fabrication processes (cutting,
brazing, drilling etc.)
Energy conservation
Energy utilization
There is always loss of energy in a mechanical
process