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History

Forms
Manufacturing Process
Properties
Future
Uses
DEFINITION
Polyester (aka Terylene) is a category of polymers
which contain the ester functional group in their
main chain.
Polyester is currently defined as:
Long chain polymers chemically composed of
at least 85% by weight of an ester and a
dihydric alcohol and terephthalic acid. The
name polyester refers to the linkage of
several monomers (esters) within the fiber.
HISTORY

In 1926, United States-based E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Co. began
research into very large molecules and synthetic fibers
W.H. Carothers, centered on what became nylon, the first synthetic fiber.
1939-41, British research chemists took interest in the du Pont
studies and conducted their own research in the laboratories of Calico
Printers Association, Ltd. This work resulted in the creation of the
polyester fiber known in England as Terylene.
In 1946, du Pont purchased the right to produce this polyester fiber in
the United States.
The company conducted some further developmental work, and in
1951, began to market the fiber under the name Dacron
RAW MATERIALS
Coal
Air
Water
Petroleum
FORMS OF POLYESTER
1. Filament
2. Staple
3. Tow
4. Fiberfill
USES OF DIFFERENT FORM IN DIFFERENT
PLACES
1. In the filament form, each individual strand of polyester
fiber is continuous in length, producing smooth-surfaced
fabrics
2. In staple form, filaments are cut to short, predetermined
lengths. In this form polyester is easier to blend with other
fibers
3. Tow is a form in which continuous filaments are drawn
loosely together
4. Fiberfill is the voluminous form used in the manufacture of
quilts, pillows, and outerwear
Microscopic View

DIFFERENT STRUCTURES OF POLYESTER
STRUCTURE AND APPERANCE
COLOURLESS AND TRANSPARENT
SMOOTH AND LUSTURUOS
SHAPE AS WE REQIURE
SHINY GLASSROD LIKE
POLYESTER FIBER CHARACTERISTICS
Strong
Resistant to stretching and shrinking
Resistant to most chemicals
Quick drying
Crisp and resilient when wet or dry
Wrinkle resistant
Mildew resistant
Abrasion resistant
Retains heat-set pleats and crease
Easily washed

POLYESTER BLENDS
Polyester and Cotton
1. Resist wrinkles
2. Resist stains
3. Retain shape
POLYESTER BLENDS
Polyester and Wool
1. Wrinkle resistance
2. Shape retention
3. Increase durability

POLYESTER BLENDS
Polyester and Rayon
1. More durable
2. Shape retention
3. More resilience
MANUFACTURING FILAMENT YARN

Polymerization
Drying
Melt spinning
Drawing the fiber
Winding

Polymerization
To form polyester, dimethyl terephthalate is first reacted with
ethylene glycol in the presence of a catalyst at a temperature of 302-
410F (150-210C).
The resulting chemical, a monomer (single, non-repeating molecule)
alcohol, is combined with terephthalic acid and raised to a
temperature of 472F (280C). Newly-formed polyester, which is
clear and molten, is extruded through a slot to form long ribbons.
Drying
After the polyester emerges from polymerization, the long molten
ribbons are allowed to cool until they become brittle. The material is
cut into tiny chips and completely dried to prevent irregularities in
consistency.

MELT SPINNING

Polymer chips are melted at 500-518F (260-270C) to
form a syrup-like solution. The solution is put in a metal
container called a spinneret and forced through its tiny
holes, which are usually round, but may be pentagonal or
any other shape to produce special fibers. The number of
holes in the spinneret determines the size of the yarn, as
the emerging fibers are brought together to form a single
strand.
At the spinning stage, other chemicals may be added to
the solution to make the resulting material flame
retardant, antistatic, or easier to dye.



Drawing the fiber
When polyester emerges from the spinneret, it is soft and
easily elongated up to five times its original length. This
increases the strength, tenacity, and resilience of the fiber.
This time, when the filaments dry, the fibers become solid
and strong instead of brittle.
Drawn fibers may vary greatly in diameter and length, Also,
as the fibers are drawn, they may be textured or twisted to
create softer or duller fabrics.
Winding
After the polyester yarn is drawn, it is wound on large
bobbins or flat-wound packages, ready to be woven into
material.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES
Specific weight 1.22-1.38 gm/cm
Tenacity up to 85 cN/tex
Moisture regain 0.2-0.5 %
Heat Resist 150-200 C
Sunlight better resistance
Insects no effect

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Acids: At room temperature, PET is resistant to organic and moderate
strength mineral acids. At high temperatures, PET strength loss in
moderate strength acids can be appreciable. Strong acids such as
concentrated sulfuric acid dissolve and depolymerize PET.
Alkalies: Polyester bers have good resistance to weakly alkaline
chemicals and moderate resistance to stronglyalkaline chemicals at room
temperature. PET bers are attacked by strongly alkaline substances.
Organic Solvents: PET bers are generally insoluble in organic
solvents, including cleaning uids.
DEMAND FOR POLYESTER
FUTURE
Biodegradable and biocompatible poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-
co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), a copolymer of microbial
polyester, was fabricated as a Nano fibrous mat by electro
spinning
The researchers have developed a process in which
polyester is dramatically strengthened with a material
known as a liquid crystalline polymer. The liquid crystalline
polymer used in the research is called Vectra , a plastic
material similar to Kevlar that is five times stronger than
steel. Polyester is used because its chemical structure is
ideal for making bonds with the liquid crystalline polymer


SOME MAJOR POLYESTER FIBER USES

Apparel: Every form of clothing
Home Furnishings: Carpets, curtains, draperies,
sheets and pillow cases, wall coverings, and
upholstery
Other Uses: hoses, power belting, ropes and
nets, thread, tire cord, auto upholstery, sails,
floppy disk liners, and fiberfill for various products
including pillows and furniture