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Dr.

Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 1


Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 2
Presentation Content
Communication
Presentation
Question
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 3
Information
communication
revolutions
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 5
Information communication
revolutions
Researchers have divided how communication works into
3 revolutions.
The 1st Information Communication Revolution:
The 1st written communication began with pictographs.
These writings can be found on stone, which were too
heavy to transfer.
During this era, written communication was not mobile.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 6
Information communication
revolutions
The 2nd Information Communication Revolution:
The Gutenberg press was invented. Gutenberg printed the
1st bible.
The books were able to be transferred for others across the
world to view.
Written communication is now storable, and portable.
The 3rd Information Communication Revolution:
Information can now be transferred via waves, bits, and
other electronic signals.
Communication
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 8
Communication
The purpose of communication is to get your message
(thoughts and ideas ) across to others.
This is a process that involves both the sender of the
message and the receiver.
This process leaves room for error, with messages often
misinterpreted by one or more of the parties involved.
This causes unnecessary confusion and counter
productivity, both personally and professionally.
A message is successful only when both the sender and the
receiver perceive it in the same way
For successful communication - Getting your message
across is of paramount importance.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 9
Communication Guidelines
Understand what your message is
What audience you are sending it to
How it will be perceived
The circumstances surrounding your communications,
such as situational and cultural context.
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Types of Communication
1. Verbal
Communication through talking and listening
2. Non-Verbal
When one communicate to make other understand their
felling without talking to them is called non verbal
communication
Non verbal communication may be in the form of written,
posture , attitude , eye contact etc.

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 11
Elements of Communication
There are three major parts in human face to face
communication which are
1. Body Language
2. Voice Tonality
3. Words.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 12
Elements of Communication
93% (55% + 38%) of
communication is
nonverbal
55% body language-
postures, gestures,
through facial
expression and eye
contact
38% through tone of
voice
7% Content or the words
used in the
communication process.
Communication as
information
transmission
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 14
Communication modeling
Communication can be seen as processes of information
transmission governed by three levels of semiotic rules:
1. Syntactic (formal properties of signs and symbols)
2. Pragmatic (concerned with the relations between
signs/expressions and their users)
3. Semantic (study of relationships between signs and
symbols and what they represent).
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 15
Communication modeling contd.
Therefore, communication is a kind of social interaction
where at least two interacting agents share a common set
of signs and a common set of semiotic rules.
(This rule essentially ignores auto communication,
including intrapersonal communication via diaries or
self-talk).
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 16
Simple model of Information Transmission
In a simple model,
information or content (e.g. a message in natural
language) is sent in some form (as spoken language)
from a emisor / sender / encoder to a destination /
receiver / decoder.
In a slightly more complex form a sender and a receiver
are linked reciprocally.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 17
The model- Communication major
dimensions scheme
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The Model - Communication code scheme
Communication
Process
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Communication processes
Communication processes are;
1. Sender
2. Message
3. Channel
4. Receiver
5. Feedback
6. Context

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 21
Communication processes contd.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 22
Thought: First, information exists in the mind of the
sender. This can be a concept, idea, information, or
feelings.
Encoding: Next, a message is sent to a receiver in words or
other symbols.
Decoding: lastly, the receiver translates the words or
symbols into a concept or information that he or she can
understand.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 23
Sender
To establish yourself as an effective communicator
first establish credibility - by displaying knowledge of the
subject, the audience and the context in which the message
is delivered.
Know your audience (individuals or groups to which you
are delivering your message).
Failure to understand who you are communicating to will
result in misunderstanding.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 24
Message
Written, oral and nonverbal communications are effected
by the senders tone, method of organization, validity of
the argument, what is communicated and what is left out,
as well as individual style of communicating.
Messages also have intellectual and emotional
components.
Intellectual component is the ability to reason
Emotional components present motivational appeals,
ultimately changing minds and actions.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 25
Channel
Messages are conveyed through channels
Verbal Channels - face-to-face meetings, telephone and
video conferencing;
Written Channels - letters, emails, memos and reports.
Nonverbal Channels- Body Language
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 26
Receiver
Messages are delivered and received by the audience.
The audience also enters into the communication process
with ideas and feelings that will undoubtedly influence
their understanding of your message and their response.
To be a successful communicator, you should consider
these before delivering your message, acting
appropriately.

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 27
Feedback
Feedback
Audience will give feedback, verbal and nonverbal
reactions to your communicated message.
Pay close attention to this feedback as it is crucial to
ensuring the audience understood your message.

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 28
Context
Context is the situation in which your message is
delivered
This may include the surrounding environment or
broader culture (i.e. corporate culture, international
cultures, etc.).
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 29
Content
Content is the actual words or symbols of the message
which is known as language - the spoken and written
words combined into phrases that make grammatical and
semantic sense.
We all use and interpret the meanings of words differently,
so even simple messages can be misunderstood.
And many words have different meanings to confuse the
issue even more.
Barriers to
Communication
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 31
Barriers to Communication
Nothing is so simple that it cannot be
misunderstood.
Freeman Teague, Jr.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 32
Barriers to Communication contd.
Removing Barriers At All These Stages:
To deliver your messages effectively, you
must commit to breaking down the barriers
that exist in each of these stages of the
communication process.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 33
The Importance of Removing
Communication Barriers
Communication barriers can pop-up at every stage of the
communication process
Communication barriers can create misunderstanding and
confusion.

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 34
Types of Communication Barriers
Anything that prevents understanding of the message is a
barrier to communication.
Many physical and psychological barriers exist:
1. Senders
2. Culture, background, and
bias
3. Noise
4. Ourselves
5. Perception
6. Message
7. Environmental
8. Smothering
9. Stress
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 35
Barriers in senders
Offering too much information too fast.
Take care of other peoples time, especially in todays ultra-
busy society.
Work on to understand your audiences culture, making sure
you can converse and deliver your message to people of
different backgrounds and cultures.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 36
Culture, background, and bias
We allow our past experiences to change the meaning of the
message.
Culture, background, and bias they allow us to use our past
experiences to understand something new
But when they change the meaning of the message they
interfere with the communication process.
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Noise
Equipment or environmental noise impedes clear
communication.
The sender and the receiver must both be able to
concentrate on the messages being sent to each other.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 38
Ourselves
Focusing on ourselves, rather than the other person can
lead to confusion and conflict.
The "Me Generation" is out when it comes to effective
communication.
Some of the factors that cause this are
Defensiveness (we feel someone is attacking us),
Superiority (we feel we know more that the other)
Ego (we feel we are the center of the activity).
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 39
Perception
If we feel the person is talking too fast, not fluently, does
not articulate clearly, etc., we may dismiss the person.
Also our preconceived attitudes affect our ability to listen.
We listen uncritically to persons of high status and dismiss
those of low status.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 40
Message
If your message is too lengthy, disorganized, or contains
errors, you can expect the message to be misunderstood
and misinterpreted.
Use of poor verbal and body language can also confuse the
message.
Distractions happen when we focus on the facts rather than
the idea.
Semantic (change of meaning) distractions occur when a
word is used differently than you prefer.
For example, the word chairman instead of chairperson,
may cause you to focus on the word and not the message.

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 41
Environmental and Stress
Environmental
Bright lights, an attractive person, unusual sights, or any
other stimulus provides a potential distraction.
Stress
People do not see things the same way when under stress.
What we see and believe at a given moment is influenced by
our psychological frames of references - our beliefs, values,
knowledge, experiences, and goals.
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Smothering (conceal)
We take it for granted that the impulse to send useful
information is automatic.
Not true!
Too often we believe that certain information has no value
to others or they are already aware of the facts.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 43
Barriers
These barriers can be thought of as filters, that is, the
message leaves the sender, goes through the above filters,
and is then heard by the receiver.
These filters muffle the message.
To overcome these filters is through active listening and
feedback.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 44
How to avoid Barriers?
To overcome these filters barriers is through
1. Active listening
2. Feedback.
Active Listening

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 46
Hearing V/S Listening
Is Hearing and listening are the same thing?
Answer
A Big
NO

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 47
Active Listening
Hearing and listening are not the same thing.
Hearing
It is the act of perceiving sound.
It is involuntary and simply refers to the reception of aural
stimuli.
Listening
It is a selective activity which involves the reception and
the interpretation of aural stimuli.
It involves decoding the sound into meaning.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 48
Listening
Listening is divided into two main categories:
1. Passive
2. Active.
Passive listening
It is little more that hearing.
It occurs when the receiver of the message has little
motivation to listen carefully, such as when listening to
music, story telling, television, or when being polite.

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 49
Listening
People speak at 100 to 175 words per minute (WPM), but
they can listen intelligently at 600 to 800 WPM.
Since only a part of our mind is paying attention, it is easy
to go into mind drift - thinking about other things while
listening to someone.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 50
Active listening
The cure for this is active listening - which involves listening
with a purpose.
It may be to gain information, obtain directions, understand
others, solve problems, share interest, see how another
person feels, show support, etc.
It requires that the listener attends to the words and the
feelings of the sender for understanding.
It takes the same amount or more energy than speaking.
It requires the receiver to hear the various messages,
understand the meaning, and then verify the meaning by
offering feedback.
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Traits of active listeners
1. Spend more time listening than talking.
2. Do not finish the sentences of others.
3. Do not answer questions with questions.
4. Control biases.
5. Never daydreams or become preoccupied with their own
thoughts when others talk.
6. Let the other speakers talk. Do not dominate the
conversations.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 52
Traits of active listeners
7. Plan responses after the others have finished speaking,
NOT while they are speaking.
8. Provide feedback, but do not interrupt constantly.
9. Analyze by looking at all the relevant factors and asking
open-ended questions. Walk others through by
summarizing.
10. Keep conversations on what others say, NOT on what
interests them.
11. Take brief notes. This forces them to concentrate on what
is being said.
Feedback

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 54
Feedback
When you know something, say what you know.
When you don't know something, say that you
don't know.
That is knowledge.
Kung Fu Tzu (Confucius)

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Purpose of feedback
The purpose of feedback is to alter messages so the
intention of the original communicator is understood by
the second communicator.
It includes verbal and nonverbal responses to another
person's message.
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How to give Feedback?
Providing feedback is accomplished by paraphrasing the
words of the sender.
Restate the sender's feelings or ideas in your own words,
rather than repeating their words.
Your words should be saying, "This is what I understand
your feelings to be, am I correct?"
It not only includes verbal responses, but also nonverbal
ones.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 57
How to give Feedback? Contd.
Nonverbal responses like.
Nodding your head or squeezing their hand to show
agreement
Dipping your eyebrows shows you don't quite
understand the meaning of their last phrase
Sucking air in deeply and blowing it hard shows that
you are also exasperated (frustrated) with the situation.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 58
Carl Rogers categories of feedback
Carl Rogers listed five main categories of feedback
They are listed in the order in which they occur most
frequently in daily conversations.
We make judgments more often than we try to understand:
1. Evaluative:
Making a judgment about the worth, goodness, or
appropriateness of the other person's statement.
2. Interpretive:
Paraphrasing - attempting to explain what the other person's
statement means.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 59
Carl Rogers categories of feedback contd.
3. Supportive:
Attempting to assist or bolster the other communicator.
4. Probing:
Attempting to gain additional information, continue the
discussion, or clarify a point.
5. Understanding:
Attempting to discover completely what the other
communicator means by her statements.

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Imagine how much better daily communications
would be if listeners tried to understand first,
before they tried to evaluate what someone is
saying.

Nonverbal
Behaviors of
Communication
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 62
Non verbal communication
It is the information that is communicated without using
words.
To deliver the full impact of a message, use nonverbal
behaviors to raise the channel of interpersonal
communication:

1. Written
2. Posture, body orientation,
appearance, hairstyle, clothes,
color choice
3. Gestures
4. Eye contact , Shaking hands,
your breathing
5. Expression - in your eyes , Facial
Expressions and smile
6. Vocal, Voice, tone and
confidence
7. Proximity - How close you stand
to others- personal space
8. How you listen
9. The way you move, the way you
stand, the way you touch
10. Attitude
11. Silence.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 63
The Importance of NVC
Its not always just what you say matters but also how you
say it
Always take care of Nonverbal cues , they are very powerful
E.g.. of Non-verbal cues are gestures, eye contact, facial
expressions, posture, gestures space even clothing and
personal space.
Be mindful of your own nonverbal cues, as well as the
nonverbal cues of those around you.
Keep your messages short and concise. This means
preparing in advance whenever possible.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 64
Types Of NVC
1. Paralanguage - The vocal cues that accompany spoken
language The way we say words
2. Kinesics - Body Movements
3. Occulesics - Eye behavior
4. Appearance /Artifacts.- Attractiveness
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 65
Types Of NVC contd.
5. Proxemics- The NVC of space and distance
6. Haptics- The NVC study of touch
7. Olfactics- The NVC study of smell.
8. Chronomics- The NVC study of time
9. Facial Expressions- We have 80 muscles in our face
that can create more than 7,000 facial expressions
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 66
G. W. PORTER CATEGORIES AND
FEATURES OF COMMUNICATION
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 67
G. W. Porter Categories of Communications
Categories and Features G. W. Porter divides non-verbal
communication into four broad categories:
1. Physical.
This is the personal type of communication.
It includes facial expressions, tone of voice, sense of
touch, sense of smell, and body motions.
2. Aesthetic.
This is the type of communication that takes place through
creative expressions: playing instrumental music, dancing,
painting and sculpturing.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 68
G. W. Porter Categories of Communications
contd.
3. Signs.
This is the mechanical type of communication, which
includes the use of signal flags, the 21-gun salute, horns,
and sirens.
4. Symbolic.
This is the type of communication that makes use of
religious, status, or ego-building symbols.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 69
G. W. Porter Features of Communications
A) Static Features
1. Distance
2. Orientation
3. Posture
4. Physical Contact
B) Dynamic Features
1. Facial Expressions
2. Gestures
3. Looking
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 70
Eye contact / Looking
A major feature of social communication is eye contact.
This helps to regulate the flow of communication.
It can convey emotion, signal when to talk or finish, or
aversion.
It signals interest in others and increases the speaker's
credibility.
People who make eye contact open the flow of
communication and convey interest, concern, warmth, and
credibility.
The frequency of contact suggest either interest or boredom.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 71
Facial Expressions
A smile, frown, raised eyebrow, yawn, and sneer all convey
information.
Smiling is a powerful cue that transmits happiness,
friendliness, warmth, and liking.
So, if you smile frequently you will be perceived as more
likable, friendly, warm and approachable.
Smiling is often contagious and people will react favorably.
They will be more comfortable around you and will want to
listen more.
Facial expressions continually change during interaction
and are monitored constantly by the recipient.
There is evidence that the meaning of these expressions
may be similar across cultures.

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 72
Gestures
If you fail to gesture while speaking you may be perceived as
boring and stiff.
One of the most frequently observed, but least understood,
cues is a hand movement.
While some gestures (e.g., a clenched fist) have universal
meanings, most of the others are individually learned and
idiosyncratic.
A lively speaking style captures the listener's attention,
makes the conversation more interesting, and facilitates
understanding.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 73
Posture
Obviously one can be lying down, seated, or standing.
These are not the elements of posture that convey
messages.
You communicate numerous messages by the way you talk
and move.
Are we slouched or erect ?
Are our legs crossed or our arms folded ?
Such postures convey a degree of formality and the degree
of relaxation in the communication exchange.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 74
Posture contd.
Standing erect and leaning forward communicates you are
approachable, receptive and friendly.
Interpersonal closeness results when you and the listener
face each other.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 75
Body Orientation
People may present themselves in various ways:
Face-to-face
Side-to-side
Or Even back-to-back.
For example, cooperating people are likely to sit side-by-
side while competitors frequently face one another.
Speaking with your back turned or looking at the floor or
ceiling should be avoided as it communicates disinterest.

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 76
Proximity / Distance
The distance one stands from another frequently conveys a
non-verbal message.
Cultural norms dictate a comfortable distance for interaction
with others.
In some cultures it is a sign of attraction, while in others it
may reflect status or the intensity of the exchange.
You should look for signals of discomfort caused by
invading the other person's space.
Some of these are: rocking, leg swinging, tapping, and gaze
aversion (dislike).
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 77
Physical Contact
Shaking hands, touching, holding, embracing, pushing, or
patting on the back all convey messages.
They reflect an element of intimacy or a feeling of (or lack
of) attraction.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 78
Vocal
Speaking can signal nonverbal communication when you
include such vocal elements as:
1. Tone
2. Pitch
3. Rhythm
4. Timbre (resonance , Quality)
5. Loudness
6. Inflection (modulation).
For maximum teaching effectiveness, learn to vary these six
elements of your voice.
One of the major criticisms of many speakers is that they
speak in a monotone voice.
Listeners perceive this type of speaker as boring and
dull.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 79
Body Language
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 81
Body language
It is a term for communication using body movements or
gestures instead of, or in addition to, sounds, verbal
language or other communication.
It accounts for over 90% of a conversation!
It can be used to help conduct an interview, give a
presentation or make that important sale: a conversation
stretches so much further than speech.
Body language is the reason why selling face-to-face has a
huge advantage over selling by phone.

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 82
Body language
It forms part of the category of paralanguage, which
describes all forms of human communication that are not
verbal language.
This includes the most subtle of movements that many
people are not aware of, including winking and slight
movement of the eyebrows.
In addition body language can also incorporate the use of
facial expressions.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 83
Body Language
Body
Language
Communicator
Send out
Receiv
ed
Mode
Facial
Body
Move
ment
Tone
of
Voice
Control
Volunt
ary
Contr
ol
Involu
ntary
Contr
ol
Concordance
All
Modes
send
messa
ge in
Conco
rdanc
e
Dis
conco
rdanc
e =
Lie
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 84
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 85
Body language (hand gestures) of US Marine Corps
General Michael W. Hagee
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 86
Examples Of Body Language
Sr. No. Nonverbal Behaviour Interpretation
1 Brisk, erect walk Confidence
2 Standing with hands on hips Readiness, aggression
3
Sitting with legs crossed, foot
kicking slightly
Boredom
4 Sitting, legs apart Open, relaxed
5 Arms crossed on chest
Defensiveness
Person is putting barrier between
themselves and others
6
Walking with hands in
pockets, shoulders hunched
Dejection
7 Hand to cheek Evaluation, thinking
8
Touching, slightly rubbing
nose
Rejection, doubt, lying
9 Rubbing the eye Doubt, disbelief
10 Hands clasped behind back Anger, frustration, apprehension
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 87
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 88
Examples Of Body Language contd.
Sr. No. Nonverbal Behaviour Interpretation
11 Locked ankles Apprehension
12
Head resting in hand, tilting
at one side, eyes downcast
Boredom
13 Rubbing hands Anticipation
14
Sitting with hands clasped
behind head, legs crossed
Confidence, superiority
15 Open palm Sincerity, openness, innocence
16
Pinching bridge of nose,
eyes closed
Negative evaluation
17 Tapping or drumming fingers Impatience
18 Steepling fingers Authoritative
19 Patting/fondling hair Lack of self-confidence; insecurity
20 Tilted head Interest
21 Stroking chin Trying to make a decision
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 89
Examples Of Body Language contd.
Sr. No. Nonverbal Behaviour Interpretation
22
Looking down, face turned
away
Disbelief
23 Biting nails Insecurity, nervousness
24 Pulling or tugging at ear Indecision
25 Leaning forward Intrested
26 Leaning away from the speaker. Expressing opposition
27 Consistent eye contact Thinking positively
28 Lack of eye contact indicate negativity.
29
Looking at you but is making
the arms-across-chest signal
The eye contact indicates
something is bothering, and he
wants to talk about it.
30
averted gaze, touching the ear
or scratching the chin.
Disbelief
31
Female crosses her legs
towards a male she is
interested in.
Sexual desire
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 90
Speaking Too
Quickly
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 92
A lot of us speak quickly when we are on the
Phone or with our customers / clients.
Sometimes it
is a habit or we are in a hurry
Whatever
the case, it is a habit that can cost us business.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 93
Problems with speaking quickly .
When you speak quickly, it affects other vocal issues.
Speed affects the clarity of words.
The lips, teeth and tongue cant get into the right position
in your mouth.
Customers expect to hear the words as they learned them.
If you are slipping over syllables or eliminating them all
together, customers start focusing on what you just said,
versus what you are currently saying.
They feel like they are translating a foreign language.
It affects comprehension.
Especially a person whose mother tongue is not English,
it may be difficult for them to make any sense out of what
you are saying.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 94
Problems with speaking quickly . Contd.
Affects the tone of your voice.
It is impossible to sound friendly, sincere or empathetic
without pausing.
Voice became monotone.
If the voice is a monotone, the customer concludes you
are disinterested.
Who wants to do business with someone who is
disinterested?

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 95
Ways to slow down
1. First, get into the mind set that when you are at work; put
cash on voice, the voice that earns you a living.
Actors, Show host, Radio jokey they all speak a lot slower
on television than they do when they are with friends and
family.
They know that if they speak quickly, viewers will be
complaining, and they will lose their jobs.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 96
Ways to slow down contd.
2. Secondly - Artist learn is the value of pausing.
In fact, they pause a lot.
They pause not only at the end of sentences and clauses,
but whenever they want to emphasize a point or idea.
More you pause, the more the listeners understand.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 97
Ways to slow down contd.
To get comfortable pausing, use your voice mail system to
give you feedback.
When you send internal voice mail messages, press
review before you press send. If you hear yourself
speaking quickly, redo the message until you are
satisfied.
Get feedback from family members and friends .
Ask them to tell you to pause more or to remind you that
you are mumbling.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 98
Ways to slow down contd.
3. Thirdly slow down yourself
Fast talkers also mumble (murmur / speak unclearly).
Read out loud to your child (if you have one or ..).
Children demand that you really get into the story.
They will tell you to slow down because they want to enjoy
the story.
As you drive down the street, use your car as a laboratory.
Say out loud what you are seeing and over - enunciate
(Pronounce) each word.
No one will hear you.
Over - enunciating will get you used to saying every
syllable in the word.

Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 99
Ways to slow down contd.
While speaking quickly is a habit, it is not a habit that helps
you to develop relationships with your customers.
The more you pause, the more they feel you care. The less
likely they are to become upset.
A one or two second pause can make a huge difference.
Put on your cash voice and see what a difference it will
make.
Dr. Kailas Ghodke Communication Skills 100
It is not what you know
but how you communicate it
that makes a difference.

Speaking Hints

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Speak comfortable words!
William Shakespeare
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Speaking Hints
1. When speaking or trying to explain something, ask the
listeners if they are following you.
2. Ensure the receiver has a chance to comment or ask
questions.
3. Try to put yourself in the other person's shoes - consider
the feelings of the receiver.
4. Be clear about what you say.
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Speaking Hints
5. Look at the receiver.
6. Make sure your words match your tone and body language
(Nonverbal Behaviors).
7. Vary your tone and pace.
8. Do not be vague, but on the other hand, do not complicate
what you are saying with too much detail.
9. Do not ignore signs of confusion.
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Enhancing your communications
Eye contact is an important step in sending and receiving
messages.
Eye contact can be a signal of interest, a signal of
recognition, even a sign of honesty and credibility.
Closely linked to eye contact are facial expressions, which
can reflect attitudes and emotions.
Posture can also be used to more effectively communicate
your message.
Clothing is important. By dressing for your job, you show
respect for the values and conventions of your organization.
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Enhancing your communications contd.
Do not invade personal space by
getting too close and do not confuse
communications by trying to exchange
messages from too far away.
Be aware of your gestures, tone of
voice, movement and facial
expressions.
How to Detect Lies
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How to Detect Lies
The techniques of How to Detect Lies is often used by
police, and security experts.
This knowledge is also useful for managers, employers,
and for anyone to use in everyday situations where telling
the truth from a lie can help prevent you from being a
victim of fraud/scams and other deceptions.

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Warning
Sometimes Ignorance is bliss;
after gaining this knowledge,
you may be hurt
when it is obvious that someone is lying to you.

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Signs of Deception (Dishonesty)
1. Body Language of Lies
2. Emotional Gestures & Contradiction
3. Interactions and Reactions
4. Verbal Context and Content
5. Other signs of a lie
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1) Body Language of Lies
1. Physical expression
Physical expression will be limited and stiff, with few arm
and hand movements.
Hand, arm and leg movement are toward their own body the
liar takes up less space.

2. Eye contact.
A person who is lying to you will avoid making eye contact.

3. Movement of Hands
Hands touching their face, throat & mouth.
Touching or scratching the nose or behind their ear.
Not likely to touch his chest/heart with an open hand.
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2) Emotional Gestures & Contradiction
1. Timing and duration of emotional gestures and emotions
are off a normal pace.
The display of emotion is delayed, stays longer it would
naturally, then stops suddenly.
2. Timing is off between emotions gestures/expressions and
words.
Example: Someone says "I love it!" when receiving a gift,
and then smile after making that statement, rather then at
the same time the statement is made.
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2) Emotional Gestures & Contradiction contd.
3. Gestures/expressions dont match the verbal statement,
such as frowning when saying I love you.
4. Expressions are limited to mouth movements when
someone is faking emotions like happy, surprised, sad,
awe (fear) instead of the whole face.
For example; when someone smiles naturally their whole
face is involved: jaw/cheek movement, eyes and forehead
push down, etc.

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3) Interactions and Reactions
A guilty person gets defensive. An innocent person will
often go on the offensive.
A liar is uncomfortable facing his questioner/accuser and
may turn his head or body away.
A liar might unconsciously place objects (book, coffee cup,
etc.) between themselves and you.
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4) Verbal Context and Content
i. A liar will use your words to make answer a question.
When asked, Did you eat the last cookie?
The liar answers, No, I did not eat the last cookie.
ii. A statement with a contraction (short) is more likely to be
truthful: I didn't do it instead of I did not do it
iii. Liars sometimes avoid "lying" by not making direct
statements.
They imply answers instead of denying something
directly.
iv. The guilty person may speak more than natural, adding
unnecessary details to convince you... they are not
comfortable with silence or pauses in the conversation.
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4) Verbal Context and Content
v. A liar may leave out pronouns and speak in a
monotonous tone.
When a truthful statement is made the pronoun is
emphasized as much or more than the rest of the words
in a statement.
vi. Words may be garbled and spoken softly, and syntax and
grammar may be off.
In other words, his sentences will likely be muddled
rather than emphasized.
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5) Other signs of a lie
If you believe someone is lying, then change subject of a
conversation quickly, a liar follows along willingly and
becomes more relaxed.
The guilty wants the subject changed; an innocent person
may be confused by the sudden change in topics and will
want to back to the previous subject.
Workshop
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Can you guess the nonverbal body language the
faces below are communicating?
1
7
6 5
4 3 2
8
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Answer
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Communication
Strategies
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Communication Strategies - Care
SOLER (Egan, 1986) is a technique used by care workers.
It helps the clients or patients to trust the care-giver and to
feel safe and helps in effective communication.
SOLER is:
S Sit squarely in relation to the patient
O Open position
L Lean slightly towards the patient
E Eye contact
R Relax
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Oral presentations
Sr. No. Skills Criteria
1
Select and organise
information
Relevance of information
Amount appropriate to the time available
Brief introduction
Argument is well organised, using markers
Short conclusion or link (if in group)
2
Project confidence and
enthusiasm
Strong stance, calm appearance, eye contact
Minimal reference to notes
3
Use audio-visuals
effectively
Clear speech
Steady pace
Some modulation
Appropriate emphasis
Explain or define new terms
Avoid jargon and long sentences
4
Use audio-visuals
effectively
Over Head Transparencies (OHTs) not crowded
Equipment used with ease
Information selected that assists the audience
5
Respond to the
audience
Counter arguments explained
Own argument summarised
Active listening and focused response
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Short answers
Sr.
No.
Skills Criteria
1 Analyse the question The question is answered
2
Select relevant
information
The content is all relevant to the question
3
Think critically and
analytically
The answer shows understanding of how key
aspects relate
Information is questioned
4
Begin with a
proposition
The proposition shows understanding of the
question and indicates the points to be covered
The final sentence summarises
5 Present an argument The argument is logical and concise
Presentation
Planning
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1) Presentation
Does your introduction grab participants attention and
explain your objectives?
Do you follow this by clearly defining the points of the
presentation?
Are these main points in logical sequence?
Do these flow well?
Do the main points need support from visual aids?
Does your closing summarize the presentation clearly and
concisely?
Is the conclusion strong?
Have your tied the conclusion to the introduction?
Did you demand sale?
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2) Delivery
Are you knowledgeable about the product covered in your
presentation?
Do you have your promotional inputs in order?
Where and how will you present (indoors, outdoors,
standing, sitting, etc.)?
Have you checked and practice your visual aids, brochure
and other promotional inputs?
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3) Appearance
Make sure you are dressed and groomed appropriately and
in keeping with the audiences expectations.
Practice your speech standing (or sitting, if applicable),
paying close attention to your body language, even your
posture, both of which will be assessed by the audience.


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4) Visual Aids
Are the visual aids easy to read and easy to understand?
Did you understand the Visual aid?
Are they are in proper condition?
Can doctor see them easily while you are detailing them?


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Basic structure of a sales presentation
Opening
Get attention
Create interest and sustain it (Joke , Graph, Picture etc.)
Present benefits
Demonstrate
Feedback
Handle objection
Close

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