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Led by

Dr. Syamsir Torang


2

Bismillahirrahmanirrahim
Assalamu Alaikum Warahmatullahi Wabarakatuh


Katakanlah: Adakah sama orang-orang yang
mengetahui dengan orang-orang yang tidak
mengetahui? Sesungguhnya orang yang berakallah
yang dapat menerima pelajaran
(Surat Az-Zumar, 39: 9)


Allah akan meninggikan orang yang beriman di
antara kamu dan orang-orang yang diberi ilmu
pengetahuan, beberapa derajat
(Surat Al-Mujaadalah, 58: 11)


NAME : Dr. SYAMSIR TORANG
JOB : LECTURER of KOPERTIS WIL IX SULAWESI
NIP : 19630309 199203 1002
GRADE/ POSITION : IV B/ LEKTOR KEPALA
EDUCATION : S3 (SOCIAL SCIENCE)
EXPERIENCES :
1. DEPUTY RECTOR III of UNIV. SATRIA MKSR (1995-1999)
2. TEAM LEADER of Cti ENG. JEPANG (1999-2004)
3. EXPERT STAFF of SOUTH SULAWESI GOVERN(2005-2010)
4. NGO ACTIVIST (1997-2004)
5. EXPERT STAFF of NATIONAL MANDATE PARTY (2005-NOW ON)
6. LECTURER of MASTER DEGREES UIT (2007-NOW ON)
7. LECTURER of BASIC LECTURING SKILL of KOPERTIS WIL IX
SULAWESI (2007-NOW ON)
8. SECRETARY of MASTER DEGREES UIT (2011-NOW ON)
9. RESEARCHER (1995-NOW ON)
10. BOOKS WRITER (4 BOOKS)

CONTACT NO : 0813 4247 1918 or 0819 427 0063
EMAIL : syamsirtorang@ymail.com


Andersen, A. P. 1989. Philosophy of Science.

Hasan, Erliana. 2011. Filsafat Ilmu

Sofyan, Ayi. 2010. Kapita Selekta Filsafat

Suriasumantri, Jujun S. 2000. Filsafat Ilmu

Torang, Syamsir. 2011. Humaniora.



The Useful of Learning Science Philosophy

1. To Put The Basic of Logic, Truth, Reliability
2. Delivering Knowledge in its Position to Growth &
Develop
3. Analyzing Everything (what) Human Thinks

Rene Descartes (rationalism): cogito ergu sum =
aku berpikir, oleh karena itu aku ADA


1. Saya tidak tahu di tidak tahu-ku (Unconscious
Incompetence)
2. Saya tahu di tidak tahu-ku (Conscious
Incompetence)
3. Saya tahu di tahu-ku (Conscious Competence)
4. Saya tidak tahu di tahu-ku (Unconscious
Competence)



Thats why , Ketahuilah, Apa yang Anda Tahu &
Apa yang Anda Tidak Tahu

A. DEFINITIONS of PHILOSOPHY



1. Philosophy in Arabic means Substance, Truth, Reality, and Essence
2. Philosophy in Greek means PHILOS (Wise & Order) & SOPHIA
(Love)
3. Philosophia means The Love of Wisdom or The Love of Truth
4. Plato (427-347 SM): Dialectical Method : Philosophy must be by
critics and discussion about opinion
5. Aristoteles (384-322 SM): Philosophy studies a BEING (ada) who
is different with the others
6. Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626 M): Philosophy is the main of
science (mother of science)
7. Rene Descartes (1590-1650): Philosophy is a science to study
God, Nature, and Human



B. DEFINITIONS of SCIENCE PHILOSOPHY

Philosophy of Science is :
1. Robert Ackerman : as a critic of scientific opinion by comparison
with the proven last views.
2. Lewis White Beck : asks and evaluates the methods of scientific
thinking and tries to determine the value and significance of
scientific
3. MayBrodbeck : the ethically and philosophically neutral in
analysis, neutral in description, and neutral in clarifications of
science
4. Peter Caws : it constructs theories about human and the universe
(nature), and examines critically everything that may be offered.
5. Stephen R. Toulmin : to explain the elements involved in the
process of scientific inquiry observational procedures, pattern of
arguments, methods of representation and calculation., etc.

(Erliana, 2011)


C. THE OBJECTS, CHARACTERS & USEFUL
OF SCIENCE PHILOSOPHY
A. THE OBJECTS of SCIENCE PHILOSOPHY
1. MATERIAL OBJECTS
GOD
HUMAN
ANIMALS
PLANTS
EARTH
2. FORMAL OBJECTS: VIEWS or OPINION as REFERENCES OF RESEARCH or
KNOWLEDGE

B. THE CHARECTERS of SCIENCE PHILOSOPHY
1. WHOLISTIC
2. BASICALLY
3. SPECULATIVE

C. THE USEFULL of SCIENCE PHILOSOPHY
1. A TOOL TO FIND THE TRUTH
2. TO GIVE UNDERSTANDING of LIFE, VIEW of LIVE, AND VIEW of WOLRD
3. TO EDUCATE US IN MORAL & ETHIC
4. As SOURCE of INSPIRATION & as a GUIDANCE of LIFE





D. THE BASIC THINKING of SCIENCE PHILOSOPHY

1. LOGIC : A SCIENCE AND ART OF CORRECTING
THINKING
NATURALISTIC LOCIC (JUST THE WAY OF HUMAN IS)
SCIENTIFIC LOGIC
ARTIFICIAL LOGIC (TRADITIONAL)
MATERIAL LOGIC (MAJOR LOGIC)
SOURCE OF SCIENCE
TOOLS OF SCIENCE
THE PROCESS OF KNOWLEDGE HAPPENED
LIMITATION OF KNOWLWDGE
SCIENTIFIC METHOD OF KNOWLEDGE
THE TRUTH & WRONG OF KNOWLEDGE

2. ETHIC: A STATEMENT OF MORAL, NORM IS TO
MEASURE MORAL
MORAL NORM
LAW /NORM

E. ONTOLOGY, EPISTEMOLOGY & AXIOLOGY
1. ONTOLOGY

ta onta (Greek) = Ontology = Being & logic/
about being
Ontology is a science: to find essential of deep
existence
Ontology: 1) being (yg ada); 2) reality
(kenyataan); 3) existence (eksistensi); 4)
change (perubahaan); 5) one (tunggal); & 6)
many (jamak)
2. EPISTEMOLOGY
Episteme & logos (Greek): Episteme: knowledge &
Logos: systematic of knowledge
Epistemology is the procedures & ways (method) how
to get or to find science
9 General Frames to understand Epistemology:
1. What does it mean to know
2. What is the source of knowledge
3. The way to know knowledge
4. They way to differentiate between knowledge &
opinion
5. What is the form of knowledge
6. Varieties of knowledge
7. The way to get/ find knowledge
8. What is the truth
9. What is the wrong/ false

2. EPISTEMOLOGY
Classification of Knowledge based on:
1. FACILITIES:
Non scientific knowledge: by senses
Scientific knowledge; by scientific methods (analytical
synthesis, non-deduction; sickles-empirical & linear)
2. CHARACTERISTIC :
Sense knowledge
Rational knowledge
Intuitive knowledge
3. KINDS of KNOWLEDGE :
Common knowledge
Scientific knowledge
Philosophy knowledge
Religion knowledge
2. EPISTEMOLOGY
Scientific Methods:
1. Cycle Empirical Method







2. Intuition (immediately knowledge):
Fast/ spontaneity/ without planning
Transparence
Experiences
HYPOTHESIS
C
O
N
C
L
U
TI
O
N

VARIFICATION
CL
AS
SI
FI
CA
TI
O
N
n

OBSERVATION
3. AXIOLOGY
1. Axiology is a scientific of science useful value
2. Science of Values:
1. Religious Value
2. Enjoyment (kenikmatan)
3. Life value
4. Souls value (kejiwaan)
5. Spirituality value (kerohanian)
6. Economic value
7. Social value
8. Esthetic value
9. Intellectual value
F. METHODS & SCIENCE ATTITUDE
1. SCIENCE METHODS IS PROCEDUR USED IN RESEARCH TO
GET SCIENTIFIC CONCLUTION BASED ON POSTULAT &
PRE-SCIENCE SUBPROPOSITION:
PROBLEM STATEMENTS
SOLVING PROBLEMS (HYPOTHESIS)
TEST & VERIFICATION
2. SCIENCE ATTITUDE:
OBJECTIVE
RELATIVE
SCEPTIVE (RAGU)
NOT SIDE WITH (TDK MEMIHAK)
3. RESEARCH PROCESS
STATE THE PROBLEMS
THEORETICAL REVIEW
GET DATA
DATA ANALYSIS
CONCLUSION & SUGGESTION
G. HUMAN BEING : PHILOSOPHY VIEW
ARISTOTELES : Human is an social animal
THOMAS HOBBES : Human is a machine
ADAM SMITH : Human is egoistic (individualistic)
AGUSTE COMTE (1798-1857) People/ Human developed in
3 phases: Theological (supernatural), Metaphysic
(personification abstract), Positivism (science)
KARL MARX (1818-1883): Individual Depended on his
Social Relation & Social Relation Depended on class
Situation & Economic Structure (depended on social
position)
EMILE DURKHEIM (1858-1917): Individual is Residual
Category (he puts everything he has taken out)
MAX WEBER (1864-1920): Individual Depended on his
Action (rational-purposes, rational-value, rational-effective
(based on feeling/ emotion), & traditionalism (non
rational))
H. CULTURE : PHILOSOPHY VIEW
CULTURE IS THAT COMPLEX WHOLE WHICH INCLUDES KNOWLEDGE,
BELIEF,ART, MORALS, LAW CUSTOM and ANY OTHER CAPABILITIES
ACQUIRED BY MAN AS A MEMBER OF SOCIETY (E.B. TYLOR, 1873)
CULTURE IS PART of LIFE CREATED BY HUMAN (HERKOVITS)

1. NON MATERIAL
NORM/ LAW
SYSTEM
VALUE
BELIEF
CUSTOM
KNOWLEDGE
LANGUAGE
2. MATERIAL
TECHNOLOGY
HOUSE/ CLOTHES
ARTs
Etc
NOTE : TASK & DISCUSSION (VILLAGERS HEALTH CULTURE)






Thanks