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WCDMA Radio Network
Coverage Planning
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Upon completion of this course, you will be able to:
Know the contents and process of network planning.
Understand the uplink budget and its elements.
Understand the downlink budget and its elements.
Familiarize the coverage enhancement technologies. .
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Chapter 1 Process of WCDMA Network Planning
Chapter 2 Uplink Budget
Chapter 3 Downlink Budget
Chapter 4 Coverage Enhancement Technologies
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Chapter 1 Process of WCDMA Network Planning
1.1 Overview of Radio Network Planning
1.2 Huawei Concept of Radio Network Planning
1.3 Process of Radio Network Planning
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Definition and Category of Network Planning
Focus of the train:
Planning of radio network.
Definition:
Network planning means that proper network elements (NEs) are
selected according to the network target, network evolution
requirement, and cost, and then the quality, configuration, and
connection mode of the NEs are determined to facilitate engineering
implementation.
Categories:
Planning of core network
Planning of radio network
Planning of transmission network
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Importance of Radio Network Planning in 3G
Importance:
The construction cost of the mobile
communications network mainly lies in the
equipment investment.
Among the three parts of the 3G network
(radio access network, transmission network,
and core network), the radio access network
occupies more than 70% investment.
The investment in the radio access network
depends on the number and configuration of
the BSs.
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Compare WCDMA Network Planning with that of GSM
In the GSM system, the structure and
frequency of the cellular network are planned
in order to ensure that the co-frequency and
adjacent-frequency interference meet the call
quality requirement.
If the interference requirement is met, the
number of supported subscribers can be
calculated based on the number of carrier
frequencies and the number of timeslots.
The coverage of the GSM system depends on
the transmit power of the transmitter and the
demodulation performance of the receiver.
The GSM mainly offers voice service, and the
GoS and design objective are relatively simple.
f1
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f1
f3
f1
WCDMA uses the spread spectrum technology,
so it can realize 11 frequency multiplexing
without frequency planning.
The capacity of each carrier in WCDMA is
"soft" because it is related to factors such as
environment and adjacent-cell interference.
The coverage of the WCDMA system is related
to the system load. If the system load
increases, the coverage will shrink.
The WCDMA system supports services with
different rate and QoS, including voice service,
and their coverage capacity is different. In the
network planning, the system performance
shall be optimized through reasonable
planning and radio resource management.
f1
f1
f1
f1
f1
f1
f1
f1
f1
f1
f1
f1
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f1
f1
f1
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Chapter 1 Process of WCDMA Network Planning
1.1 Overview of Radio Network Planning
1.2 Huawei Concept of Radio Network Planning
1.3 Process of Radio Network Planning
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Huawei Concept of Wireless Network Planning
Optimal coverage for profitable services
The 3G network is a multi-service network, so the network resources need be
distributed among different services. The cell radius and coverage scheme
should be determined after the profitable services and their coverage quality
are determined. At the early stage of the 3G network, if the planning focuses
on high-speed data service, it will result in waste of the BSs because there are
not enough services.
Competitive core service
Core service refers to the service that have a long-term effect on the network
development. It is possible that the core service is not profitable in a short
period, but is the attraction of the subscriber increase and service
development, for example, high-speed data service. Therefore, the quality of
the core service should be guaranteed in order to show the service and
performance advantages of the 3G network and promote the operator's brand.
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Huawei Concept of Wireless Network Planning
Highest capacity based on limited resources
The capacity of the 3G network is mainly affected
by interference. Reasonable parameter planning
may help to reduce intra-cell and inter-cell
interference, improve the cell capacity, and make
full use of the limited resources.
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Huawei Concept of Wireless Network Planning
Lowest overall cost of network construction
The construction of the radio network goes through
the lifecycle of the network. In the planning, further
development shall be considered, in order to
reduce the total cost of network construction.
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Chapter 1 Process of WCDMA Network Planning
1.1 Overview of Radio Network Planning
1.2 Huawei Concept of Radio Network Planning
1.3 Process of Radio Network Planning
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Process of Wireless Network Planning
Radio Network Dimensioning (RND)
At the early stage of the project planning, the future
network is preliminarily planned, and the configuration and
the number of RAN NEs are output for preliminary project
negotiation and for cost estimation in contract signing.
Pre-planning of radio network
At the mid stage of project planning, based on the
dimensioning output, the future network is planned in
detail, and the accurate network scale and theoretical site
location are determined. A pre-planning report will be
output for mid-stage project and cost estimation in
contract signing.
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Process of Wireless Network Planning
Cell planning of radio network
At the later stage of project planning, based on the
pre-planning output, each selected site is surveyed,
and the related cell parameters are determined. If the
result is quite different from the planning, the cell
parameters and planning effect should be checked
through simulation, and the output report would be
the final radio network planning scheme that can
guide the project implementation.
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Process of Radio Network Planning
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Network dimensioning is an iterative process
Downlink analysis checks whether NodeB power is enough to cover the users
Radio Network Dimensioning
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Radio Network Dimensioning
Radio network dimensioning is a simplified analysis of
the future network.
Objective:
To obtain the network scale (Approximate BS
quantity and configuration), to obtain the
construction period, and to obtain information such
as electronical cost and human resource cost.
Method:
Select a proper propagation model, and subscriber
mobility, distribution, and traffic models, and then
estimate the site quantity, cell quantity, coverage
size and capacity.
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Requirement of RND parameters
Information of coverage area
The engineers of RNP should know exact information
about coverage area ,for example :
Area , economy, population
Distribution of cluster
The information of mobile communication market

Target of network
The target of network should include several factors:
Service
Coverage area & Coverage quality
Network Capacity
Target load of cell
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Requirement of RND parameters
Limited by network scale & Building plan in different phase
Base on commercial contract
Base on RND result if there is no commercial contract

Information of available site
For a new operator who doesnt have abundant 2G mobile
communication network sites, the RNP engineer should
collect exact information about available site.
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Radio Network dimensioning
Coverage information
Coverage area
Coverage probability
Capacity information
Traffic model
Service model
Subscriber density
Quality information
QoS requirement
GoS requirement
Demodulation threshold
System scale
Site quantity
System configuration
Sector structure
Carrier quantity
Network construction cost
Site cost
Equipment cost
I nput Output
Coverage dimensioning
Capacity dimensioning
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Radio Network Pre-planning
Based on radio network
dimensioning, the network pre-
planning intends to determine
the initial layout and theoretical
location of the BSs and select
engineering parameters (BS
location, network hierarchy,
transmit power, antenna
layout/type/direction/tilt angle,
and so on) and some cell
parameters (common channel,
transmit power of traffic
channel, orthogonal factor, cell
scrambling code, and so on) .
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Radio Network Pre-planning
Based on the result of RND,
theoretical location of site,
parameters of project, parameters of
cell, We should carry out coverage
simulation.
We should carry out more detailed
adjustment (for example amount of
NodeB, configuration of NodeB,
antenna altitude, antenna azimuth)
after analyzing the results of
coverage simulation.
Finally ,we should get perfect
coverage result.
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Radio Network Pre-planning
Radio Network Pre-planning report

We should output Radio Network Pre-planning report after finishing
previous jobs. Radio Network Pre-planning report should include
following factors:

Introduce of project background
Information of planning area :area, population, cluster
Project of radio network pre-planning: site distribution map, site list
( include site name, latitude ,longitude, parameters)
Performance of project :based on the simulation result
Appendix: statistical diagram about performance
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Radio Network Cell Planning
Flowchart of cell planning













N
Site survey
report
Site selection
System
emulation
Design
objective
met?
Wireless network
planning report
Noise test
Noise test report
Wireless network
pre-planning
report
Site survey
N




NewSite
2G
Search
Rings






Yes


Site list
New site (prefix:
NewSite)?
2G site?
Output Search
Rings
Obtain
candidate sites
Site conditions
determined?
Site survey report
Site
requirement
met?
Yes
Site survey
No
Noise test
Noise test report
Wireless network
pre-planning
report
Yes
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
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Radio Network Cell Planning site survey
In fact , perfect site position could not be acquired. We must select some backup
site. But how can we select the backup site?
Based on experience , backup site is selected in SEARCH RING scope ,
SEARCH RING =1/4*R, at the same time ,we still consider its height.
We still pay attention to some other factors when we select the backup sites :
Radio propagation
Site position
Site height
Surrounding
Job implementation
Space of room
Antenna installation
Transmission
Power
Commercial factor
Rent
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Radio Network Cell Planning System Simulation
System Simulation class
Static simulation
Static simulation focus on user
behavior such as browsing Internet,
call.
Dynamic simulation
Dynamic simulation focus on detail
of user behavior such as duration
and data rate of browsing.

At present, Static simulation is in common
use. Monto Carlo simulation is one type of
static simulations
The example of Monto Carlo
simulation
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Distribution of NodeBs
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Simulation diagram pilot coverage intensity
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Simulation diagram pilot coverage quality (Ec/Io)
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Coverage probability of 12.2k voice service
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Coverage probability of 64k video phone service
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Coverage probability of 144k Net Meeting service
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Coverage probability of 384k HTTP service
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Simulation result about pilot pollution
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Chapter 1 Process of WCDMA Network Planning
Chapter 2 Uplink Budget
Chapter 3 Downlink Budget
Chapter 4 Coverage Enhancement Technologies
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Process of Coverage Budget
Environment features of the
planned area
Site capacity
Indoor coverage
Coverage probability
Propagation model
Equipment performance
Create link budget
Obtain cell radius
Calculate site area
Specify site quantity
of the area
Maximum path loss
Minimum cell radius
Maximum site
coverage area
Site quantity=planned area/site coverage area
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Fundamental Principle
Link Budget: Link
Budget intends to
estimate the
system coverage
by analyzing the
factors of the
propagation of the
forward signal
and reverse
signal, in order to
obtain the
maximum
propagation loss
after certain
communications
quality is ensured.
TX
Combiner
Duplexer
Feeder
RX
Pout_BS
Lc_BS
Lf_BS
Ga_BS NodeB
TX
RX
Pout_UE
Ga_UE
UE
Combiner
Duplexer
Body Loss
Fading
Margin
Penetration
Loss
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Algorithm Introduction
PL_UL=Pout_UE +Ga_BS+Ga_UE Lf_BS+Ga_SHO Mpc Mf
MI Lp Lb S_BS
PL_UL: Maximum propagation loss of the Uplink
Pout_UE: Maximum transmit power of the traffic channel of the UE
Lf_BS: Cable loss
Ga_BS: Antenna gain of the BS; Ga_UE: Antenna gain of the MS
Ga_SHO: Gain of soft handover
Mpc: Margin for fast power control
Mf: Slow fading margin (related to the propagation environment)
MI: Interference margin (related to the designed system capacity)
Lp: Penetration loss of a building (used if indoor coverage is required)
Lb: Body loss
S_BS: Sensitivity of BS receiver (related to factors such as service and
multi-path condition)
Uplink (reverse)
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
Max Power of TCH
Body Loss
Gain of UE Tx Antenna
EIRP
Gain of BS Rx Antenna
Cable Loss
Noise Figure (BS)
Required Eb/No (BS)
Sensitivity of BS Receiver
UL Cell Load
Interference Margin
Background Noise Level
SHO Gain over Fast Fading
Fast Fading Margin
Minimum Signal Strength
Required
Penetration Loss
Std. dev. of Slow Fading
Edge coverage Probability
Slow Fading Margin
SHO Gain over Slow Fading
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
1.Max Power of TCH (dBm)
For a UE, the maximum power of each traffic channel is usually the
nominal total transmit power. There are many types of UE in a
commercial network, so this parameters should be reasonably set in
the link budget according to the specifications of a mainstream
commercial cell phone and the requirement of the operator.
Grade of UE power TS 25.101 v3.7.0 2001-066.2.1
Power Class Nominal maximum output power Tolerance
1 +33dBm +1/-3dB
2 +27dBm +1/-3dB
3 +24dBm +1/-3dB
4 +21dBm +2/-2dB
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
2. Body Loss (dB)
For voice service, the body loss is 3 dB.
Because the data service mainly involves reading and video,
so the UE is relatively far from body, and the body loss is 0
dB.
3. Gain of UE Tx Antenna (dBi)
In general, assume that the receiver gain and transmitter
gain of the UE antenna are both 0 dBi.
4. EIRP(dBm)
UE EIRP (dBm)
= UE Tx Power (dBm) - Body Loss (dB)
+ Gain of UE Tx Antenna (dBi)
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
5. Gain of BS Rx Antenna (dBi)
Kathrein 741794
Frequency range
1710~2170MHz (dual
band for DCS and
UMTS)
Polarization +45

, -45


Gain 18.5dBi
HPBW (1920~2170MHz)
Horizontal: 63


Vertical:6.5


Electrical tilt Fixed, 2


Side lobe suppression for 1
st
side
lobe above horizon
>14dB
Front-to-back ratio, co-polar >30dB
dimensioning (Height / Width /
Depth)
1302 mm / 155 mm / 69
mm
Weight 6.6kg
Kathrein 741790
Frequency range 1920~2170MHz
Polarization Vertical
Gain 11dBi
HPBW Vertical: 7


Electrical tilt Fixed, 0


dimensioning (Height) 1387 mm
Weight 5kg

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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
6. Cable Loss (dB)
It includes the loss of the feeders and
connectors between the cabinet top and
the antenna connector.
Lower jumper
Connector
Feeder
Upper jumper
Etc.
Except for the feeder, the loss is
relatively constant. Assume that the
connecter loss is 0.8 dB.
7/8-inch feeder: 6.1 dB / 100m for 2GHz
5/4-inch feeder: 4.5 dB / 100m for 2GHz

Bracket
Bracket
Tilt adjuster
Antenna
Upper jumper
Feeder
Feeder window
Lightning arrester
Lower jumper
Feeder fixing clip
Feeder grounding clip
Feeder installation
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
7. Noise Figure (dB)
Noise figure (NF): It is used to measure the noise
performance of an amplifier. It refers to the ratio of the input
SNR to the output SNR of the antenna.




Thermal noise of receiver (unit bandwidth):
PN = KTBWNF
= -174 (dBm/Hz) + 10lg(3.84MHz / 1Hz) + NF(dB)
= -108 (dBm/3.84MHz) + NF (dB)
NF = SNR
i
/ SNR
o

= (S
i
/ N
i
) / (S
o
/ N
o
)
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
8. Eb/No Required (dB)
It is obtained through link simulation. It is related to the following:
Configuration of receiver diversity
Multi-path channel condition
Bearer type
9. Sensitivity of BS Receiver (dBm)
Sensitivity of Receiver (dBm)
= -174 (dBm/Hz) + NF (dB) + 10lg(3.84MHz/1Hz)
+ required Eb/No (dB) - 10lg[3.84MHz/Rb(kHz)]
= -174 (dBm/Hz) + NF (dB) + 10lg[1000 * Rb (kHz)] + Eb/No (dB)
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
10. Background Noise Level (dBm)
External electromagnetic interference sources:
Wireless transmitters (GSM, microwave, radar,
television station, and so)
Automobile ignition
Lightning

For the planning for a specific area, it is
recommended to estimate the local interference
through noise test.
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
11. Penetration Loss (dB)
Indoor penetration loss refers to the difference between the
average signal strength outside the building and the average signal
strength of one layer of the building.
The penetration loss is related to building type, arrive angle of the
radio wave, and so on. In the link budget, assume that the
penetration loss is subject to the lognormal distribution. The
penetration loss is indicated by average penetration loss and
standard deviation.
It is uneconomical to provide better indoor coverage through an
outdoor BS. The indoor coverage shall be provided through a
reasonable indoor coverage solution.
In the actual construction of a commercial network, the penetration
loss margin is usually specified by the operator in order to compare
the planning results of different manufacturers.
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
12. Fast Fading Margin (dB)
In the link budget, the demodulation performance of the used receiver is
the simulation result based on the assumed ideal power control. In an
actual system, because of the limited transmit power of the transmitter,
non-ideal factors are introduced in the closed loop power control.
Effect of power control margin on the uplink demodulation performance:
The simulation shows the following: When the HeadRoom is large,
the target Eb/No set in the outer loop power control is appropriate to
the simulation result under the ideal power control. As the power
margin decreases, the Eb/No gradually increases (if the power
margin decreases by 1 dB, the required Eb/No increases by about 1
dB). If power control performance is almost not available, the
BER/BLER cannot be ensured.
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
13. Edge coverage Probability
When the transmit power of a UE hits the threshold, but the path loss does
not meet the requirements for the lowest receive level, the link will be
disconnected.
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SF x o , ( ) dnorm x 0 , o , ( ) :=
30 20 10 0 10 20 30
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
SF x 8 , ( )
SF x 10 , ( )
SF x 12 , ( )
x
SF_M x o , ( ) pnormx 0 , o , ( ) :=
20 16 12 8 4 0 4 8 12 16 20
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
SF_M x 8 , ( )
SF_M x 10 , ( )
SF_M x 12 , ( )
x








Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
14. Slow Fading Margin (dB)
Key point: Property of normal distribution.
Slow Fading Margin (dB) = required edge coverage ProbabilityStd.
dev. of Slow Fading (dB)
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
15. Uplink Cell Load



Uplink cell load is used to measure the uplink load of a cell.
The higher the uplink cell load, the higher the uplink interference.
If the uplink load is about 100% , the uplink interference becomes infinite,
and the corresponding capacity is the limit capacity.
( ) ( )
( )

+ = + =
N
j j j
N
j UL
W
v R EbvsNo
i L i
1 1
1 1 q
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
16. Uplink Interference Margin (dB)
50% Load 3dB
60% Load 4dB
75% Load 6dB
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
17. SHO Gain Fading (dB)
The soft handover gain includes two parts:
Multiple related soft handover branches lower the
required margin for fading, which results in multi-cell
gain.
Gain for the link demodulation of the soft handover :
marco diversity combining gain.
The SHO Gain over Fast Fading refer to the macro
diversity combination gain.
Slow fading between BSs is partly irrelevant, and an
MS can select a better BS through soft handover

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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
19. Minimum Signal Strength Required (dBm)
After the interference factors and the factors
degrading the performance are considered, the signal
strength required by the correct demodulation is
receiver sensitivity in the network.
Minimum Signal Strength Required
= Sensitivity of Receiver (dBm) - Gain of Antenna (dBi)
+ Body Loss (dB) + Interference Margin (dB)
+ Margin for Background Noise (dB) - SHO Gain over
fast fading (dB) + Fast Fading Margin (dB)
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Elements of WCDMA Uplink Budget
Summary: Cell edge path loss
Based on the maximum path loss allowed by the link,
the path loss at the cell edge can be calculated if the
fading margin and soft handover gain for providing the
required edge/area coverage probability and the
penetration loss of indoor coverage are considered.
Path Loss (dB) = [ EiRP (dBm) - Minimum Signal
Strength Required (dBm) ]- Penetration Loss (dB) -
Slow Fading Margin (dB) + SHO Gain over Slow
Fading (dB)
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Chapter 1 Process of WCDMA Network Planning
Chapter 2 Uplink Budget
Chapter 3 Downlink Budget
Chapter 4 Coverage Enhancement Technologies
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Page 58
Fundamental Principle
Link Budget: Link
Budget intends to
estimate the system
coverage by
analyzing the factors
of the propagation
of the forward signal
and reverse signal, in
order to obtain the
maximum
propagation loss after
certain
communications
quality is ensured.
TX
Combiner
Duplexer
Feeder
RX
Pout_BS
Lc_BS
Lf_BS
Ga_BS NodeB
TX
RX
Pout_UE
Ga_UE
UE
Combiner
Duplexer
Body Loss
Fading
Margin
Penetration
Loss
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Algorithm
PL_DL=Pout_BS Lf_BS+Ga_BS+Ga_UE +Ga_SHO Mpc Mf MI Lp
Lb S_UE
PL_DL: Maximum propagation loss of the downlink
Pout_UE: Maximum transmit power of the traffic channel of the BS
Lf_BS: Cable loss
Ga_BS: Antenna gain of the BS; Ga_UE: Antenna gain of the MS
Ga_SHO: Gain of soft handover
Mpc: Margin for fast power control
Mf: Slow fading margin (related to the propagation environment)
MI: Interference margin (related to the designed system capacity)
Lp: Penetration loss of a building (used if indoor coverage is required)
Lb: Body loss
S_UE: Sensitivity of UE receiver (related to factors such as service and
multi-path condition)
Downlink (forward)
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Elements of WCDMA Downlink Budget
Max Power of TCH
Cable Loss
Gain of BS Tx Antenna
EIRP
Gain of UE Rx Antenna
Body Loss
Noise Figure (UE)
Required Eb/No (UE)
Sensitivity of UE Receiver
DL Cell Loading
Interference Margin
Background Noise Level

SHO Gain over Fast Fading
Fast Fading Margin
Minimum Signal Strength
Required
Penetration Loss
Std. dev. of Slow Fading
Edge coverage Probability
Slow Fading Margin
SHO Gain over Slow Fading
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Page 61
Elements of WCDMA Downlink Budget
1.Downlink Cell Load
Downlink cell load factor is defined in two ways:
Downlink cell load at the receiver:



Downlink cell load at the receiver: The ratio of the current cell transmit
power to the maximum BS transmit power. Characteristics:
The higher the downlink cell load, the higher the cell transmit power.
The downlink cell load is related to service type, UE receiver
performance, cell size, and BS capability.
( ) ( )
(

+ =
N
j
j
j j j DL
v
W
R
EbvsNo i
1
1 o q
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Page 62
: 1.78
Elements of WCDMA Downlink Budget
2.Downlink Interference Margin (dB)
Downlink interference at UE receiver:


The downlink load factor is:

The link budget tool uses the following typical values:
orthogonal factor : It is obtained through simulation. It is related to
environment type and cell radius.
Cell edge adjacent-cell interference factor
N
N
N
n
n j
T
j
T
j
N
total
P
P
PL
P
PL
P
P
I
j NoiseRise
+ +
= =

=1
,
1
) 1 (
) (

o
j DL
f
,

=
N
n
n j
own j
PL
PL
1
,
,
j
o
( )
( )

=
(

+ =
J
j
j DL j
j j j o b
DL
f
W
R V N E
1
,
) 1 (
/
o q
,where =
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Page 63
Chapter 1 Process of WCDMA Network Planning
Chapter 2 Uplink Budget
Chapter 3 Downlink Budget
Chapter 4 Coverage Enhancement Technologies
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Page 64
Tower Mounted Amplifier (TMA)
TMA
A TMA locate the position
under the antenna
A TMA is Low noise amplifier
A TMA helps to improve the
uplink receive sensitivity and
enhances the uplink coverage
A TMA usually has 0.7dB loss
in the downlink.
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Page 65
4-antennas Reception Diversity
4Antenna reception diversity
4Antenna reception diversity has
two types
Two Cross-polarization
antennas
Four antennas
4Antenna reception diversity
helps to improve the uplink
reception performance
Improve the uplink coverage and
capacity performance
4Antenna reception diversity
need equipment support
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