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Rev PA1 09/03/2001 1

FREQUENCY
HOPPING
Technical Concept of
Frequency Hopping
Rev PA1 10/02/2001 2
Definition ...
means that the radio frequency channel of a BPC
change on a per TDMA frame basis
Frequency hopping improves the quality of the
transmission on the air interface
Figure 1
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Figure 2
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Contents...
Capabilities
Technical Description
Channel Configuration
Parameters

Capabilities
Technical Description
Channel Configuration
Parameters

- Frequency Diversity
- Interference Diversity
- C/I Distribution
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Frequency Diversity...
Multipath Fading
frequency hopping can REDUCE multipath fading effect
frequency and location dependent
low SS are levelled out: MS perceive more even radio
environment
Figure 3
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Interference Diversity...
Definition
frequency change on every TDMA frame
interfered frequency spreaded across many mobile (average
out): more even radio environment
Interference Diversity Gain affected by:
hopping sequence correlation
# of hopping frequencies


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C/I Distribution
C/I
MS Distribution
No HOP
FHOP
FHOP + BTSPC
FHOP + BTSPC + DTX
Figure 4
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Contents...
Capabilities
Technical Description
Channel Configuration
Parameters

- Configuration:
Carrier-zero filling
- Algorithm
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Configuration ...
f0
CHGR0
f1, f2, ...
CHGR1
... ,fn
... , CHGR15
TG
BCCH carrier must always transmit
No traffic burst, dummy burst sent (provided by
transmitter) - called carrier-zero (c0) filling
Figure 5
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Carrier-zero filling : Baseband Hopping
Can use filter combiner
1-on-1: One fixed frequency for one TRX
Example: 4 TRX and 1 CHGR
Figure 6 Figure 7
# of i/p (up to):
RBS200: 16
RBS2000: 12
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TS0 in BCCH carrier cannot hop, so how do
you perform carrier-zero filling.?
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Carrier-zero filling: Synthesizer hopping (2 CHGR)
Uses wide-band hybrid combiner
CHGR0 : HOP = OFF, CHGR1 : HOP = ON
Figure 8
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Carrier-zero filling: Synthesizer hopping (opt. 1)
(BCCH frequency included in hopping set)
Transmitter configured for SY hopping: cannot perform filling
BSC has to be able to support BTS configurations with extra TX
Extra transmitter (TX) added: operating only as c0 filler
Figure 9 Figure 10
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Extra transceiver (TRX) added used for ts0 of BCCH carrier and
filling only i.e. carries no traffic
This case, additional TCH compared to option 1 (figure 10)
Carrier-zero filling: Synthesizer hopping (opt. 2)
(BCCH frequency include in hopping set)
Figure 11 Figure 12
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Algorithm ...
Cyclic frequency hopping (HSN = 0)
frequency changed in a consecutive order
E.g. hopping over 4 frequencies:


Cyclic sequence defined in GSM specification: goes from
lowest ARFCN to the highest, and over again, in that channel
group
Random frequency hopping (HSN = 1 to 63)
stored in a look-up table in MS & BTS = 63 defined
e.g. hopping over 4 frequency:
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Orthogonal hopping
sequence
in a CHGR: all TRX assigned
the same HSN but unique
MAIO
e.g.




MAIO list : default or define
own list

Independent Hopping
Sequence
HSN defined depending on
cells are sync or
unsynchronized
Sync/unsync: decides
importance of MAIO
Unsynchronized cells:
individual HSN (especially
for same set of
frequencies)
e.g.




Sync: means the same HSN
for all cells on same frequency
sets -> different MAIO

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Contents...
Capabilities
Technical Description
Channel Configuration
Parameters

- Baseband Hopping
- Synthesizer Hopping
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Baseband Hopping ...
Example:
without subcell structure
1 CHGR
Parameter setting:
Parameter Value Description
BCCHNO 75 The frequency defined by ARFCN 75 is defined as
the BCCH frequency (f0)
CHGR 0 Channel group 0 is defined in the cell
HOP ON Channel group 0 is hopping
FHOP BB Baseband hopping is enabled
HSN 0 Cyclic hopping mode is specified
DCHNO 78, 81, 84 Three frequencies are assigned to CHGR0, defined
by ARFCN 78, 81 and 84 (f1, f2, f3)
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continue ...
System will automatically define 3 Hopping Frequency Sets (HFS):
HFS1 {75}
HFS2 {78, 81

, 84}
HFS3 {75, 78, 81, 84}



Figure 13
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Synthesizer Hopping ...
2 channel groups
define frequencies into 2 CHGR
Parameter setting:




e.g. 2 TRX with 4 frequency (f
0
, f
1
, f
2
, f
3
)
CHGR0 = f
0

TS0 = BCCH, TS1 - TS7 = TCHs (non-hop)

CHGR1 = f
1
, f
2
, f
3


TS0 - TS7 = TCHs (hop over 3 frequencies)
NOTE: HFS tells the frequencies that can be hopped-
on in a particular set

CHGR 0
HOP OFF
BCCHNO f0
CHGR 1
HOP ON
FHOP SY
HSN 0
DCHNO f1, f2, f3
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continue ...
Extra Hardware (extra TX)
Parameter settings (e.g.):






e.g. 2 TRX with 4 frequency (f
0
, f
1
, f
2
, f
3
)
f
0
:-


TS0 = BCCH, TS1 - TS7 = TCHs (hop over 4 frequencies)

f
1
, f
2
, f
3
:-
TS0 - TS7 = TCHs (hop over 4 frequencies)

BCCHNO f0
CHGR 0
HOP ON
FHOP SY
HSN 0
DCHNO f1, f2, f3
Note: Refer to
figure 10 for
channel
configuration
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Contents...
Capabilities
Technical Description
Channel Configuration
Parameters

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Main controlling parameter ...
Parameter
name
Default
value
Recommended
value
Value
Range
Defined
per
HOP OFF ON OFF, TCH,
ON
CHGR
HSN - 0 to 63 CHGR
FHOP - BB, SY TG
COMB - HYB, FLT TG
MAIO Default - 0 to 15 or
Default
TRX
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QUESTIONS???