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The Plant Kingdom
4 General Characteristics:
3) They have chloroplasts
2) Plants make their own food by photosynthesis
1) Multi-celled organisms
organelle where
photosynthesis
takes place
chloroplasts-
theyre green because they have chlorophyll
the chemical that gives plants their green color
Chlorophyll-
traps light energy for photosynthesis
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Chloroplast
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Chloroplast
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4 General Characteristics Contd
4) Plant cells have cell walls (animal cells do not)
stiff cell walls give structure to each cell
also supports the plant
made of cellulose
have holes through which cells share
cytoplasm & pass nutrients sugars, water, and
hormones
cells walls
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Photosynthesis:
releases oxygen
Process in which plants use water, carbon
dioxide, and energy from the sun to make food
Photosynthesis -
only occurs in the chloroplasts
Prefix photo means:
Light
Root word synthesis means:
to make
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What process is illustrated here?
6CO
2
+ 6H
2
O + light energy = C
6
H
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O
6
+ 6O
2
Photosynthesis
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How are plants organized?
PLANTS
Seedless Plants Seed Plants
Angiosperms
Gymnosperms
Ferns &
related
plants
Mosses &
related
plants
Vascular Nonvascular
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2 Main Types of Plants
2) Nonvascular Plants
1) Vascular Plants
PLANTS
Vascular Nonvascular
broken into 2 more subgroups called:
a) seedless plants
b) seed plants
not broken into subgroups
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Vascular Plants
Vascular Plants-
plants that have tube-like cells
in their roots, stems, & leaves
that carry H
2
O and nutrients
Vascular comes from
the Latin word
vasculum which
means vessel
roots, stems, and leaves of a plant are all
called organs
they lose their leaves like a pet sheds
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Vascular Plants: 3 organs and their jobs
Vascular Plant Organs:( roots, stems, & leaves)
ROOTS-
anchors the plant into the ground
STEMS-
LEAVES-
place where all of the chloroplasts are located
takes in H
2
O & nutrients directly from the soil
carry water to all parts of the plant
holds the leaves up to the sunlight
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Vascular Plants: 2 Types of Tubes
tube-like cells that carry water & dissolved
minerals from the roots to the leaves
tube-like cells that carry food, which is
made in the leaves, to all parts of the plant
each one has a specific function (job)
a) xylem
b) phloem
vascular plants have 2 different types of
tube-like structures inside them
think of tiny pipes...like a plumbing system
Xylem -
Phloem-
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Phloem
xylem
Take another
L k
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PLANTS
Seedless Plants Seed Plants
Vascular Nonvascular
Vascular Plants: Two Main Groups
1) seedless plants
Vascular plant that DO NOT have seeds
Ex: ferns
2) seed plants
Vascular plant that have seeds for reproduction
Ex: conifers & flowering plants
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Vascular Plants: Seedless (ferns)
Ferns- seedless plants
usually grow in moist shady areas
they have adapted to grow in other environments:
stem stores the food & water
-aquatic (water)
-dry climates
-tropical regions
water horn fern
tropical fern
typical fern
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Vascular Plants: Seedless (ferns)
The Fern Leaf
divided into tiny leaflets that look feathery
loses leaves at the end of each growing season
ferns are classified by their leaves
reproduce by spores formed on
the underside of the leaf
The Fern Reproduction
the cases that hold the spores
look like brown and orange spots
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Vascular Plants: Seedless (ferns)
4 Parts of a Fern:
rhizoid-
an underground stem that
anchored by the roots
roots-
anchor the fern
Frond-
full grown leaves that stand vertically
Fiddlehead-
tightly coiled new leaves
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roots-
rhizoid-
Frond-
Fiddlehead-
Vascular Plants: Seedless (ferns)
4 Parts of a Fern:
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Vascular Plants: Seed Plants (conifers)
Conifer-
2 main parts :
embryo-
An organism that contains a new young
plant and stored food in its earliest
stage of birth
seed-
A plant embryo that contains a new
young plant and stored food
surrounded by a protective coat
a type of seed plant that
produces its seeds inside
a cone
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Vascular Plants: Seed Plants (conifers)
Evergreens-
they lose their leaves like a pet sheds
a type of conifer that keeps its
leaves all year long
example: pine, spruce, & fir trees
some lose their leaves in the fall only such as:
larch, dawn redwood, & bald cypress
(not all at the same time)
2 Main Types of Plants
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Vascular Plants: Seed Plants (conifers)
5 important facts about conifers
1) of the worlds lumber is from conifers
2) provide almost all of the worlds paper
3) source of turpentine's, disinfectants, and fuel
4) Provides food for many animals
5) Provides shelter for many animals
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Vascular Plants: Seed Plants (conifers)
Directions: List 10 items that are made from
conifers
1. 6.
2. 7.
3. 8.
4. 9.
5. 10.
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1) List the 4 general characteristics of plants
2) Define photosynthesis.
3) In which organelle does photosynthesis take
place?
4) What are the 3 main ingredients for
photosynthesis?
5) List two function (job) of the cell wall in plants.
6) List the two main types of plants.
Directions: Answer the following questions
Slide Questions Part One (slides 1-10)