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REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM

Human reproduction depends on structures called gonads.



Gonads are the organs (testes and ovaries) that produce sex
cells (sperm and egg cells).



The Ability to Reproduce Begins at Puberty (8-15 years old)

Puberty:
the period of growth when sexual maturity is reached.
Time when hormones that control sexual function start to
influence body structures.
Secondary sexual characteristics appear.

Puberty
Brain
Hypothalamus
Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone
GnRH
Pituitary Gland
Leutinizing hormone
LH
Follicle Stimulating hormone
FSH
Egg and Sperm Estrogen and Testosterone
testes ovaries testes ovaries
Effects of estrogen
Effects of testosterone
Testes enlarge
Facial and body hair growth
Larynx enlarges (deeper voice)
Muscles develop
Broad shoulders
Breast development
Body hair grows
Hips to widen
Menstruation starts
Fat tissue increases
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Function: production of sperm and sexual hormones. (testosterone)


Scrotum

Testes

Tubules: Epididymis
Vas deferens
Urethra

Glands: Seminal vesicles
Prostatic
Bulbo urethral

Male Reproductive System
The male reproductive glands are called: TESTES
Testes are located: outside the body cavity in a pouch called the SCROTUM
Testes function: production of sperms and testosterone
37C is the average bodys temperature
But a lower temperature is required for
the development of sperm.
Because the scrotum is located outside of the
body, it is several degrees cooler.

Scrotum function: Regulate testes temperature.
Lap top on the lap and hot
water kill sperms!!!!
1. Sperms develop in the testes, in the seminiferous tubules.
These tubules produce100-200 millions of sperms each day.
2. Next, sperm travel to the epididymis, a structure located
on top of each testis. In here the sperm will complete their
maturationstored in the vas deferens.

3. When the sperm are released from the body,
they travel through the vas deferens, a duct
leading away from each testis (two vas deferens).
4. The two vas deferens join together and enter the
urethra, tube that carries both semen and urine
outside of the body through the penis.
Process of sperm production and the path that sperm follows
inside the male tract:
Semen: refers to the fluid that contains: sperms
nourishment
other fluids

SEMINAL VESICLES: contribute over half of the semen and secrete sugar into the fluid, which
provides ENERGY.

PROSTATE GLAND: contribute an alkaline solution to the fluid to neutralize acidic conditions
sperm might encounter in the urethra and the female reproductive tract.

BULBOURETHRAL GLAND: alkaline and lubricant solution.
SPERMS: sex cells.
COMPONENTS
Human female reproductive system
Function:
- Production of egg cells
- Recieves sperm
- Provide an environment for fertilization of an egg and the
development of an embryo.
Ovary: the female reproductive cells (eggs) are produced in the ovaries, each ovary
is about the size of an almond.
Function: house the eggs and produce estrogen.
Oviduct (Fallopian tube): Tube that connects to the uterus.
Function: Transport eggs from the ovary to the uterus.
Uterus: size of an average human fist and is
where the baby develops before birth.
Cervix: lower end of the uterus has a narrow
opening into the vagina.
Vagina: leads to the outside of the females
body, receptacle for semen, birth canal.
The Menstual Cycle
Events that take place each month in the human female to
help prepare the female body for pregnancy.

The length of the menstual cycle can vary from 23 to 35
days but it typically last around 28 days.



The Menstrual cycle can be divided into three phases:

FLOW PHASE

FOLLICULAR PHASE

LUTHEAL PHASE
FLOW PHASE
Day one of the menstrual cycle, menstrual flow begins.
The shedding of blood, tissue fluid,
mucus and epithelial cells form the
ENDOMETRIUM
Is where the embryo will implant if
fertilization of the egg occurs.
Ovary Estrogen levels are low.
Uterus Around day five, repair of the endometrial lining begins.
From day 1 to day 5
FOLLICULAR PHASE
Ovary Estrogen increases, production of FSH and LH slows down, just before
ovulation, estrogen levels peak, stimulating a sudden increase of LH.

Uterus Repair of the endometrial lining of the uterus.

Cervix Produces large amounts of mucus (lubrication).

Lasts from about day 6 to day 14
OVULATION occurs in day 14
Pituitary LH stimulates the corpus luteum to develop from the ruptured follicle.

Ovary Corpus luteum, part of an ovarian follicle that remains in the ovary after
ovulation; produces estrogen and progesterone: pregnancy hormone.

Towards the end of the cycle, the corpus luteum breaks down, no longer producing
progesterone and estrogen triggers detachment of the endometrium and the
Flow phase of a new menstual cycle begin.
If the egg is fertilized the progesterone levels remain high and increase the blood
supply to the endometrium, the corpus luteum does not degenerate and hormone
levels do not drop.
LUTEAL PHASE
Progesterone increases the blood supply of
the endometrium, causing it to accumulate
lipids and tissue fluid prepairing for the arrival
of a fertilized egg.
From days 15 to 28
Hypothala
mus
Pituitary
Gonada
CERVICAL CANCER
Risks and Causes Prevention Signs and Symptoms Treatment

- 70% of the cases are
caused by the Human
papillomavirus (HPV).

- Smoking
- HIV infection
- Chlamydia infection
- Stress-related disorders
- Dietary factors
- Hormonal contraception
- Multiple pregnancies
- Exposure to the
hormonal drug
diethylstilbestrol
- Family history of cervical
cancer.


-

Early age at first
intercourse and first
pregnancy magnified
by early use of
oral contraceptives.

- Pap test
(papanicolaou)

- HPV vaccines

-Symptoms may be absent until
the cancer is in its advanced
stages.

- Vaginal bleeding.

- Moderate pain during sexual
intercourse.

- Vaginal discharge.

In advanced stages:
Loss of appetite, weight loss,
fatigue, pelvic pain, back pain,
leg pain, single swollen leg,
heavy bleeding from the
vagina, leaking of urine or feces
from the vagina and bone
fractures.

Metastasis in abdomen, lungs
or somewhere else.

- Surgery

In advanced stages:
- Chemotherapy
- Radiotherapy
PROSTATE CANCER
Risks and Causes Prevention Signs and Symptoms Treatment

- Age (over 50 years)

- Genetics

- Diet: Trans fatty acids.

- Lifestyle: excersise and
diet.

- Finesteride: decrese
testosterone levels.

-Regular checkups after 40
years.

- Diet with omega-3 fatty
acids.



- Usually is a slow-growing and
symptom-free.

- Pain
- Difficulty in urinating
- Erectile dysfunction




- Metastasize to bones and
lymph nodes.


-Surgery
- Radiation therapy
-Hormonal therapy
- Chemotherapy
REFERENCE
Biggs, A. et al. 2007. Glencoe Science, Biology. Mc Graw Hill 2007
Textbook
p. 1048
HW- Wednesday April 18th

Finish Activity- Reproductive System
Birth Control methods
Amenorrea
Endometriosis

Wednesday April 18th
Check the HW (activity)
Cervical Cancer and Prostate Cancer