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The interplay of events

When Bonifacio started the Revolution, the


Cubans were already fighting for their
independence (1895) headed by Jose
Marti who was hailed as their national
hero.
Interest of America in Cuba
Aguinaldo in Hong Kong
Commodore Dewey in Hong Kong
Theodore Roosevelt
Assistant Secretary of the US Navy

AMERICAN
OCCUPATION, 1898-1946
The Filipinos under the second
colonizers United States of
America.


The Spanish-American War
and the
Battle of Manila Bay:
A Prelude to Americas
Intervention in Philippine Affairs
The Spanish-American War



Two events that hastened the aggressive
attitudes of the United States towards Spain.
The Enrique Dupuy de Lome letter

Bombing of the warship Maine in the
harbor of Havana in Cuba
Enrique Dupuy de Lomes letter
about McKinley
De Lomes Letter
In that letter, Pres. McKinley was
called by de Lome as a weak,
soft-handed politician and a
bidder for the admiration of the
crowd.
Letter was secretly obtained.
The remarks of the Spanish
diplomatic minister created a
strong feeling of resentment that
needed more than de Lomes
recall as Spanish minister to
cover this diplomatic blunder
William McKinley
Warship Maine in the harbor of
Havana in Cuba

Bombing of the warship Maine in the
harbor of Havana in Cuba Feb. 15,
1898

Remember the Maine!
The Americans blamed the Spaniards for
their wrong accusations. A court inquiry
composed of the American navy officers
investigated the incident and found no
evidence. The Americans and anti-
Spanish newspapers convicted Spain in
1898 without any proof of guilt.
The US Response
On April 11, 1898, in a message to
Congress, President McKinley asked for an
advice regarding the most appropriate action
that must be done.
In a resolution signed by McKinley on April
20, the United States Congress announced
that the Cubans are free and independent.
The United States government demand that
Spain must relinquish its authority and
government control over Cuba and withdraw
its land and naval forces from Cuba and its
water
US Declaration of War
Spain was criticized by the United States for
her unfitness and inability to maintain
colonies.

The war declaration was passed on April 25,
1898.

Spains misrule and colonial unfitness in the
Philippines were not mentioned.
Mahan, Cabot Lodge and Roosevelt:
Architects of the US Battle Plan
against Spain
Captain Alfred Mahan
Sen. Henry Cabot Lodge
Theodore Roosevelt
Assistant Secretary of the US Navy
In Roosevelts letter to Sen. Lodge, he wrote that
our Asiatic Squadron should blockade and if
possible, take Manila.
Roosevelt also decided on who should be the best
person to act as commanding officer of the Asiatic
squadron .
A naval officer with a record for aggressiveness.
Commodore George Dewey

Battle of Manila Bay

Dewey vs. Montojo:
Battle of Manila Bay

Battle of Manila Bay

Battle on Manila Bay
American Asiatic Squadron in Hong Kong
May 1, 1898
9 vessels, 6 of which are warships US
12 vessels, 7 were war ships Spain
5:41 till 12 noon
Olympia vs. Reina Cristina
167 killed
214 wounded


Pratt to Aguinaldo: No need to put
the agreement into writing
Pratt and Deweys
words were sacred
and would be fulfilled
unlike the Spaniards.
The United States
government was an
honorable, just and
powerful one.
Official policy of the Washington
State Department
Diplomatic talks between the American
consuls and Aguinaldo were acceptable.
Washington wanted diplomats to utilize the
help of Aguinaldo.
What was prohibited by the State Department
was the forging of any agreement that gives
assurance to Aguinaldo that the United States
government will help the Filipinos achieve
their independence.

After the defeat of the Spaniards in the Battle of
Manila Bay, the Spanish forces were willing to
surrender Manila to the American forces.
Spaniards insisted that there should be no joint
occupation of Manila by the American and Filipino
revolutionary forces.
Negotiations were made between the Spaniards
and the American forces in Manila.
British Consul Rawson Walker and Belgian Consul
Andre acted as negotiators.
Mock Battle of Manila

The Agreement

To save the Spanish honor, a token of
bombardment would be made by the
Americans after which the Spaniards
would raise the white flag.

Mock Battle of Manila
On the morning of
August 13, 1898,
the American
forces conducted a
brief bombardment
of the outer
fortifications in Fort
San Antonio in
Malate and other
Spanish
fortifications in the
walled city.
Mock Battle of Manila
At 10:25 am, a white flag was flying on the
appointed place on the southwestern bastion of
the city wall.
American soldiers entered the city.
Spanish flags were hauled down and the
American flag was raised over the walled city.
The guns of all American ships were fired.
The American regiments played the Star-
Spangled Banner; troops saluted; officers
uncovered and raised the American flag for
the first time in Manila

Protocol of Peace
The Protocol of Peace was signed on August
12, 1898 by Secretary William R. Day for the
United States and Ambassador Jules Cambon
for the Spanish government.
William Day Jules Cambon
Protocol of Peace
Spain relinquished her claim over Cuba
and ceded Guam, Puerto Rico to the
United States.
The armistice ended the Spanish-
American War but it created new
problems and the most difficult among
these problems was the disposition of
the Philippines.




According to Article III of the Peace
Protocol:



The United States will occupy and hold
the city, bay and harbor of Manila,
pending the conclusion of a Treaty of
Peace which shall determine the control,
disposition and government of the
Philippines.
The Treaty of Paris
The Protocol of Peace had provided for the
opening of the peace conference in Paris
on October 1, 1898.

Pres. William McKinley

American Panel Members

Cushman K. Davis
Minnesota (Republican)
Member, Senate Committee on Foreign Relations


William D. Fyre
Maine (Republican)
President Pro-tempore of the Senate and Member of the Senate
Committee on Foreign Relations




George Gray
Delaware (Democrat) and Member of the Senate
Committee on Foreign Relations

William R. Day
Secretary of State
Whitelaw Reid
Editor of the New York Tribune
John Moore

Assistant Secretary of State
Secretary and Counsel of the American panel
Spanish Panel Members
Don Eugenio Montero Rios,
President of the Senate
Don Buenaventura de Abarzuza,
Senator of the Kingdom and former
minister of the crown
Don Jose de Garnica, Deputy to the
Cortes
Don Rafael Cerero, General of the
Division


Don Wenceslao Ramirez de Villa- Urrutia
Envoy extraordinary


Final Decision: Acquire the entire
archipelago

After consulting a number of
people, McKinley changed his
original policy and decided to
acquire the entire archipelago.
His change of heart can be
attributed to a number of factors.
McKinleys Final Decision: Acquire
the entire archipelago

Leaving the islands to Spain would not be
justified on political, commercial and
humanitarian grounds.
Annexation of the entire islands will cause less
problem and best secure the interest of the
Filipinos.
McKinley finally ordered the commissioners to
acquire all of the islands
The Spanish and American commissioners
signed the treaty on December 10, 1898.


The Treaty of Paris


The Treaty of Paris
Spain relinquishes her claim of
sovereignty over and title to Cuba.
She cedes to the United States
the island of Puerto Rico and
other islands under the Spanish
sovereignty in the West Indies
and the island of Guam in the
Marianas.
Spain also cedes to the United
States the Philippine archipelago.

The Treaty of Paris
In exchange for the ceded
territories, the United States will
pay Spain US$20,000,000 within
three months after the exchange
of ratifications of the treaty
The Treaty of Paris

Under the treaty, the United States
respects all private property owned
by public or private establishments,
both ecclesiastical and civic bodies
and any other association, having
legal capacity to acquire and possess
property.
The treaty also provides for the free
exercise of religion of the inhabitants.



Protocol of Peace
and Treaty of Paris:
A Violation of Philippine
Declaration of
Independence
MOTIVES OF USA
DOLLARS
RESOURCES- SUGAR, COCONUT OIL,
TOBACCO, ABACA
MARKET FOR AMERICAN GOODS
FOOTHOLD TO THE MARKETS OF EAST
ASIA
SOURCE OF CAPITAL AND INVESTMENT
FOR AMERICAN BUSINESS

DEFENSE
TO BE A NAVAL POWER COALING
AND REFUELING STATION
DEITY
SPREAD OF PROTESTANTISM

RHETORICS - WHITE MANS BURDEN



BENEVOLENT ASSIMILATION
PROCLAMATION
DEC, 21, 1898
ROLE OF THE UNITED STATES TO
PROTECT THE LIFE, LIBERTY AND
PROPERTY OF THE FILIPINOS
TO CIVILIZE AND EDUCATE THE
FILIPINOS

NEW MANIFEST DESTINY
USA DESTINED TO CONTROL
PHILIPPINES AS THEIR COLONY IN THE
PACIFIC


ANTI-EXPANSIONIST GROUP
AGRICULTURAL GROUPS
LABOR GROUPS
POLITICIANS
LITERARY FIGURES



Sen. George Hoar

POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC
POLICIES
The different political and economical
policies that the Americans imposed on
the Philippines.
POLITICAL POLICIES:
Establishment of a
Military Government
August 1898-July 4, 1901



General Wesley Merritt
General Wesley Merritt
POLITICAL AND ECONOMICAL
POLICIES:
Military Government
General Elwell Otis
(succeeded late in 1898)

General Elwell Otis
Arthur MacArthur

POLITICAL POLICIES:
SENDING OF
INVESTIGATIVE
COMMISSIONS
SCHURMAN
COMMISSION (4th of
March 1899)
Dr. Jacob Schurman
Dr. Jacob Schurman
Second Commission in the
Philippines ( 16th of March
1900)
Taft Commission
Headed by William H. Taft
June 1900 September
1900 toured the
Philippines
September 1900- acted
as legislature of the
Military Government
July 1901- Taft became
civil governor
POLITICAL POLICIES:
POLITICAL POLICIES:
Establishment of the
Civil Government
Spooner Amendment
of 1901
John Spooner of
Wisconsin
Civil Government in
the Philippines
John Spooner of Wisconsin
WILLIAM TAFT, FIRST CIVIL GOVERNOR

Philippine Bill of 1902
Cooper Act
Freedom of Religion
Bill of Rights
Census of the Philippines in 1903
Establishment of the Philippine Assembly
in 1907

Jones Law


Philippine Autonomy Act of
1916
Independence after a stable
government had been
established
Establishment of the House of
Representatives and the
Philippine Senate



William Atkinson Jones
FILIPINIZATION PROGRAM
FRANCIS BURTON
HARRISON
Hare-Hawes Cutting Act
Tydings-McDuffie Law

TYDINGS-MCDUFFIE LAW
EXACT DATE OF INDEPENDENCE- JULY 4, 1946
CREATION OF THE COMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENT
DRAFTING OF THE COMMONWEALTH
CONSTITUTION
ESTABLISHMENT OF A NATIONAL ASSEMBLY

COMMONWEALTH GOVERNMENT
1935-1945
1O YEAR TRANSITION GOVERNMENT
PRESIDENT AND VICE-PRESIDENT
WILL BE ELECTED
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
LATER AMENDED INTO HOUSE OF
REPRESENTATIVES AND SENATE
NATIONAL DEFENSE ACT
ECONOMIC POLICIES
PAYNE-ALDRICH ACT
UNDERWOOD-SIMMONS ACT
TYDINGS-MCDUFFIE LAW
HOMESTEAD ACT
FREE PATENT ACT
PURCHASE OF FRIAR LANDS

PAYNE-ALDRICH ACT
PARTIAL FREE TRADE
FREE TRADE WITH QUOTA LIMITS
FULL TARIFF BEYOND QUOTA LIMIT
US GOODS ENTERING THE PHILIPPINES
NO QUOTA AND TARIFF
UNDERWOOD-SIMMONS ACT
TOTAL FREE TRADE
NO QUOTA OR TARIFF ON FILIPINO
GOODS TO US
TYDINGS-MCDUFFIE LAW
FIRST 5 YEARS, 1936-1940 FREE
TRADE WITH QUOTA
6
TH
YEAR, 1941 THERE WILL BE A 5%
GRADUATED TARIFF. ON THE 11
TH

YEAR, GOODS WILL BE IMPOSED WITH
100% TARIFF.
FREE PATENT
ANCESTRAL LANDS CAN BE OWNED
BY FILIPINOS
PROVE THAT LAND WAS OWNED BY
ANCESTORS
NEED FOR LANDS TO BE SURVEYED
HOMESTEAD
FIND AN UNOCCUPIED LAND
PROVE THAT THE LAND IS
UNOCCUPIED
OWNERS MUST SETTLE IN THE LANDS
THAT THEY OCCUPY
SELLING OF FRIAR LANDS
TAFT SOUGHT AN AUDIENCE TO THE
POPE REGARDING THE PURCHASE OF
THE FRIAR LANDS FROM THE
SPANISH FRIARS IN THE PHILIPPINES.
SOCIO-CULTURAL POLICIES
DISEASE CONTROL- PGH
INFRASTRACTURE- BAGUIO
PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM
FREEDOM OF RELIGION
AMERICANIZATION OF FILIPINOS


FILIPINO RESPONSE
PRO-USA
PEDRO PATERNO
CAYETANO ARELLANO
TRINIDAD PARDO DE TAVERA
MANUEL QUEZON
FELIPE BUENCAMINO

Macabebe Scouts

Throng of Macabebes awaiting enlistment into the United
States Army, Macabebe, P.I. Photo was taken in 1900.

ANTI- USA
EMILIO AGUINALDO
ANTONIO LUNA
APOLINARIO MABINI
MACARIO SAKAY
REVOLUTIONARY GENERALS
SIMEON OLA


VICENTE LUKBAN

LUCIANO SAN
MIGUEL

CALLE SOCIEGO, STA.MESA, MANILA

Filipino outpost at the Santa Mesa end of
the San Juan Bridge

Corner of Sociego and Silencio Streets,
Santa Mesa District, Manila

Pvt. William W. Grayson (1876-1941): The Englishman
who fired the shot that ignited the Philippine-American
War.

Pvt. William W. Grayson: Photo was taken near
Blockhouse No. 7 on the spot where he fired the first shot.

FILIPINO-AMERICAN WAR, 1899-1902













Father and son killed by Americans




Feb. 5, 1899: Americans fire on Filipino forces from
Blockhouse No. 13 in Manila while a Filipino boy --seemingly
oblivious to the fighting behind him-- ponders the camera

US soldier on picket duty. Photo taken in
1899

Americans with loot and prisoners; photo
taken in 1899






WATER CURE