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Aldehid dan Keton

Henny Pradikaningrum
1111102000080
Farmasi 2011
UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta
Preparation of Aldehydes
1. Oxidation of Primary Alcohols
With KMnO
4
or CrO
3
, K
2
Cr
2
O
7
is generally a
poor method.

CH
2
OH R-CHO R-COH
2. Hydrolysis of Terminal Geminal -
Dihalides
Are hydrolyzed to aldehides or ketones in
good yield simply on treatment with warm
dilute base.
Uspecially useful in the aromatic series.



3. Rosenmund Reduction ( Acid
Chlorides )
The reaction has been applied successfully to
aliphatic and especially aromatic acid
chlorides.
4. Sommelet Reaction
The preparation of aldehydes involves
conversion of primary halide to an amine salt,
followed by acid hydrolysis.

5. Aldehydes from Nitriles
LiAlH4 will reduce some nitriles under carefully
controlled conditions, giving mainly the imine which
can be hydrolyzed to the corresponding aldehyde
and ammonia.
6. Aldehydes via The Grignard
Reaction
With a Grignard reagent gives the next higher
aldehyd.
Preparation of Ketones
7. Hydrolysis of Internal Geminal-
Dihalides
Keton result from the Hydrolysis of Internal
Geminal-Dihalides.
8. Five and Six-Membered Cyclic
Ketones
By strongly heating the barium or calcium salt
of the corresponding open-chain diacid is in
accord with these observations.
9. Methyl Aryl Ketones via The
Grignard Reagent
By the reaction of methylmagnesium iodide
with an aryl cyanide, followed by hydrolysis of
the imine salt intermediate.
10. Friedel-Crafts Acylation
With acetyl chloride and aluminium chloride
in nitrobenzene or carbon disulfide.
Reactions of Aldehydes and
Ketones
11. Reduction
Acidic Conditions is ussually accomplished
by treatment of the keton with Zn(Hg) in
dilute HCl.
Basa Conditions The Wolff-Kishner
reduction consist of the reduction of a
hydrazone under basic conditions.

Neutral Conditions
the reaction of aldehydes or keton with ethylene
dithiol leads to the formation of thiolketals.
12. Nucleophilic Additions to the
Carbonyl Group
Aldehydes give first hemiacetals and on
reaction with an additional equivalent of
alcohol, give acetal
Keton give hemiketals or treatment with
alcohols.
13. Reactions of Ammonia And
Related Molecules.

Imines



Oximes

Hydrazones



Semicarbazones


14. The Haloform Reaction
The reagent hypohalite ion XO is prepared
from halogen and a base. Iodine is commonly
used.
15. Cyclic Trimerization of
Aldehydes
16. Cyclic Dehydration of Keton
Keton do undergo a cyclic trimerization with
the loss of water under the influence of
sulfuric or hydrochloric acid.

Condensation Reactions of
Aldehydes and Keton
17. Aldol Condensation
18. Mixed Aldol Condensation
19. Cannizzaro Reaction
20. Crossed Cannizzaro Reaction
Qualitative Test
Oxidation Reactions
Reference
Jr. Rodger W. Griffin. Modern Organic Chemistry.
McGraw-Hill International Book Company.