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Why Eul

High Data Rate

Reduce Latency

Improve cell capacity

New Features
Short TTI : support both 2 ms,10 ms
Hybrid ARQ : Retransmission control moved from
SRNC to Node B, enables faster retransmission
Fast scheduling: Scheduling is moved from SRNC to
Node B, enables faster response times to constantly
changing radio environments
Link adaption: Power , Rate (depends on cell load)
Multi code transmission :
- it is possible to combine multiple codes by mapping
the E-DCH transport channel onto several E-DPDCH
physical channels
- Up to 4 parallel E-DPDCHs (2 x SF2 & 2 x SF4 = 5.76
Mbps uplink throughput in Layer 1)



Downlink power limited

Interference- IUB - CE limited

Rate adaption

Fast power control

No Soft Handover

Soft Handover

New high speed shared channel

Dedicated channel with enhanced


High rate depend on Power

High rate depend on SIR level



Large Scheduling Delay (RNC)

Fast scheduling ( NodeB)

Large Latency The transmission

Short TTI 2 ms

time interval can vary from 80 ms down

to 10 ms as best case

Limited Uplink Data Rate


High data rate (5.7Mbps)

Limited Uplink Capacity In real

Improved cell capacity

systems, the Uplink cell capacity is

limited to about 800 kbps


New concept

Absolute Grant

Relative Grant



Happy bit

Absolute Grant
Carried over the E-AGCH channel of the serving EDCH cell.
is sent by the EUL scheduler to a terminal to give
the user an absolute rate allocation expressed as
an E-DPDCH/DPCCH amplitude ratio, which is
interpreted by the UE to an appropriate transport
format (E-TFC)
It is only sent from the EUL scheduler in the
serving cell.
- UE Address : UE-ID(E-RNTI).
- Grant Value : Traffic-to-Pilot Ratio
- HARQ Process Control

Relative Grant
The serving relative grant
Only one serving relative grant command is generated.
It can take one of three values: UP, DOWN, or HOLD.
The non-serving relative grant
- Allows neighboring cells to adjust the UL transmitted rate
of a UE that is not under their control.
- At no overload, nothing (DTX) is sent on E-RGCH,
indicating dont care.
- It can be send to one user or group of users

Relative Grant carries three different status

Absolute & Relative Grants

Rise over thermal (ROT)

The ratio between received total wideband

power(RTWP) and thermal noise
Uplink load of a cell is an important quantity which
must be estimated in order to schedule the uplink
users to the time intervals where the interference is
It has close relation to uplink coverage and uplink
load. It is important for the uplink scheduler to keep
the noise rise within the acceptable limits.
The RoT is typically used as a measure of how
much a cellular telephone network is congested.

Power headroom
UE Power HeadroomRatio of the maximum UE
transmitter power and the transmitted code power
on the DPCCH.
If the Power Headroom value is (+), it indicates "I
still have some space under the maximum power"
implying "I can transmit more data if you allow".
If the power Headroom value is (-), it indicate "I am
already transmitting the power greater than what I
am allowed to transmit".
is sent in the uplink direction as part of the MAC

Power headroom

When does UE transmit the Power Headroom Report?

1) Path Loss Change greater than a certain threshold

2) By some periodic Timer
eNodeB (Network) use this report value to estimate how
much uplink bandwidth a UE can use for a specific subframe
UE cannot use much resource block (bandwidth) if it does not
have enough power headroom.

EUL Channels

EUL Channels description

Introduces 5 new physical channels, 2 for uplink and 3 for downlink

Uplink channels
E-DPDCH (E-DCH Dedicated Physical Data Channel)
Carries uplink user data = E-DCH traffic channel
SF 2-256, power controlled
Number of parallel E-DPDCHs is 1-4
May send SI that indicate buffer and UE power
E-DPCCH (E-DCH Dedicated Physical Control Channel)
Carries uplink control information required to decode the payload
carried by E-DPDCH
SF 256, power controlled
Carries E-DCH Transport Format Combination Identifier (E-TFCI),
Retransmission Sequence Number (RSN) and a single bit called
happy bit
Regular (R99) physical control channel , TFC bits (normal power
Downlink channels
E-AGCH (E-DCH Absolute Grant Channel)
Carries absolute scheduling grants, SF 256
E-RGCH (E-DCH Relative Grant Channel)
Carries relative scheduling grants, SF 128
E-HICH (E-DCH HARQ Indicator Channel)

Up-Link Channels

Down-link Channels


E-DCH cell selection is triggered by RAB establish

or activity increase

Normal Soft handover

Leaving Eul coverage downgrade to R99

Coverage trigger down-switch to DCH

EUL relies on the scheduler to give users with
high data rate as possible without exceeding the
maximum tolerable interference level in the cell.

Happy bit algorithm concept

This is algorithm gives indication to the scheduler if

the user is satisfied with the current rate or he
requires to increase
To request higher data UE change happy bit (1)
to unhappy bit (0)
It is sent on E-DPCCH
If Scheduler can not increase, rescheduling may

Happy bit calculation

When user send request it means the highest user data
rate will be reduced in order to increase the rate for the
other user to at least eultargetrate
Condition of reducing user:
- Not below the
eultargetrate threshold
- Not below the requested user

When occurs:
- New user
- Failed the unhappy request

Congestion and Eul-DCH

EUL Scheduled Rate Congestion


Congestion due to too low EUL scheduled rate in a

cell is detected when the EUL scheduled rate crosses
a certain configurable threshold for a longer time than
the measurement hysteresis time

There are three EUL cell

congestion states:

Uncongested :This state is entered if EUL scheduled rate is

above eulDchBalancingLoad for time T1.
DetectedCongestion :This state is entered if EUL scheduled
rate is at or below eulDchBalancingLoad and above
eulDchBalancingOverload for time T1.
HighCongestion :This state is entered if EUL scheduled rate
is at or below eulDchBalancingOverload for time T1.

UL efficiency - DCH/EUL load

balancing Feature trial

The UL efficiency - DCH/EUL load balancing

feature avoids EUL starvation and balance UL
resources for EUL and DCH. The gain of the
feature can be observed from decrease in R99 UL
traffic and increase in EUL traffic and EUL users.
This is done by down-switching high R99 DCH UL
users to the lower rate and denying upswitch
requests in the UL ,when detecting Eul congestion
by tunning the threshold (eulDchBalancingLoad),to
free resources for EUL users

UL efficiency - DCH/EUL load balancing Trial

for resolving Eul congestion

Trial Parameter Settings:

This feature was tested on 44 chosen sites on VRX07 listed below based on the below
two criteria
High R99 traffic penetration
High values of Counter pmNoAllowedEul
(This counter is used to measure number of times that no E-DCH traffic is allowed owing
to uplink interference)
UCAI2151 UCAI1094
UCAI0397 UCAI0610
UCAI1567 UCAI0091
UCAI1186 UCAI1043
UCAI2637 UCAI0131
UCAI0609 UCAI0612
UCAI2636 UCAI2156
UCAI0098 UCAI1096
UCAI1406 UCAI0491
UCAI1236 UCAI2155
UCAI2632 UCAI0244
UCAI0611 UCAI2007
UCAI1253 UCAI1552
UCAI0815 UCAI2461

Parameters changed

Main Findings after final tuning

Decrease in the 384/128/64 UL traffic

Increase in the 16 UL traffic 13.5%
Increase in EUL traffic 8.5%
Increase in number of EUL users by 9%
UL R99 Traffic % decreased by 6.5%
No change in EUL CDR,EUL throughput
Increase in the pmNoAllowedEul number of
times that no E-DCH traffic is allowed owing to
uplink interference

Over all changes


The gain of the feature can be observed from

decrease in R99 UL traffic and increase in EUL
traffic and EUL users.
The main drawback is pmNoAllowedEul
degradation, yet it is normal due to the increase of
EUL users but users experience will be better. The
gain of the feature is about 9% increase in EUL
traffic and users.
It is recommended to rollout this feature for sites
having high potential of EUL traffic by decreasing
R99 traffic.

Thank you